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Skin care is the range of practices that support skin integrity, enhance its appearance and relieve skin conditions. They can include nutrition, avoidance of excessive sun exposure and appropriate use of emollients. Practices that enhance appearance include the use of
cosmetics Cosmetics are constituted mixtures of chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and take ...
,
botulinum Botulinum toxin (Botox) is a produced by the ' and related species. It prevents the release of the from endings at the , thus causing . The toxin causes the disease . The toxin is also used commercially for medical and cosmetic purposes. ...
, exfoliation, fillers, laser resurfacing,
microdermabrasion Dermabrasion is a type of surgical skin planing, typically performed in a professional medical setting by a dermatologist or plastic surgeon trained specifically in this procedure. Dermabrasion has been practiced for many years (before the advent o ...
, peels,
retinol Retinol, also called vitamin A1, is a vitamin in the vitamin A family found in food and used as a dietary supplement. As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent vitamin A deficiency, especially that which results in xerophthalmia. In reg ...

retinol
therapy and ultrasonic skin treatment. Skin care is a routine daily procedure in many settings, such as skin that is either too dry or too moist, and prevention of
dermatitis Dermatitis is inflammation of the Human skin, skin, typically characterized by itchiness, erythema, redness and a rash. In cases of short duration, there may be small blisters, while in long-term cases the skin may become lichenification, thick ...

dermatitis
and prevention of skin injuries. Skin care is a part of the treatment of
wound healing Wound healing refers to a living organism's replacement of destroyed or damaged tissue by newly produced tissue. In undamaged skin, the epidermis The epidermis is the outermost of the three layers that comprise the skin Skin is the layer o ...
,
radiation therapy Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is a therapy using ionizing radiation Ionizing radiation (or ionising radiation), including nuclear radiation, consists of s or s that have sufficient to s or s by detachi ...

radiation therapy
and some medications.


Background

Skin care is at the interface of
cosmetics Cosmetics are constituted mixtures of chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and take ...
, and
dermatology Dermatology is the branch of medicine Medicine is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge in the f ...
.''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.'' Random House, Inc. 2001. Page 537. The US
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C) is a set of laws passed by Congress Congresses are formal meetings of the representatives of different countries A country is a distinct terri ...
defines cosmetics as products intended to cleanse or beautify (for instance, shampoos and lipstick). A separate category exists for medications, which are intended to diagnose, cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent disease, or to affect the structure or function of the body (for instance, sunscreens and acne creams), although some products, such as moisturizing sunscreens and anti-dandruff shampoos, are regulated within both categories.Kessler R. More than Cosmetic Changes: Taking Stock of Personal Care Product Safety. Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.123-A12

/ref> Skin care differs from
dermatology Dermatology is the branch of medicine Medicine is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge in the f ...
by its inclusion of non-physician professionals, such as
esthetician Cosmetology (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 milli ...
s and wound care nursing staff. Skin care includes modifications of individual behavior and of environmental and working conditions.


Neonate

Guidelines for neonatal skin care have been developed. Nevertheless, the pediatric and dermatological communities have not reached consensus on best cleansing practices, as good quality scientific evidence is scarce. Immersion in water seems superior to washing alone, and use of synthetic
detergent A detergent is a surfactant Surfactants are compounds that lower the (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid. Surfactants may act as s, agents, , s, or s. The word "surfact ...
s or mild liquid baby cleansers seems comparable or superior to water alone. Add from


Sunscreen

Sun protection is an important aspect of skin care. Though the sun is beneficial in order for the human body to get its daily dose of vitamin D, unprotected excessive sunlight can cause extreme damage to the skin.
Ultraviolet Ultraviolet (UV) is a form of electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, ...

