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Silicon Valley is a region in
Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. Spanning the state's northernmost 48 counties, its main population centers incl ...

Northern California
that serves as a global center for
high technology High technology (high tech) or frontier technology (frontier tech) is technology Technology ("science of craft", from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the sum of Art techni ...
and
innovation Innovation is the practical implementation of ideas A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relation ...

innovation
. Located in the southern part of the
San Francisco Bay Area The San Francisco Bay Area, popularly referred to as the Bay Area, is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Pablo Bay, San Pablo, and Suisun Bay estuary, estuaries in Northern California. Although the exact bou ...
, it corresponds roughly to the geographical
Santa Clara Valley The Santa Clara Valley is a geologic trough in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. Spanning ...
. San Jose is Silicon Valley's largest city, the third-largest in
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
, and the tenth-largest in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
; other major Silicon Valley cities include
Sunnyvale Sunnyvale () is a city located in Santa Clara County, California, Santa Clara County, California, in Silicon Valley. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 140,095. Sunnyvale is the List of largest California cities by populat ...
,
Santa Clara
Santa Clara
,
Redwood City Redwood City is a city on the San Francisco Peninsula in Northern California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and ...
, Mountain View,
Palo Alto Palo Alto (; for "tall stick") is a located in the northwestern corner of , United States, in the . The city is named after a known as . The city was established by when he founded , following the death of his son, Palo Alto includes port ...
, Menlo Park, and
Cupertino Cupertino ( ) is a city in Santa Clara County, California Santa Clara County, officially the County of Santa Clara, is California's List of counties in California, 6th most populous county, with a population of 1,781,642, as of the 2010 United S ...
. The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the third-highest GDP per capita in the world (after Zurich, Switzerland and
Oslo, Norway Oslo ( , , or ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smalle ...

Oslo, Norway
), according to the
Brookings Institution The Brookings Institution, often referred to simply as Brookings, is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States ...
. and, as of June 2021, has the highest percentage of homes valued at $1 million or more in the United States. Silicon Valley is home to many of the world's largest high-tech corporations, including the headquarters of more than 30 businesses in the
Fortune 1000 The Fortune 1000 are the 1,000 largest American companies ranked by revenue In accounting, revenue is the income or increase in net assets that an entity has from its normal activities (in the case of a business, usually from the sale of product ( ...
, and thousands of startup companies. Silicon Valley also accounts for one-third of all of the
venture capital Venture capital (VC) is a form of private equity Private equity (PE) typically refers to investment funds, generally organized as limited partnerships, that buy and restructure companies that are not publicly traded. Private equity is a ty ...
investment in the United States, which has helped it to become a leading hub and startup ecosystem for high-tech innovation. It was in Silicon Valley that the silicon-based
integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit 200px, A circuit built on a printed circuit board (PCB). An electronic circuit is composed of indiv ...

integrated circuit
, the
microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip ...

microprocessor
, and the
microcomputer A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU). It includes a microprocessor, Computer memory, memory and minimal input/output (I/O) circuitry mounted on a single printed ci ...
, among other technologies, were developed. As of 2013, the region employed about a quarter of a million information technology workers. As more high-tech companies were established across San Jose and the Santa Clara Valley, and then north towards the Bay Area's two other major cities,
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
and
Oakland Oakland is the largest city and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a ...
, the term "Silicon Valley" came to have two definitions: a narrower geographic one, referring to
Santa Clara County Santa Clara County, officially the County of Santa Clara, is California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and terri ...
and southeastern
San Mateo County San Mateo County ( ), officially the County of San Mateo, is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published ...
, and a
metonym Metonymy () is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of pe ...
ical definition referring to high-tech businesses in the entire Bay Area. The term Silicon Valley is often used as a
synecdoche A synecdoche ( , from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10. ...
for the American high-technology
economic sector Image:Economic sectors and income.JPG, 250px, Percentages of a country's economy made up by different sectors. Countries with higher levels of socio-economic development tend to have proportionally less of their economies operating in the primary a ...
. The name also became a global synonym for leading high-tech research and enterprises, and thus inspired similarly named locations, as well as research parks and technology centers with comparable structures all around the world. Many headquarters of tech companies in Silicon Valley have become hotspots for
tourism Tourism is travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical location In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of th ...

tourism
.


Etymology

The word "silicon" in the name originally referred to the large number of innovators and manufacturers in the region specializing in
silicon Silicon is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a hard, brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, and is a Tetravalence, tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. It is a member ...

silicon
-based
MOS transistor The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), also known as the metal–oxide–silicon transistor (MOS transistor, or MOS), is a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor The field-effect trans ...
s and
integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit 200px, A circuit built on a printed circuit board (PCB). An electronic circuit is composed of indiv ...

integrated circuit
chips. The popularization of the name is credited to
Don Hoefler Donald C. Hoefler (October 3, 1922 – April 15, 1986) was an American journalist, well known for using the term "Silicon Valley" for the first time in print. His friend Ralph Vaerst suggested the name "Silicon Valley" in a series of articles entitl ...
. He first used it in the article "Silicon Valley USA", which appeared in the January 11, 1971 issue of the weekly trade newspaper ''
Electronic News ''Electronic News'' was a publication that covered the electronics industry, from semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between that of a Electrical conductor ...
''. However, the term did not gain widespread use until the early 1980s, at the time of the introduction of the
IBM PC The IBM Personal Computer (model 5150, commonly known as the IBM PC) is the first computer released in the IBM PC model line and the basis for the IBM PC compatible IBM PC compatible computers are similar to the original IBM PC The IBM ...

