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, region2 = , pop2 = 700,000 , ref2 = , region3 = , pop3 = 500,000 , ref3 = , region4 = , pop4 = 450,500 , ref4 = , region5 = , pop5 =60,000-70,000 , ref5 =
/ref> , region6 = , pop6 = 126,000 , ref6 = , region7 = , pop7 = 120,000 , ref7 = , region8 = , pop8 = 100,000 , ref8 = , region9 = , pop9 = 52,000 , ref9 = , region10 = , pop10 = 50,000 , ref10 = , region11 = , pop11 = 50,000 , ref11 = , region12 = , pop12 = 40,908 , ref12 = , region13 = , pop13 = 20,000 , ref13 = , region14 = , pop14 = 15,000 , ref14 = , region15 = , pop15 = 10.000 , ref15 = , region16 = , pop16 = 10,000 , ref16 = , region17 = , pop17 = 7,000 , ref17 = , region18 = , pop18 = 5,000 , ref18 = , region19 = , pop19 = 2,577 , ref19 = , region20 = , pop20 = 1,300 , ref20 = , religions =
Sikhism Sikhism () or Sikhi ( pa, ਸਿੱਖੀ ', , from pa, ਸਿੱਖ, lit=disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner, translit=Sikh, label=none)''Sikhism'' (indigenously known as ''Sikhī'') originated from the word ''Sikh'', which comes from the Sanskrit ro ...
, scriptures =
Guru Granth Sahib The Guru Granth Sahib ( pa, ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ, ) is the central religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign and eternal Guru following the lineage of the ten human gurus of the religion. ...

Guru Granth Sahib
, languages = Punjabi and
Punjabi dialects The Punjabi dialects and languages are a series of dialects and languages spoken in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India with varying degrees of official recognition. They have sometimes been referred to as ''Greater Punjabi''. The literary ...
Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST/ISO 15919: ''Hindī''), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST/ISO 15919: ''Mānak Hindī''), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in India. ...
and
Hindi dialects The Hindi Belt is a linguistic region encompassing parts of northern, central, eastern and western India where various Central Indo-Aryan languages subsumed under the term 'Hindi' (for example, by the Indian census) are spoken. The Hindi bel ...
Sindhi
English English usually refers to: * English language * English people English may also refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * ''English'', an adjective for something of, from, or related to England ** English national identity, an identity and ...

English
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia. It is the official national language and ''lingua franca'' of Pakistan. In India, Urdu is an Eighth Schedule language whose status, function, and cultural heritag ...
Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language of the Indo-European family. It is known in Persian literature as Afghani (, ). The language is natively spoken by Pashtuns (also called Pukhtuns/Pakhtun ...
Malaysian
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Streck, Janet C. E.Wats ...
Cantonese Cantonese ( zh, t=廣東話, s=广东话, first=t; Yale: ''Gwóngdūng wá'') is a language within the Chinese (Sinitic) branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages originating from the city of Guangzhou (also known as Canton) and its surrounding area in ...
Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of the archipelago ** Indonesian w ...
Thai
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...
Swahili
Tamil Tamil may refer to: * Tamils, an ethnic group native to India, Sri Lanka and some other parts of Asia **Sri Lankan Tamils, Tamil people native to Sri Lanka **Tamil Malaysians, Tamil people native to Malaysia * Tamil language, a Dravidian language u ...

Tamil
Sikhs ( or ; pa, ਸਿੱਖ, ', ) are people associated with
Sikhism Sikhism () or Sikhi ( pa, ਸਿੱਖੀ ', , from pa, ਸਿੱਖ, lit=disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner, translit=Sikh, label=none)''Sikhism'' (indigenously known as ''Sikhī'') originated from the word ''Sikh'', which comes from the Sanskrit ro ...
, a
monotheistic religion Monotheism is the belief in one god. A narrower definition of monotheism is the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is omnipotent, omnipresent and omniscient.Cross, F.L.; Livingstone, E.A., eds. (1974). "Monotheism". T ...
that originated in the 15th century in the
Punjab region Punjab (Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Paki ...
of the
Indian subcontinent#REDIRECT Indian subcontinent#REDIRECT Indian subcontinent {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Indian subcontinent
, based on the revelation of
Guru Nanak Gurū Nānak (Punjabi: ; ; ; , ; born as Nānak on 15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539), also referred to as ('father Nānak'), was the founder of Sikhism and is the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. His birth is celebrated worldwide as Guru Nan ...
. The term ''Sikh'' has its origin in the word ' (), meaning 'disciple' or 'student'. Male Sikhs generally have ''
Singh Singh (IPA: ) is a title, middle name, or surname that means "lion" in various South Asian languages. Traditionally used by the Hindu Kshatriya community, it was later mandated in the 18th century by Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji for all male Sikhs as ...

