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Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are a group of
developing countries A developing country is a sovereign state with a less developed Industrial sector, industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. However, this definition is not universally agreed upon. There is also no ...
that are small
island countries An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by som ...
which tend to share similar
sustainable development Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services Social forestry in India, Social ...

sustainable development
challenges. These include small but growing populations, limited resources, remoteness, susceptibility to
natural disaster A natural disaster is a major adverse event An adverse event (AE) is any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or clinical investigation subject administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have a causal relations ...
s, vulnerability to external shocks, excessive dependence on
international trade International trade is the exchange of capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscul ...
, and fragile environments. Their growth and development is also held back by high communication, energy and transportation costs, irregular international transport volumes, disproportionately expensive public administration and
infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy An ec ...

infrastructure
due to their small size, and little to no opportunity to create
economies of scale In microeconomics Microeconomics is a branch of mainstream economics Mainstream economics is the body of knowledge, theories, and models of economics, as taught by universities worldwide, that are generally accepted by economists as a basis ...

economies of scale
. The SIDS were first recognized as a distinct group of developing countries at the
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, the Rio Summit, the Rio Conference, and the Earth Summit (Portuguese: ECO92), was a major United Nations The United ...
in June 1992. The
Barbados Programme of ActionThe United Nations Programme of Action on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, popularly referred to as the Barbados Program of Action (BPOA), is a policy document that both: comprehensively addresses the economic, environme ...
was produced in 1994 to assist the SIDS in their sustainable development efforts. The
United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States The United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS) is an office of the United Nations Secretariat which deals with the Least Develope ...
(UN-OHRLLS) represents the group of states.


Sustainability

Many SIDS now understand the need to move towards low-carbon, climate resilient economies, as set out in the
Caribbean Community The Caribbean Community (CARICOM or CC) is an organisation of fifteen states and dependencies throughout the Caribbean having primary objectives to promote economic integration and cooperation among its members, to ensure that the benefits of int ...
(CARICOM) implementation plan for climate change-resilient development. SIDS often rely heavily on imported fossil fuels, spending an ever-larger proportion of their GDP on energy imports. Renewable technologies have the advantage of providing energy at a lower cost than fossil fuels and making SIDS more sustainable.
Barbados Barbados is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or c ...

Barbados
has been successful in adopting the use of
solar water heaters
solar water heaters
(SWHs). A 2012 report published by the Climate & Development Knowledge Network showed that its SWH industry now boasts over 50,000 installations. These have saved consumers as much as US$137 million since the early 1970s. The report suggested that Barbados' experience could be easily replicated in other SIDS with high fossil fuel imports and abundant sunshine. Additionally, the implementation of targets of the United Nations
Sustainable Development Goal 14 Sustainable Development Goal 14 (Goal 14 or SDG 14) is about "Life below water" and is one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed ...

Sustainable Development Goal 14
has the potential to increase economic benefits of marine resources to SIDS through aquaculture and
sustainable tourism Sustainable tourism is a concept that covers the complete tourism experience, including concern for economic, social and environmental issues as well as attention to improving tourists' experiences and addressing the needs of host communities. Tou ...
.


Climate change

SIDS are some of the regions most vulnerable to climate change. Due to their proximity to water, SIDS are especially vulnerable to the marine
effects of climate change The effects of climate change span the physical environment, ecosystems and human societies. They also include the economic and social changes which stem from living in a warmer world. Human-caused climate change is one of the threats to susta ...
like
sea level rise Tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century. Between 1900 and 2017, the globally averaged sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloqu ...

sea level rise
,
ocean acidification Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH value of the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of con ...
,
marine heatwave A marine heatwave (MHW) is a short period of abnormally high temperatures in a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approxi ...
s, and the increase in cyclone intensity. Changing precipitation patterns could also cause
drought A drought is an event of prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric (below-average precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorolog ...