IBM PC
and numerous related hardware and software products to the consumer market.


History

Silicon Valley was born through the intersection of several contributing factors including a skilled science research base housed in area universities, plentiful
venture capital Venture capital (VC) is a form of private equity Private equity (PE) typically refers to investment funds, generally organized as limited partnerships, that buy and restructure companies that are not publicly traded. Private equity is a ty ...
, and steady
U.S. Department of Defense The United States Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government directly related to national secur ...
spending.
Stanford University Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Du ...

Stanford University
leadership was especially important in the valley's early development. Together these elements formed the basis of its growth and success.


Early military origins

The Bay Area had long been a major site of
United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = "Anchors Aweigh" , mascot = , equipment = List of equipment of the United St ...
research and technology. In 1909,
Charles Herrold Charles David "Doc" Herrold (November 16, 1875 – July 1, 1948) was an American inventor and pioneer radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of f ...
started the first
radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 hertz (Hz) and 300 gigahertz (GHz). They are generated by an electronic device ...

radio
station in the United States with regularly scheduled programming in San Jose. Later that year, Stanford University graduate Cyril Elwell purchased the U.S. patents for
Poulsen arc The arc converter, sometimes called the arc transmitter, or Poulsen arc after Danish engineer Valdemar Poulsen who invented it in 1903, was a variety of spark transmitter used in early wireless telegraphy. The arc converter used an electric arc ...
radio transmission technology and founded the Federal Telegraph Corporation (FTC) in
Palo Alto Palo Alto (; for "tall stick") is a located in the northwestern corner of , United States, in the . The city is named after a known as . The city was established by when he founded , following the death of his son, Palo Alto includes port ...
. Over the next decade, the FTC created the world's first global radio communication system, and signed a contract with the Navy in 1912. In 1933, Air Base Sunnyvale, California, was commissioned by the
United States Government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the national government of the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or U ...
for use as a Naval Air Station (NAS) to house the airship USS Macon in Hangar One. The station was renamed NAS
Moffett Field Moffett Federal Airfield , also known as Moffett Field, is a joint civil-military airport located in an unincorporated part of Santa Clara County, California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3m ...

Moffett Field
, and between 1933 and 1947, U.S. Navy blimps were based there. A number of technology firms had set up shop in the area around Moffett Field to serve the Navy. When the Navy gave up its airship ambitions and moved most of its west coast operations to
San Diego San Diego ( , ; ) is a city in the U.S. state of California on the coast of the Pacific Ocean and immediately adjacent to the Mexico–United States border, Mexican border. With a 2020 population of 1,386,932, San Diego is the List of United ...
, the
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a United States federal agency founded on March 3, 1915, to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research. On October 1, 1958, the agency was dissolved and its assets ...
(NACA, forerunner of
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...

NASA
) took over portions of Moffett Field for
aeronautics Aeronautics is the science or art involved with the study, design process, design, and manufacturing of air flight–capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere. The British Royal Aeronautical So ...

aeronautics
research. Many of the original companies stayed, while new ones moved in. The immediate area was soon filled with
aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere and outer space. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. Aerospace engineering consists of aeronautics and astronau ...

aerospace
firms, such as
LockheedLockheed (originally spelled Loughead) may refer to: Brands and enterprises * Lockheed Corporation, a former American aircraft manufacturer * Lockheed Martin, formed in 1995 by the merger of Lockheed Corporation and Martin Marietta ** Lockheed Mart ...
, which was Silicon Valley's largest employer from the 1950s into 1980s.


Role of Stanford University

Stanford University Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Du ...

Stanford University
, its affiliates, and graduates have played a major role in the development of this area. A very powerful sense of regional solidarity accompanied the rise of Silicon Valley. From the 1890s, Stanford University's leaders saw its mission as service to the (American) West and shaped the school accordingly. At the same time, the perceived exploitation of the West at the hands of eastern interests fueled booster-like attempts to build self-sufficient local industry. Thus, regionalism helped align Stanford's interests with those of the area's high-tech firms for the first fifty years of Silicon Valley's development. After World War II,
Frederick Terman Frederick Emmons Terman (; June 7, 1900 – December 19, 1982) was an American professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institutio ...
, as Stanford University's dean of the school of engineering, encouraged faculty and graduates to start their own companies. In 1951, Terman spearheaded the creation of Stanford Industrial Park (now
Stanford Research Park Stanford Research Park (SRP) is a technology park File:Technology Centre Teknia Ltd Microteknia area.jpg, 200px, Technology Centre Teknia (Kuopio Science Park), Kuopio Science Park in Finland A science park (also called a "university resear ...
, an area surrounding
Page Mill Road There are 21 routes assigned to the "G" zone of the California Route Marker Program, which designates county routes in California. The "G" zone includes county highways in Monterey County, California, Monterey, San Benito County, California, San Be ...
, south west of El Camino Real and extending beyond
Foothill Expressway There are 21 routes assigned to the "G" zone of the California Route Marker Program, which designates county routes in California. The "G" zone includes county highways in Monterey, San Benito, San Luis Obispo, Santa Clara, and Santa Cruz cou ...

Foothill Expressway
to Arastradero Road), whereby the university leased portions of its land to high-tech firms. He is credited with nurturing companies like
Hewlett-Packard The Hewlett-Packard Company, commonly shortened to Hewlett-Packard ( ) or HP, was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California. HP developed and provided a wide variety of hardware compone ...