Singh
'' ('lion') as their middle or last name, though not all Singhs are necessarily Sikhs; likewise, female Sikhs have ''
Kaur ''Kaur or Kanwar'' ( pa, ਕੌਰ, pa, کور, en, crown prince) is the surname given as symbol of the equality of women and men in the Sikh faith. "Kaur or Kanwar" is also sometimes translated as "lioness", not because this meaning is etymologica ...
'' ('princess') as their middle or last name. Sikhs who have undergone the '' Khanḍe-kī-Pahul'' ('baptism by
Khanda Khanda may refer to: Places * Khanda, India, a large village in Sonipat district of Haryana, India * Khanda, Jind, a village in Jind district of Haryana, India * Khanda Kheri, a village in Hansi Tehsil of Hisar district of Haryana, India * Khanda, ...
') which is an initiation ceremony known as Amrit are from the day of their initiation known as Khalsa Amritdhari Sikhs, and they must at all times have on their bodies
five Ks In Sikhism, the Five Ks ( pa, ਪੰਜ ਕਕਾਰ ''Pañj Kakār'') are five items that Guru Gobind Singh commanded Khalsa Sikhs to wear at all times in 1699. They are: Kesh (uncut hair), Kangha (a wooden comb for the hair), Kara (an iron bra ...
: # ''kesh'', uncut hair, which is kept covered usually by a dastār, also known as a
turban A turban (from Persian دولبند‌, ''dulband''; via Middle French ''turbant'') is a type of headwear based on cloth winding. Featuring many variations, it is worn as customary headwear by people of various cultures. Communities with prominent ...
; # ''kara'', an iron or steel bracelet; # ''
kirpan The kirpan is a sword or a knife of any size and shape, carried by Sikhs. It is also part of a religious commandment given by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699, in which he gave an option to the Sikhs, if they accepted they must wear the five articles o ...
'', a dagger-like sword tucked into a ''gatra'' strap or a ''kamal kasar'' belt; # '' kachera'', a cotton undergarment; and # ''kanga'', a small wooden comb. The Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent has been the historic homeland of the Sikhs, having even been
ruled by the Sikhs
ruled by the Sikhs
for significant parts of the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, the Punjab state in northwest
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the second-most populous country, the seventh-largest country by land area, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Oce ...

India
has a majority Sikh population, and sizeable communities of Sikhs exist around the world. Many countries, such as the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...
, recognize Sikhs as a designated religion on their censuses, and, as of 2020, Sikhs are considered as a separate ethnic group in the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, 326 India ...
.


History

Guru Nanak Gurū Nānak (Punjabi: ; ; ; , ; born as Nānak on 15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539), also referred to as ('father Nānak'), was the founder of Sikhism and is the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. His birth is celebrated worldwide as Guru Nan ...
(1469–1539), the founder of Sikhism, was born to
Mehta Kalu Kalu Mehta, formally Kalyan Das Bedi, (1440–1520) was the father of Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism. From the clan of the Lohana caste, he served as the ''patwari'' (accountant) of crop revenue for the village of Talwandi page view, readin ...
and
Mata Tripta Mata Tripti (Punjabi: ਮਾਤਾ ਤ੍ਰਿਪਤੀ) was the mother of Guru Nanak Dev, the founder of Sikhism. Mata Tripti gave birth to Guru Nanak Dev on 15 April 1469, in the village of Rai Bhoi Di Talwandi, some forty miles west of Laho ...
in the village of Talwandi, present-day
Nankana Sahib Nankana Sahib (; pa, , translit=nankāṇā sāhab) is a city and capital of Nankana Sahib District in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is named after the first Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Nanak, who was born in the city and first began preaching ...