drought
s. Many citizens of SIDS live near a coastline, meaning that they have a high risk exposure to the effects of marine climate change. Additional
climate change vulnerabilityClimate change vulnerability (or climate vulnerability or climate risk vulnerability ) is an assessment of vulnerability to climate change used in discussion of society's response to climate change, for processes like climate change adaptation, evalu ...
comes through their economies: many SIDS have economies that are based on natural resources, such as ecotourism, fishing, or agriculture. Phenomena like sea level rise,
coastal erosion Coastal erosion is the loss or displacement of land, or the long-term removal of sediment Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering Weathering is the deterioration of rocks A roc ...
, and severe storms have the potential to severely impact their economies. SIDS may also have reduced financial and
human capital Human capital is a concept used by human resource professionals to designate personal attributes considered useful in the production process. It encompasses employee knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or somet ...

human capital
to mitigate climate change risk, as many rely on international aid to cope with disasters like severe storms. Worldwide, climate change is projected to have an average annual loss of 0.5%
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the ...
by 2030; in Pacific SIDS, it will be 0.75–6.5% GDP by 2030. Caribbean SIDS will have average annual losses of 5% by 2025, escalating to 20% by 2100 in projections without regional mitigation strategies.


List of SIDS

As of 2020, the
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) is part of the United Nations Secretariat The United Nations Secretariat (french: link=no, Secrétariat des Nations unies) is one of the six major organs of the United ...
lists 52 small island developing states. They are grouped into three geographic regions: the
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
; the
Pacific The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. ...

Pacific
; and
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
,
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of and contains 97% of . Another definition is "any of the large ...

Indian Ocean
,
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
and
South China Sea The South China Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97 ...

South China Sea
(AIMS), including Associate Members of the Regional Commissions. Each of these regions has a regional cooperation body: the
Caribbean Community The Caribbean Community (CARICOM or CC) is an organisation of fifteen states and dependencies throughout the Caribbean having primary objectives to promote economic integration and cooperation among its members, to ensure that the benefits of int ...
, the
Pacific Islands Forum The Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) is an inter-governmental In international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign sta ...

Pacific Islands Forum
and the
Indian Ocean Commission The Indian Ocean Commission (french: Commission de l'Océan Indien, COI) is an intergovernmental organisation that links African Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or t ...
respectively, which many SIDS are members or associate members of. In addition, most (but not all) SIDS are members of the
Alliance of Small Island States Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) is an intergovernmental organization of wikt:low lying, low-lying coastal and small island country, island countries. AOSIS was established in 1990, ahead of the Second World Climate Conference. The main purp ...
(AOSIS), which performs lobbying and negotiating functions for the SIDS within the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
system. The
UNCTAD The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as an intergovernmental organization intended to promote the interests of developing states in world trade. UNCTAD is the part of the United Nations Secr ...
website states that "the UN never established criteria to determine an official list of SIDS" but UNCTAD maintains a shorter, unofficial list on its website for analytical purposes.


Notes


See also

*
Group of 77 The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of 134 developing country, developing countries, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations. Th ...
*
African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States The Organisation of African, Caribbean and Pacific States (OACPS) is a group of countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a colle ...
(ACP) *
List of island countries 350px, Sovereign states and states with limited recognition fully on islands (Australia is regarded a continent): those with land borders shaded green, and those without shaded dark blue This is a list of island countries. An island is a landmas ...
*
Landlocked developing countriesLandlocked developing countries (LLDC) are developing countries that are landlocked. The economic and other disadvantages experienced by such countries makes the majority of landlocked countries Least Developed Countries (LDCs), with inhabitants o ...

Landlocked developing countries
* Islands First (environmental organization) *
2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference The 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Cancún, Mexico, from 29 November to 10 December 2010. The conference is officially referred to as the 16th session of the United Nations Climate Change Conference, Conference of the ...


References


External links


''List of SIDS - Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform of United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-DESA)''About SIDS, ''United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States''List of SIDS
United Nations, Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States
Chris Becker, ''International Monetary Fund'', 'Small Island States in the Pacific: the Tyranny of Distance?'
{{UNFCCC negotiating groups, state=expanded Geography International development +