Hewlett-Packard
,
Varian Associates Varian Associates was one of the first high-tech companies in Silicon Valley. It was founded in 1948 by Russell Varian, Russell H. and Sigurd Varian, Sigurd F. Varian, William Webster Hansen, and Edward Ginzton to sell the klystron, the first vacuu ...
,
Eastman Kodak The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak ) is an American public company A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a company whose ownership is or ...
,
General Electric General Electric Company (GE) is an American Multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate incorporated in New York State and headquartered in Boston. Until 2021, the company operated through GE Aviation, aviat ...
,
Lockheed Corporation The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace manufacturer Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sph ...
, and other high-tech firms, until what would become Silicon Valley grew up around the Stanford University campus. After World War II, universities were experiencing enormous demand due to returning students. To address the financial demands of Stanford's growth requirements, and to provide local employment opportunities for graduating students,
Frederick Terman Frederick Emmons Terman (; June 7, 1900 – December 19, 1982) was an American professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institutio ...
proposed the leasing of Stanford's lands for use as an office park, named the Stanford Industrial Park (later
Stanford Research Park Stanford Research Park (SRP) is a technology park File:Technology Centre Teknia Ltd Microteknia area.jpg, 200px, Technology Centre Teknia (Kuopio Science Park), Kuopio Science Park in Finland A science park (also called a "university resear ...
) in the year 1951. Leases were limited to high technology companies. Its first tenant was
Varian Associates Varian Associates was one of the first high-tech companies in Silicon Valley. It was founded in 1948 by Russell Varian, Russell H. and Sigurd Varian, Sigurd F. Varian, William Webster Hansen, and Edward Ginzton to sell the klystron, the first vacuu ...
, founded by Stanford alumni in the 1930s to build military radar components. However, Terman also found
venture capital Venture capital (VC) is a form of private equity Private equity (PE) typically refers to investment funds, generally organized as limited partnerships, that buy and restructure companies that are not publicly traded. Private equity is a ty ...
for civilian technology start-ups. One of the major success stories was
Hewlett-Packard The Hewlett-Packard Company, commonly shortened to Hewlett-Packard ( ) or HP, was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California. HP developed and provided a wide variety of hardware compone ...

Hewlett-Packard
. Founded in Packard's garage by Stanford graduates
Bill Hewlett William Redington Hewlett ( ; May 20, 1913 – January 12, 2001) was an American engineer and the co-founder, with David Packard, of the Hewlett-Packard, Hewlett-Packard Company (HP). Early life and education Hewlett was born in Ann Arbor, Mic ...
and
David Packard David Packard ( ; September 7, 1912 – March 26, 1996) was an American electrical engineer and co-founder, with Bill Hewlett, of Hewlett-Packard (1939), serving as president (1947–64), CEO (1964–68), and Chairman of the Board (1964–68 ...
,
Hewlett-Packard The Hewlett-Packard Company, commonly shortened to Hewlett-Packard ( ) or HP, was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California. HP developed and provided a wide variety of hardware compone ...

Hewlett-Packard
moved its offices into the Stanford Research Park shortly after 1953. In 1954, Stanford created the Honors Cooperative Program to allow full-time employees of the companies to pursue graduate degrees from the university on a part-time basis. The initial companies signed five-year agreements in which they would pay double the tuition for each student in order to cover the costs. Hewlett-Packard has become the largest personal computer manufacturer in the world, and transformed the home printing market when it released the first thermal drop-on-demand
ink jet printer Inkjet printing is a type of computer printing that recreates a digital image A digital image is an image An SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour shows the Teide volcan ...
in 1984. Other early tenants included
Eastman Kodak The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak ) is an American public company A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a company whose ownership is or ...
,
General Electric General Electric Company (GE) is an American Multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate incorporated in New York State and headquartered in Boston. Until 2021, the company operated through GE Aviation, aviat ...
, and
LockheedLockheed (originally spelled Loughead) may refer to: Brands and enterprises * Lockheed Corporation, a former American aircraft manufacturer * Lockheed Martin, formed in 1995 by the merger of Lockheed Corporation and Martin Marietta ** Lockheed Mart ...
.


Rise of Silicon

In 1956,
William Shockley William Bradford Shockley Jr. (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was an American physicist and inventor. He was the manager of a research group at Bell Labs Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell ...
, the co-inventor of the first working
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transistor
(with
John Bardeen John Bardeen (; May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and o ...
and
Walter Houser Brattain Walter Houser Brattain (; February 10, 1902 – October 13, 1987) was an American physicist at Bell Labs Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell Laboratories (1984–1996) and Bell Telephone Laboratories ...
), moved from
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
to
Mountain View, California Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, California Santa Clara County, officially the County of Santa Clara, is California's List of counties in California, 6th most populous county, with a population of 1,781,642, as of the 2010 United ...
, to start
Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory was a pioneering semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between that of a Electrical conductor, conductor, such as metallic ...

Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory
to live closer to his ailing mother in
Palo Alto Palo Alto (; for "tall stick") is a located in the northwestern corner of , United States, in the . The city is named after a known as . The city was established by when he founded , following the death of his son, Palo Alto includes port ...
. Shockley's work served as the basis for many electronic developments for decades. Both Frederick Terman and
William Shockley William Bradford Shockley Jr. (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was an American physicist and inventor. He was the manager of a research group at Bell Labs Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell ...
are often called "the father of Silicon Valley". In 1953, William Shockley left
Bell Labs Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell Laboratories (1984–1996) and Bell Telephone Laboratories (1925–1984)) is an American industrial research and scientific development company A company, ab ...
in a disagreement over the handling of the invention of the
bipolar transistor A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a type of transistor upright=1.4, gate A gate or gateway is a point of entry to or from a space enclosed by walls. The word derived from old Norse "gat" meaning road A road is a thoroughfare, r ...

bipolar transistor
. After returning to
California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such a"Cal Tech" and "CalTech" are incorrect. The Institute is also occasionally referred to as "CIT", most notably ...
for a short while, Shockley moved to
Mountain View, California Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, California Santa Clara County, officially the County of Santa Clara, is California's List of counties in California, 6th most populous county, with a population of 1,781,642, as of the 2010 United ...
, in 1956, and founded
Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory was a pioneering semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between that of a Electrical conductor, conductor, such as metallic ...

Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory
. Unlike many other researchers who used germanium as the semiconductor material, Shockley believed that silicon was the better material for making transistors. Shockley intended to replace the current transistor with a new three-element design (today known as the ), but the design was considerably more difficult to build than the "simple" transistor. In 1957, Shockley decided to end research on the silicon transistor. As a result of Shockley's abusive management style, eight engineers left the company to form
Fairchild Semiconductor Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is a fundamental pr ...
; Shockley referred to them as the " traitorous eight". Two of the original employees of Fairchild Semiconductor,
Robert Noyce Robert Norton Noyce (December 12, 1927 – June 3, 1990), nicknamed "the Mayor of Silicon Valley", was an American physicist and entrepreneur who co-founded Fairchild Semiconductor Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American s ...
and
Gordon Moore Gordon Earle Moore (born January 3, 1929) is an American businessman, , and the and chairman emeritus of . He is also the author of . As of March 2021, Moore's is reported to be $12.6 billion. Education Moore was born in , , and ...

Gordon Moore
, would go on to found
Intel Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personalit ...
. In 1957,
Mohamed Atalla Mohamed M. Atalla ( ar, محمد عطاالله; August 4, 1924 – December 30, 2009) was an Egyptian-American engineer, physical chemist Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which ...
at Bell Labs developed the process of silicon
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by
thermal oxidation 250px, Furnaces used for diffusion and thermal oxidation at LAAS technological facility in Toulouse, France. In microfabrication Microfabrication is the process of manufacturing, fabricating miniature structures of micrometre scales and smaller. H ...
, which electrically stabilized silicon surfaces and reduced the concentration of
electronic state Image:Energy levels.svg, Energy levels for an electron in an atom: ground state and excited states. After absorbing energy, an electron may "jump" from the ground state to a higher energy excited state. A Quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical syst ...
s at the surface. This enabled silicon to surpass the conductivity and performance of germanium, leading to silicon replacing germanium as the dominant semiconductor material, and paving the way for the mass-production of silicon semiconductor devices. This led to Atalla inventing the
MOSFET The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), also known as the metal–oxide–silicon transistor (MOS transistor, or MOS), is a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor that is fabricated by th ...

MOSFET
(metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistor), also known as the MOS transistor, with his colleague
Dawon Kahng Dawon Kahng ( ko, 강대원; May 4, 1931 – May 13, 1992) was a Korean-American electrical engineer and inventor, known for his work in solid-state electronics Solid-state electronics means semiconductor A semiconductor material has an el ...

Dawon Kahng
in 1959. It was the first truly compact transistor that could be miniaturised and
mass-produced Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of substantial amounts of standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standard A technic ...
for a wide range of uses, and is credited with starting the
silicon revolution Silicon is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same num ...
. The MOSFET was initially overlooked and ignored by Bell Labs in favour of bipolar transistors, which led to Atalla resigning from Bell Labs and joining
Hewlett-Packard The Hewlett-Packard Company, commonly shortened to Hewlett-Packard ( ) or HP, was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California. HP developed and provided a wide variety of hardware compone ...

Hewlett-Packard
in 1961. However, the MOSFET generated significant interest at
RCA The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919. It was initially a patent trust owned by General Electric General Electric Company (GE) is an American Multination ...
and
Fairchild Semiconductor Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is a fundamental pr ...
. In late 1960, Karl Zaininger and Charles Meuller fabricated a MOSFET at RCA, and
Chih-Tang Sah Chih-Tang "Tom" Sah (; born in November 1932 in Beijing Beijing ( ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's List of national ca ...
built an MOS-controlled
tetrode A tetrode is a vacuum tube A vacuum tube, electron tube, valve (British usage), or tube (North America), is a device that controls electric current An electric current is a stream of charged particles, such as electrons or ions, moving throu ...

tetrode
at Fairchild. MOS devices were later commercialized by
General Microelectronics General Microelectronics (GMe) was an American semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between that of a Electrical conductor, conductor, such as metallic copper ...
and Fairchild in 1964. The development of MOS technology became the focus of startup companies in California, such as Fairchild and Intel, fuelling the technological and economic growth of what would later be called Silicon Valley. Following the 1959 inventions of the monolithic
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integrated circuit
(IC) chip by
Robert Noyce Robert Norton Noyce (December 12, 1927 – June 3, 1990), nicknamed "the Mayor of Silicon Valley", was an American physicist and entrepreneur who co-founded Fairchild Semiconductor Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American s ...
at Fairchild, and the
MOSFET The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), also known as the metal–oxide–silicon transistor (MOS transistor, or MOS), is a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor that is fabricated by th ...

MOSFET
(MOS transistor) by
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and
Dawon Kahng Dawon Kahng ( ko, 강대원; May 4, 1931 – May 13, 1992) was a Korean-American electrical engineer and inventor, known for his work in solid-state electronics Solid-state electronics means semiconductor A semiconductor material has an el ...