Ultraviolet
(UVA and UVB) radiation in the sun's rays can cause sunburn in varying degrees, early ageing and increased risk of skin cancer. UV exposure can cause patches of uneven skin tone and dry out the skin.It can even reduce skin's elasticity and encourage sagging and wrinkle formation.
Sunscreen Sunscreen, also known as sunblock or suntan lotion, is a photoprotective topical A topical medication is a medication A medication (also called medicament, medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug or simply drug) is a drug use ...
can protect the skin from sun damage; sunscreen should be applied at least 20 minutes before exposure, and should be re-applied every four hours. Sunscreen should be applied to all areas of the skin that will be exposed to sunlight, and at least a tablespoon (25 ml) should be applied to each limb, the face, chest, and back, to ensure thorough coverage. Many tinted moisturizers, foundations and primers now contain some form of SPF. Sunscreens may come in the form of creams, gels or lotions; their SPF number indicates their effectiveness in protecting the skin from the sun's radiation. There are sunscreens available to suit every skin type; in particular, those with oily skin should choose non-comedogenic sunscreens; those with dry skins should choose sunscreens with moisturizers to help keep skin hydrated, and those with sensitive skin should choose unscented, hypoallergenic sunscreen and spot-test in an inconspicuous place (such as the inside of the elbow or behind the ear) to ensure that it does not irritate the skin.


Elderly

Skin ageing is associated with increased vulnerability. Skin problems including
pruritus ITCH is a HECT domain In molecular biology, the HECT domain is a protein domain found in ubiquitin-protein ligases. The name HECT comes from 'Homologous to the E6-AP Carboxyl Terminus'. Proteins containing this domain at the C terminus include ubiqu ...
are common in the elderly but are often inadequately addressed. A literature review of studies that assessed maintenance of skin integrity in the elderly found most to be low
levels of evidenceA hierarchy of evidence (or levels of evidence) is a heuristic A heuristic technique, or a heuristic (; grc, εὑρίσκω, ''heurískō'', 'I find, discover')'','' is any approach to problem solving or self-discovery that employs a practical me ...
, but the review concluded that skin-cleansing with synthetic
detergent A detergent is a surfactant Surfactants are compounds that lower the (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid. Surfactants may act as s, agents, , s, or s. The word "surfact ...
s or
amphoteric In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid An acid is a molecule or ion An ion () is a particle In the Outline of physical science, physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older ...
surfactant Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension Surface tension is the tendency of liquid surfaces at rest to shrink into the minimum surface area possible. Surface tension is what allows objects with a higher density than wate ...

surfactant
s induced less skin dryness than using soap and water.
Moisturizer White petrolatum Moisturizer, or emollient, is a cosmetic preparation used for protecting, moisturizing, and lubricating the skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main ...
s with
humectant A humectant is a hygroscopic Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules via either absorption (chemistry), absorption or adsorption from the surrounding Natural environment, environment, which is usually at normal ...
s helped with skin dryness, and skin barrier occlusive reduced skin injuries. There is limited evidence that moisturising soap bar; combinations of water soak, oil soak, and lotion are effective in maintaining the skin integrity of elderly people when compared to standard care.


Acne

According to the American Academy of Dermatology, between 40 and 50 million Americans suffer from acne each year. While many associate acne with adolescence, acne can occur at any age, with its causes including heredity, hormones, menstruation, food, and emotional stress. Those with inflammatory acne should exfoliate with caution as the procedure may make conditions worse and consult a dermatologist before treatment. Some anti-acne creams contain drying agents such as
benzoyl peroxide Benzoyl peroxide is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by c ...

benzoyl peroxide
(in concentrations of 2.5 - 10% ).


Pressure sore

Pressure sores are injuries to skin and underlying tissue as a result of prolonged pressure on the skin. A known example of pressure sore is a bedsore called pressure ulcer.


Stoma

Add from Skin care management of gastrointestinal fistulas JL Dearlove - Surgical Clinics of North America, 1996 - Elsevier* Peristomal skin care: an overview of available products P Black - Br J Nurs, 2007 - silesse.com When cleaning the stoma area, plain warm water should be use and dry wipe to gently clean around the stoma. Pat gently and make sure not to rub the area. Put all used wipes in a disposable bag and wash your hands after.


Wound healing

Wound healing is a complex and fragile process in which the skin repairs itself after injury. It is susceptible to interruption or failure that creates non-healing chronic wounds.


Nutrition

Add from * 2001 American Society for Clinical Nutrition Nutritional skin care: health effects of micronutrients and fatty acids Esther Boelsma, Henk FJ Hendriks, and Len Roza.