Nankana Sahib
, near
Lahore Lahore (; pnb, ; ; ur, ; ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and is the country's 2nd largest city after Karachi and before Faisalabad as well as the 26th largest city in the world. Lahore is one of Pakistan's wealthiest ci ...
. Throughout his life, Guru Nanak was a religious leader and social reformer. However, Sikh political history may be said to begin in 1606 with the death of the fifth Sikh guru,
Guru Arjan Dev Guru Arjan (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਅਰਜਨ, pronunciation: ) 15 April 1563 – 30 May 1606) was the first of the two Gurus martyred in the Sikh faith and the fifth of the ten total Sikh Gurus. He compiled the first official edition of the ...
. Religious practices were formalised by
Guru Gobind Singh Guru Gobind Singh (; 22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708), born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher. When his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, was executed by Aurangzeb, Guru Gobind Singh was fo ...

Guru Gobind Singh
on 30 March 1699, when the Guru initiated five people from a variety of social backgrounds, known as the ''
Panj Piare Panj Pyare ( pa, ਪੰਜ ਪਿਆਰੇ, ', the five beloved ones), is the collective name given to five Sikh men − Bhai Daya Ram became Bhai Daya Singh, Bhai Dharam Ram became Bhai Dharam Singh, Bhai Himmat Rai became Bhai Himmat Singh, Bhai ...
'' ("beloved five") to form a collective body of initiated Sikhs, known as the ''
Khalsa Khalsa ( pa, ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ, , "To be pure, to be clear, to be free from") refers to both a community that considers Sikhism as its faith,
'' ("pure"). During the rule of the
Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire, Mogul or Moghul Empire, was an early modern empire in South Asia. Quote: "Although the first two Timurid emperors and many of their noblemen were recent migrants to the subcontinent, the dynasty and the empire itself became ...
in India (1556–1707), several
Sikh gurus The Sikh Gurus (Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖ ਗੁਰੂ) are the spiritual masters of Sikhi, who established this religion over the course of about two and a half centuries, beginning in 1469. The year 1469 marks the birth of Guru Nanak, the founder of ...

Sikh gurus
were killed by the Mughals for opposing their persecution of minority religious communities, including Sikhs. The Sikhs subsequently militarized to oppose Mughal rule. After defeating the
Afghans Afghan (Pashto/Persian: ) refers to someone or something from Afghanistan, in particular a citizen of that country. The pre-nation state, historical ethnonym Afghan was used to refer to a member of the Pashtuns. Originating from the name of the ' ...
and
Mughals The Mughal Empire, Mogul or Moghul Empire, was an early modern empire in South Asia. Quote: "Although the first two Timurid emperors and many of their noblemen were recent migrants to the subcontinent, the dynasty and the empire itself became ...
, sovereign states called
Misl Misl generally refers to the sovereign states of the Sikh Confederacy, that rose during the 18th century in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent and is cited as one of the causes of the weakening of the Mughal Empire ...
s were formed under
Jassa Singh Ahluwalia Sultan Jassa Singh Ahluwalia (3 May 1718 – 22 October 1783) was a prominent Sikh leader during the period of the Sikh Confederacy, being the Supreme Leader of the Dal Khalsa. He was also Misldar of the Ahluwalia Misl. This period was an in ...
. The Confederacy of these states would be unified and transformed into the
Sikh Empire The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj or Sarkar-e-Khalsa or Kingdom of Punjab) was a state originating in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established an empire based in the Punjab. The empire e ...

Sikh Empire
under Maharaja Ranjit Singh Bahadur. This era would be characterised by religious tolerance and pluralism, including Christians, Muslims, and Hindus in positions of power. Its secular administration implemented military, economic, and governmental reforms. The empire is considered the zenith of political Sikhism, encompassing
Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal Range. Tod ...
,
Ladakh Ladakh is a region administered by India as a union territory. The region constitutes a part of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947. (subscription required) Quote: "Jam ...
, and
Peshawar Peshawar ( ps, پېښور ''Pēx̌awar'' ; hnd, ; ; ur, ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and its largest city. It is the sixth-largest in Pakistan. Peshawar is also the largest Pashtun-majority city in Pakista ...
.
Hari Singh Nalwa Hari Singh Nalwa (1791–1837) was Commander-in-chief of the Sikh Khalsa Fauj, the army of the Sikh Empire. He is known for his role in the conquests of Kasur, Sialkot, Attock, Multan, Kashmir, Peshawar and Jamrud. Hari Singh Nalwa was responsibl ...
, the commander-in-chief of the
Sikh Khalsa Army The Sikh Khalsa Army (Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖ ਖਾਲਸਾ ਫੌਜ (Sikh Khalsa Fauj), Khalsa or simply Sikh Army was the military force of the Khalsa, formed in 1598 by Guru Hargobind. It was a cavalry unit until the time of Guru Gobind Singh ji ...
in the North West Frontier, expanded the confederacy to the
Khyber Pass The Khyber Pass (خیبر درہ) is a mountain pass in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, on the border with Afghanistan (Nangarhar Province). It connects the town of Landi Kotal to the Valley of Peshawar at Jamrud by traversing part of t ...
.