Dawon Kahng
at Bell Labs, Atalla first proposed the concept of the
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(MOS IC) chip in 1960, and then the first commercial MOS IC was introduced by
General Microelectronics General Microelectronics (GMe) was an American semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between that of a Electrical conductor, conductor, such as metallic copper ...
in 1964. The development of the MOS IC led to the invention of the
microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip ...

microprocessor
, incorporating the functions of a
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computer
's
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central processing unit
(CPU) on a single integrated circuit. The first single-chip microprocessor was the
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Intel 4004
, designed and realized by
Federico Faggin Federico Faggin (, ; born 1 December 1941) is an Italian-American physicist, engineer, inventor and entrepreneur. He is best known for designing the first commercial microprocessor, the Intel 4004. He led the Intel 4004, 4004 (MCS-4) project and ...

Federico Faggin
along with Ted Hoff,
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Masatoshi Shima
and Stanley Mazor at Intel in 1971.
Federico Faggin Federico Faggin (, ; born 1 December 1941) is an Italian-American physicist, engineer, inventor and entrepreneur. He is best known for designing the first commercial microprocessor, the Intel 4004. He led the Intel 4004, 4004 (MCS-4) project and ...

Federico Faggin

The Making of the First Microprocessor
, ''IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine'', Winter 2009,
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In April 1974,
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Intel
released the
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,'' Electronic News'' was a weekly trade newspaper. The same advertisement appeared in the May 2, 1974, issue of ''Electronics'' magazine. a "computer on a chip", "the first truly usable microprocessor".


Origins of the Internet

On April 23, 1963, J.C.R. Licklider, the first director of the Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) at The Pentagon's DARPA, ARPA issued an office memorandum addressed to Intergalactic Computer Network, Members and Affiliates of the Intergalactic Computer Network. It rescheduled a meeting in Palo Alto regarding his vision of a computer network, which he imagined as an electronic commons open to all, the main and essential medium of informational interaction for governments, institutions, corporations, and individuals. As head of IPTO from 1962 to 1964, "Licklider initiated three of the most important developments in information technology: the creation of computer science departments at several major universities, time-sharing, and networking." In 1969, the SRI International, Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International), operated one of the four original nodes that comprised ARPANET, predecessor to the Internet.


Emergence of venture capital

By the early 1970s, there were many semiconductor companies in the area,
computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These ...

computer
firms using their devices, and programming and service companies serving both. Industrial space was plentiful and housing was still inexpensive. Growth during this era was fueled by the emergence of
venture capital Venture capital (VC) is a form of private equity Private equity (PE) typically refers to investment funds, generally organized as limited partnerships, that buy and restructure companies that are not publicly traded. Private equity is a ty ...
on Sand Hill Road, beginning with Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia Capital in 1972; the availability of venture capital exploded after the successful $1.3 billion Initial public offering, IPO of Apple Inc., Apple Computer in December 1980. Since the 1980s, Silicon Valley has been home to the largest concentration of venture capital firms in the world. In 1971
Don Hoefler Donald C. Hoefler (October 3, 1922 – April 15, 1986) was an American journalist, well known for using the term "Silicon Valley" for the first time in print. His friend Ralph Vaerst suggested the name "Silicon Valley" in a series of articles entitl ...
traced the origins of Silicon Valley firms, including via investments from Fairchild Semiconductor, Fairchild's eight co-founders.A Legal Bridge Spanning 100 Years: From the Gold Mines of El Dorado to the "Golden" Startups of Silicon Valley
by Gregory Gromov
The key investors in Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia Capital were from the same group, directly leading to ''Tech Crunch'' 2014 estimate of 92 public firms of 130 related listed firms then worth over US$2.1 Trillion with over 2,000 firms traced back to them.


Rise of computer culture

The Homebrew Computer Club was an informal group of electronic enthusiasts and technically minded hobbyists who gathered to trade parts, Electronic circuit, circuits, and information pertaining to DIY construction of computing devices. It was started by Gordon French and Fred Moore (activist), Fred Moore who met at the Community Computer Center in Menlo Park. They both were interested in maintaining a regular, open forum for people to get together to work on making computers more accessible to everyone. The first meeting was held as of March 1975 at French's garage in Menlo Park, San Mateo County, California; which was on occasion of the arrival of the Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems, MITS Altair 8800, Altair microcomputer, the first unit sent to the area for review by People's Computer Company. Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs credit that first meeting with inspiring them to design the original Apple I and (successor) Apple II computers. As a result, the first preview of the Apple I was given at the Homebrew Computer Club. Subsequent meetings were held at an auditorium at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.


Advent of software

Although semiconductors are still a major component of the area's economy, Silicon Valley has been most famous in recent years for innovations in software and Internet services. Silicon Valley has significantly influenced computer operating systems, software, and user interfaces. Using money from
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...

NASA
, the United States Air Force, US Air Force, and DARPA, ARPA, Doug Engelbart invented the computer mouse, mouse and hypertext-based collaboration tools in the mid-1960s and 1970s while at Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International), first publicly demonstrated in 1968 in what is now known as The Mother of All Demos. Engelbart's Augmentation Research Center at SRI was also involved in launching the ARPANET (precursor to the Internet) and starting the InterNIC, Network Information Center (now InterNIC). Xerox hired some of Engelbart's best researchers beginning in the early 1970s. In turn, in the 1970s and 1980s, Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) played a pivotal role in object-oriented programming, graphical user interfaces (GUIs), Ethernet, PostScript, and laser printers. While Xerox marketed equipment using its technologies, for the most part its technologies flourished elsewhere. The diaspora of Xerox inventions led directly to 3Com and Adobe Systems, and indirectly to Cisco, Apple Computer, and Microsoft. Apple's Apple Macintosh, Macintosh GUI was largely a result of Steve Jobs' visit to PARC and the subsequent hiring of key personnel. Cisco's impetus stemmed from the need to route a variety of protocols over
Stanford University Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Du ...