Radiation

Radiation induces skin reactions in the treated area, particularly in the
axilla The axilla (also, armpit, underarm or oxter) is the area on the human body directly under the joint where the arm connects to the shoulder. It also contains many sweat glands. In humans, the formation of body odor happens mostly in the armpit. T ...

axilla
, head and neck,
perineum The perineum in humans is the space between the anus and scrotum in the male, or between the anus and the vulva in the female. The perineum is the region of the body between the pubic symphysis (pubic arch) and the coccyx (tail bone), includin ...
and skin fold regions. Formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties are often used, but no preferred approach or individual product has been identified as best practice. Soft silicone dressings that act as barriers to friction may be helpful. In breast cancer,
calendula ''Calendula'' () is a genus of about 15–20 species''Calendula''.
Flora of China.
calendula
cream may reduce the severity of radiation effects on the dark spot corrector.
Deodorant A deodorant is a substance applied to the body to prevent or mask body odor due to bacterial breakdown of perspiration in the armpits, groin, and foot, feet, and in some cases Vagina#Secretions, vaginal secretions. A subclass of deodorants, called ...

Deodorant
use after completing radiation treatment has been controversial but is now recommended for practice. Add from


EGFR

Epidermal growth factor receptor The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ErbB-1; HER1 in humans) is a transmembrane protein A transmembrane protein (TP) is a type of integral membrane protein An integral membrane protein (IMP) is a type of membrane protein Membrane prote ...
(EGFR) inhibitors are medications used in cancer treatment. These medications commonly cause skin and nail problems, including rashes, dry skin and
paronychia Paronychia is an inflammation of the skin around the nail, which can occur suddenly, when it is usually due to the bacteria ''Staph. aureus ''Staphylococcus aureus'' is a Gram-positive 300px, Violet-stained gram-positive cocci and pink- ...

paronychia
. Preventive intensive moisturising with emollient ointments several times, avoidance of water-based creams and water soaks (although in certain circumstances white vinegar or potassium permanganate soaks may help), protection the skin from excessive exposure to sunshine, and soap substitutes which are less dehydrating for the skin than normal soaps, as well as shampoos that reduce the risk of scalp folliculitis, are recommended. Treatment measures with topical antibiotic medication can be helpful.


Related products

Cosmeceuticals are topically-applied, combination products that bring together
cosmetics Cosmetics are constituted mixtures of chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and take ...
and "biologically active ingredients". Products which are similar in perceived benefits but ingested orally are known as nutricosmetics. According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (
FDA The United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Wash ...
), the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act "does not recognize any such category as "cosmeceuticals." A product can be a drug, a cosmetic, or a combination of both, but the term "cosmeceutical" has no meaning under the law". Drugs are subject to an intensive review and approval process by FDA. Cosmetics, and these related products, although regulated, are not approved by FDA prior to sale.


Procedures

Skin care procedures include use of botulinum;http://www.allergan.com/assets/pdf/botox_cosmetic_pi.pdf exfoliation; fillers;
laser medicine emitting near 590 nm, one typically used in early medical laser systems. to treat cancer. Image:Sharplan 40C.jpg, 250px, A 40 watt CO2 laser with applications in ENT, gynecology, dermatology, oral surgery, and podiatry Laser medicine consists in ...
in cosmetic resurfacing,
hair removal Hair removal, also known as epilation or depilation, is the deliberate removal of body hair or head hair. Hair typically grows all over the human body and can vary in thickness and length across human populations. Hair can become more visible d ...
,
vitiligo Vitiligo is a long-term skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic org ...

vitiligo
,
port-wine stain A port-wine stain (''nevus flammeus'') is a discoloration of the human skin caused by a vascular anomaly (a capillary malformation in the skin). They are so named for their coloration, which is similar in color to port wine, a fortified wine, fo ...
and
tattoo removal Tattoo removal has been performed with various tools since the start of tattooing. While tattoo A tattoo is a form of body modification where a design is made by inserting ink, dyes, and/or pigments, either indelible or temporary, into ...
;
photodynamic therapy Photodynamic therapy (PDT), is a form of phototherapy involving light and a photosensitizing chemical substance, used in conjunction with molecular oxygen to elicit cell death (phototoxicity). PDT is popularly used in treating acne. It is used cl ...

photodynamic therapy
; microdermabrasion; peels; retinol therapy.


References

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