British rule in India

After the annexation of the Sikh kingdom by the British, the British Army began recruiting significant numbers of Sikhs and Punjabis. During the 1857
Indian mutiny The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown. The rebellion be ...
, the Sikhs stayed loyal to the British, resulting in heavy recruitment from Punjab to the
British Indian Army The British Indian Army was the main military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947. It was responsible for the defence of both the British Indian Empire and the princely states, which could also have their own armies. ...
for the next 90 years of the
British Raj The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit and Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown on the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947.''Oxford English Dictionary'', 3rd edition (June 2008), on-line edition (Septembe ...
in
colonial India Colonial India was the part of the Indian subcontinent that was under the jurisdiction of European colonial powers during the Age of Discovery. European power was exerted both by conquest and trade, especially in spices. The search for the wealt ...
. The distinct turban that differentiates a Sikh from other turban wearers is a relic of the rules of the British Indian Army. The British colonial rule saw the emergence of many reform movements in India, including Punjab, such as the formation of the First and Second Singh Sabha in 1873 and 1879 respectively. The Sikh leaders of the Singh Sabha worked to offer a clear definition of Sikh identity and tried to purify Sikh belief and practice. The later years of British colonial rule saw the emergence of the
Akali movement#Redirect Akali movement ...
to bring reform in the
gurdwara A gurdwara (; meaning "door to the guru") is a place of assembly and worship for Sikhs. Sikhs also refer to gurdwaras as ''Gurdwara Sahib''. People from all faiths are welcomed in gurdwaras. Each gurdwara has a ''Darbar Sahib'' where the current an ...
s during the early 1920s. The movement led to the introduction of ''Sikh Gurdwara Bill'' in 1925, which placed all the historical Sikh shrines in India under the control of the
Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee The Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (or SGPC) is an organization in India responsible for the management of gurdwaras, Sikh places of worship in three states of Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh and union territory of Chandigarh. SGP ...
.


Partition and post-Partition

At the time of the
Indian independence movement#REDIRECT Indian independence movement {{Rcat shell, {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation {{R unprintworthy ...
, the Sikh ruler of the
Kapurthala State Kapurthala State, was a princely state located in the Punjab region of north-western India. It was ruled by the Ahluwalia dynasty and spread across , with its capital at Kapurthala. According to the 1901 census the state had a population of 314, ...
fought to oppose the partition of India and advocated for a united, secular country. Sikh organizations, including the Chief Khalsa Dewan and
Shiromani Akali Dal The Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD) (translation: ''Supreme Akali Party'') is a centre-right Sikh-centric state political party in Punjab, India. The party is the second-oldest in India, after Congress, being founded in 1920. Although, there are many ...
led by
Master Tara Singh Master Tara Singh (24 June 1885 – 22 November 1967) was a Sikh political and religious leader in the first half of the 20th century. He was instrumental in organising the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee and guiding the Sikhs during the ...
, condemned the
Lahore Resolution The Lahore Resolution ( ur, , ''Qarardad-e-Lahore''; Bengali: লাহোর প্রস্তাব, ''Lahor Prostab''), also called Pakistan resolution or declaration of independence of Pakistan, was written and prepared by Muhammad Zafarulla ...
and the movement to create Pakistan, viewing it as inviting possible persecution; the Sikhs largely thus strongly fought against the partition of India. The months leading up to the 1947
partition of India The Partition of India of 1947 was the division of British India into two independent dominion states, India and Pakistan. The Dominion of India is today the Republic of India; the Dominion of Pakistan is today the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ...