Stanford University
's Ethernet campus network.


Internet age

Commercial use of the Internet became practical and grew slowly throughout the early 1990s. In 1995, commercial use of the Internet grew substantially and the initial wave of internet startups, Amazon.com, eBay, and the predecessor to Craigslist began operations. Silicon Valley is generally considered to have been the center of the dot-com bubble, which started in the mid-1990s and collapsed after the NASDAQ stock market began to decline dramatically in April 2000. During the bubble era, real estate prices reached unprecedented levels. For a brief time, Sand Hill Road was home to the most expensive commercial real estate in the world, and the booming economy resulted in severe traffic congestion. The PayPal Mafia is sometimes credited with inspiring the re-emergence of consumer-focused Internet companies after the dot-com bust of 2001. After the dot-com crash, Silicon Valley continues to maintain its status as one of the top research and development centers in the world. A 2006 ''The Wall Street Journal'' story found that 12 of the 20 most inventive towns in America were in California, and 10 of those were in Silicon Valley. San Jose led the list with 3,867 utility patents filed in 2005, and number two was Sunnyvale, at 1,881 utility patents. Silicon Valley is also home to a significant number of "Unicorn (finance), Unicorn" ventures, referring to Startup company, startup companies whose Valuation (finance), valuation has exceeded $1 billion United States dollar, dollars.


Economy

The
San Francisco Bay Area The San Francisco Bay Area, popularly referred to as the Bay Area, is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Pablo Bay, San Pablo, and Suisun Bay estuary, estuaries in Northern California. Although the exact bou ...
has the largest concentration of high-tech companies in the United States, at 387,000 high-tech jobs, of which Silicon Valley accounts for 225,300 high-tech jobs. Silicon Valley has the highest concentration of high-tech workers of any metropolitan area, with 285.9 out of every 1,000 private-sector workers. Silicon Valley has the highest average high-tech salary in the United States at $144,800. Largely a result of the high technology sector, the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area has the most millionaires and the most billionaires in the United States per capita. The region is the biggest high-tech manufacturing center in the United States. The unemployment rate of the region was 9.4% in January 2009 and has decreased to a record low of 2.7% as of August 2019. Silicon Valley received 41% of all U.S. venture investment in 2011, and 46% in 2012. More traditional industries also recognize the potential of high-tech development, and several car manufacturers have opened offices in Silicon Valley to capitalize on its entrepreneurial ecosystem. Manufacture of
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s is, or was, the core industry in Silicon Valley. The production workforce was for the most part composed of Asian and Latino immigrants who were paid low wages and worked in hazardous conditions due to the chemicals used in the manufacture of
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s. Technical, engineering, design, and administrative staffs were in large part well compensated. File:Google Campus, Mountain View, CA.jpg, Googleplex in Mountain View File:Facebook Campus, Menlo Park, CA.jpg, Facebook in Menlo Park File:N 1st St & Tasman Dr (32614813640).jpg, Samsung in San Jose File:Intel HQ.jpg,
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Intel
in File:100 Winchester Circle (cropped).jpg, Netflix in Los Gatos, California, Los Gatos File:TeslaMotors HQ PaloAlto (cropped).jpg, Tesla, Inc., Tesla in Palo Alto, California, Palo Alto


Housing

Silicon Valley has a California housing shortage, severe housing shortage, caused by the market imbalance between jobs created and housing units built: from 2010 to 2015, many more jobs have been created than housing units built. (400,000 jobs, 60,000 housing units) This shortage has driven home prices extremely high, far out of the range of production workers. As of 2016 a two-bedroom apartment rented for about $2,500 while the median home price was about $1 million. The Financial Post called Silicon Valley the most expensive U.S. housing region. Homelessness is a problem with housing beyond the reach of middle-income residents; there is little homeless shelter, shelter space other than in San Jose which, as of 2015, was making an effort to develop shelters by renovating old hotels. ''The Economist'' also attributes the high cost of living to the success of the industries in this region. Although, this rift between high and low salaries is driving many residents out who can no longer afford to live there. In the San Francisco Bay Area, Bay Area, the number of residents planning to leave within the next several years has had an increase of 35% since 2016, from 34% to 46%.


Notable companies

Thousands of high-tech, high technology companies are headquartered in Silicon Valley. Among those, the following are in the
Fortune 1000 The Fortune 1000 are the 1,000 largest American companies ranked by revenue In accounting, revenue is the income or increase in net assets that an entity has from its normal activities (in the case of a business, usually from the sale of product ( ...
: Additional notable companies headquartered in Silicon Valley (some of which are defunct, subsumed, or relocated) include:


Demographics

Depending on what geographic regions are included in the meaning of the term, the population of Silicon Valley is between 3.5 and 4 million. A 1999 study by AnnaLee Saxenian for the Public Policy Institute of California reported that a third of Silicon Valley scientists and engineers were immigrants and that nearly a quarter of Silicon Valley's high-technology firms since 1980 were run by Chinese American, Chinese (17 percent) or Indian American, Indian descent CEOs (7 percent). There is a stratum of well-compensated technical employees and managers, including 10s of thousands of "single-digit millionaires". This income and range of assets will support a middle-class lifestyle in Silicon Valley.


Diversity

In November 2006, the University of California, Davis released a report analyzing business leadership by women within the state. The report showed that although 103 of the 400 largest public companies headquartered in California were located in Santa Clara County (the most of all counties), only 8.8% of Silicon Valley companies had women CEOs. This was the lowest percentage in the state. (San Francisco County had 19.2% and Marin County had 18.5%.) Silicon Valley tech leadership positions are occupied almost exclusively by men. This is also represented in the number of new companies founded by women as well as the number of women-lead startups that receive venture capital funding. Wadhwa said he believes that a contributing factor is a lack of parental encouragement to study science and engineering. He also cited a lack of women role models and noted that most famous tech leaders—like Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, and Mark Zuckerberg—are men. In 2014, tech companies Google, Yahoo!, Facebook, Apple, and others, released corporate transparency reports that offered detailed employee breakdowns. In May, Google said 17% of its tech employees worldwide were women, and, in the U.S., 1% of its tech workers were African American, black and 2% were Hispanic. June 2014 brought reports from Yahoo! and Facebook. Yahoo! said that 15% of its tech jobs were held by women, 2% of its tech employees were black and 4% Hispanic. Facebook reported that 15% of its tech workforce was female, and 3% was Hispanic and 1% was black. In August, Apple Inc., Apple reported that 80% of its global tech staff was male and that, in the U.S., 54% of its tech jobs were staffed by Caucasians and 23% by Asians. Soon after, ''USA Today'' published an article about Silicon Valley's lack of tech-industry diversity, pointing out that it is largely white or Asian, and male. "Blacks and Hispanics are largely absent," it reported, "and women are underrepresented in Silicon Valley—from giant companies to start-ups to venture capital firms." Civil rights activist Jesse Jackson said of improving diversity in the tech industry, "This is the next step in the civil rights movement" while T.J. Rodgers has argued against Jackson's assertions. As of October 2014, some high-profile Silicon Valley firms were working actively to prepare and recruit women. ''Bloomberg News, Bloomberg'' reported that Apple, Facebook, Google, and Microsoft attended the 20th annual Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing conference to actively recruit and potentially hire female engineers and technology experts. The same month, the second annual Platform Summit was held to discuss increasing racial and gender diversity in tech. As of April 2015 experienced women were engaged in creation of venture capital firms which leveraged women's perspectives in funding of startups. After UC Davis published its ''Study of California Women Business Leaders'' in November 2006, some ''San Jose Mercury News'' readers dismissed the possibility that sexism contributed in making Silicon Valley's leadership gender gap the highest in the state. A January 2015 issue of ''Newsweek'' magazine featured an article detailing reports of sexism and misogyny in Silicon Valley. The article's author, Nina Burleigh, asked, "Where were all these offended people when women like Heidi Roizen published accounts of having a venture capitalist stick her hand in his pants under a table while a deal was being discussed?" Silicon Valley firms' board of directors are composed of 15.7% women compared with 20.9% in the S&P 100. The 2012 lawsuit Pao v. Kleiner Perkins was filed in San Francisco County Superior Court by executive Ellen Pao for gender discrimination against her employer, Kleiner Perkins. The case went to trial in February 2015. On March 27, 2015, the jury found in favor of Kleiner Perkins on all counts. Nevertheless, the case, which had wide press coverage, resulted in major advances in consciousness of gender discrimination on the part of venture capital and technology firms and their women employees. Two other cases have been filed against Facebook and Twitter.


Municipalities

The following
Santa Clara County Santa Clara County, officially the County of Santa Clara, is California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and terri ...
cities are traditionally considered to be in Silicon Valley (in alphabetical order): The geographical boundaries of Silicon Valley have changed over the years. Historically, the term Silicon Valley was treated as synonymous with Santa Clara Valley, and then its meaning later evolved to refer to Santa Clara County plus adjacent regions in southern San Mateo County and southern Alameda County. However, over the years this geographical area has been expanded to include San Francisco County, Contra Costa County, and the northern parts of Alameda County and San Mateo County, this shift has occurred due to the expansion in the local economy and the development of new technologies. The United States Department of Labor's Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages program defined Silicon Valley as the counties of Alameda, Contra Costa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, and Santa Cruz. In 2015, MIT researchers developed a novel method for measuring which towns are home to startups with higher growth potential and this defines Silicon Valley to center on the municipalities of Menlo Park, Mountain View, Palo Alto, and Sunnyvale.Stern, Scott, Guzman, Jorge
''Nowcasting and Placecasting Growth Entrepreneurship''
.


Education

Funding for public schools in upscale Silicon Valley communities such as Woodside, California, Woodside is often supplemented by grants from private foundations set up for that purpose and funded by local residents. Schools in less affluent areas such as East Palo Alto, California, East Palo Alto must depend on state funding.


Colleges and universities


Culture


Events

*Apple Worldwide Developers Conference, San Jose *Facebook F8, San Jose *BayCon, Santa Clara *Christmas in the Park (San Jose), Christmas in the Park, San Jose *Cinequest Film Festival, multiple venues *FanimeCon, San Jose *LiveStrong Challenge bike race, San Jose *Los Altos Art and Wine Festival, Los Altos *Mountain View Art and Wine Festival, Mountain View *Palo Alto Festival of the Arts, Palo Alto *San Francisco International Asian American Film Festival, San Jose *San Jose Jazz Festival, San Jose *San Jose Holiday Parade, San Jose *Silicon Valley Comic Con, San Jose *Silicon Valley Pride, San Jose *Stanford Jazz Workshop, Stanford Jazz Festival, Stanford


Graphic Arts

* Allied Arts Guild, Menlo Park *Pace Gallery, Palo Alto. *Pacific Art League *Movimiento de Arte y Cultura Latino Americana, San Jose


Museums

* Computer History Museum * Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose * CuriOdyssey * De Saisset Museum at Santa Clara University * Hiller Aviation Museum * History Park by History San José * The HP Garage * Intel Museum * Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts at Stanford University * Japanese American Museum of San Jose * Los Altos History Museum * Moffett Federal Airfield, Moffett Field Historical Society Museum, * Museum of American Heritage * Palo Alto Art Center * Palo Alto Junior Museum and Zoo * Portuguese Historical Museum * Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum * San Mateo County History Museum * San Jose Museum of Art * San Jose Museum of Quilts & Textiles * Sunnyvale Heritage Park Museum * The Tech Museum of Innovation * Viet Museum * Winchester Mystery House


Performing arts

* American Beethoven Society * American Musical Theatre of San Jose * Ballet San Jose * Bing Concert Hall * California Youth Symphony * Opera San José * Symphony Silicon Valley * San Jose Center for the Performing Arts * Nederlander Organization#Other US venues, Broadway San Jose * San Jose Repertory Theatre * San Jose Youth Symphony * San Jose Improv * SjDANCEco * Broadway by the Bay * TheatreWorks (Silicon Valley), TheatreWorks Theatre Company


Media

In 1980, ''Intelligent Machines Journal'' changed its name to ''InfoWorld'', and, with offices in Palo Alto, California, Palo Alto, began covering the emergence of the microcomputer industry in the valley. Local and national media cover Silicon Valley and its companies. CNN, ''The Wall Street Journal'', and Bloomberg News operate Silicon Valley bureaus out of
Palo Alto Palo Alto (; for "tall stick") is a located in the northwestern corner of , United States, in the . The city is named after a known as . The city was established by when he founded , following the death of his son, Palo Alto includes port ...
. Public broadcaster KQED (TV) and KQED-FM, as well as the Bay Area's local American Broadcasting Company, ABC station KGO-TV, operate bureaus in San Jose. KNTV, NBC's local Bay Area affiliate "NBC Bay Area", is located in San Jose. Produced from this location is the nationally distributed TV Show "Tech Now" as well as the CNBC Silicon Valley bureau. San Jose-based media serving Silicon Valley include the ''San Jose Mercury News'' daily and the ''Metro Silicon Valley'' weekly. Specialty media include ''El Observador (San Jose), El Observador'' and the ''San Jose / Silicon Valley Business Journal''. Most of the Bay Area's other major TV stations, newspapers, and media operate in
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
or
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. Patch.com operates various web portals, providing local news, discussion and events for residents of Silicon Valley. Mountain View has a public nonprofit station, KMVT-15. KMVT-15's shows include Silicon Valley Education News (EdNews)-Edward Tico Producer.


Cultural references

Some appearances in media, in order by release date: * ''A View to a Kill''—1985 film from the Production of the James Bond films, James Bond series. James Bond, Bond thwarts an elaborate ploy by the film's antagonist, Max Zorin, to destroy Silicon Valley. * ''Triumph of the Nerds: The Rise of Accidental Empires'' – 1996 documentary * ''Pirates of Silicon Valley''—1999 film about the early days of Apple Computer and Microsoft (though the latter has never been based in Silicon Valley) * ''Code Monkeys''—2007 comedy series * ''The Social Network''—2010 film * ''Startups Silicon Valley''—reality TV series, debuted 2012 on Bravo (U.S. TV network), Bravo * ''Betas''—TV series, debuted 2013 on Amazon Video * ''Jobs (film), Jobs''—2013 film * ''The Internship''—2013 comedy film about working at Google * ''Silicon Valley (TV series), Silicon Valley''—2014 American sitcom from HBO * Halt and Catch Fire (TV series), ''Halt and Catch Fire''—2014 TV series, the last two seasons are primarily set in Silicon Valley * Steve Jobs (film), ''Steve Jobs''—2015 film * ''Watch Dogs 2''—2016 video game developed by Ubisoft * Valley of the Boom—2019 docudrama about the Dot-com bubble, 1990s tech boom in Silicon Valley * Devs, ''Devs''—2020 TV miniseries * ''Start-Up (South Korean TV series), Start-Up''—2020 South Korean television series, when three artificial intelligence (A.I.) developers from South Korea are offered positions as engineers for the fictional company, 2STO which is located in Silicon Valley.


See also

* List of attractions in Silicon Valley * List of places with "Silicon" names around the world * List of technology centers around the world * Semiconductor industry


References


Further reading


Books

* * * * * * * * * * * * *


Journals and newspapers

* * * * * * * * (Subscription required for full text.)


Audiovisual

* *


External links


Santa Clara County: California's Historic Silicon Valley
A National Park Service website
Silicon Valley
An American Experience documentary broadcast in 2013 * from San Jose State University
Silicon Valley Historical Association

The Birth of Silicon Valley
{{Coord, 37.373018, -122.055009, region:US-CA, display=title Silicon Valley, Economic regions of California Geography of Santa Clara County, California High-technology business districts in the United States Information technology places Santa Clara County, California Science and technology in the San Francisco Bay Area Subregions of the San Francisco Bay Area