partition of India
were marked by conflict in the
Punjab Punjab (Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Paki ...
between Sikhs and Muslims. This caused the religious migration of Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus from
West Punjab West Punjab was a province of Pakistan from 1947 to 1955. The province covered an area of 205,344 km2 (79,284 sq mi), including much of the current Punjab province and the Islamabad Capital Territory, but excluding the former princely state of Ba ...
to the east (modern India), mirroring a simultaneous religious migration of Punjabi Muslims from
East Punjab East Punjab (known simply as Punjab from 1950) was a province and later a state of India from 1947 until 1966, consisting of the parts of the Punjab Province of British India that went to India following the partition of the province between I ...
to the west (modern Pakistan). The 1960s saw growing animosity between Sikhs and
Hindus Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, , pages 35–37 Historically, the term has also been used as a ge ...
in independent India, with the Sikhs demanding the creation of a Punjabi state on a linguistic basis similar to other states in India. This was promised to Sikh leader Master Tara Singh by
Jawaharlal Nehru Jawaharlal Nehru (; ; 14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was an Indian independence activist and, subsequently, the first Prime Minister of India, as well as a central figure in Indian politics both before and after independence. He emerged as a ...

Jawaharlal Nehru
, in return for Sikh political support during negotiations for
Indian independenceIndian independence may refer to: *Independence Day (India), India's national day marking independence from the British Empire *Indian Independence Act 1947, an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that granted ''de facto'' independence to Ind ...
. The modern Punjab state carved out of the former
East Punjab East Punjab (known simply as Punjab from 1950) was a province and later a state of India from 1947 until 1966, consisting of the parts of the Punjab Province of British India that went to India following the partition of the province between I ...
province now has a population in which the majority of the people follow Sikhism; the people in the areas of what is now
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; "snow-laden province") is a state in the northern part of India. Situated in the Western Himalayas, it is one of the eleven mountain states and is characterized by an extreme landscape featuring several peaks and extensive r ...
and
Haryana Haryana () is a state in India located in the northern part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on a linguistic basis. It is ranked 22nd in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land ...
, both of which were included in the East Punjab province, mostly follow Hinduism. In 1966, on the first of November,
Chandigarh Chandigarh () is a city, district and union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana. Chandigarh is bordered by the state of Punjab to the north, the west and the south, and by the state ...
was made a
union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India. Unlike the states of India, which have their own governments, union territories are federal ...
and the capital of
Punjab Punjab (Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Paki ...
and
Haryana Haryana () is a state in India located in the northern part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on a linguistic basis. It is ranked 22nd in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land ...
. Sikh leader
Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale (; born Jarnail Singh Brar; 12 February 1947 – 6 June 1984) was the fourteenth ''jathedar'', or leader, of the prominent orthodox Sikh religious institution Damdami Taksal. He was an advocate of the Anandpur Sahib R ...
triggered violence in the Punjab, resulting in then-prime minister
Indira Gandhi Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (; ''née'' Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician and a central figure of the Indian National Congress. She was the first and, to date, only female Prime Minister of India. I ...
ordering an operation to remove Bhindranwale from the
Golden Temple The Golden Temple, also known as Harmandir Sahib, meaning "abode of God" () or Darbār Sahib, meaning "exalted court" (), is a gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India. It is the preeminent spiritual site of Sikhism. The gurdwa ...
in
Operation Blue Star Operation Blue Star was the code name of an Indian military action which was carried out between 1 and 10 June 1984, in order to capture the Sikh leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his followers hidden inside the buildings of Harmandir Sahib ...
. This would subsequently lead to Gandhi's assassination by her Sikh bodyguards. Her assassination would be followed by an explosion of violence against Sikh communities and the killing of thousands of Sikhs throughout India. Since 1984, relations between Sikhs and Hindus have moved toward a
rapprochement In international relations, a rapprochement, which comes from the French word ''rapprocher'' ("to bring together"), is a re-establishment of cordial relations between two countries. This may be done due to a mutual enemy, as was the case with German ...
aided by economic prosperity. During the day of
Vaisakhi Vaisakhi (IAST: ), also pronounced as Baisakhi is observed by Hindus and Sikhs. It also marks the beginning of Hindu solar New year. Vaisakhi marks the first day of the month of Vaisakha, is usually celebrated on 13 or 14 April every year and ...
in 1999, Sikhs worldwide celebrated the 300th anniversary of the creation of the
Khalsa Khalsa ( pa, ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ, , "To be pure, to be clear, to be free from") refers to both a community that considers Sikhism as its faith,
.
Canada Post Canada Post Corporation (french: Société canadienne des postes), trading as Canada Post (french: Postes Canada), is a Crown corporation which functions as the primary postal operator in Canada. Originally known as Royal Mail Canada (the operati ...
honoured Sikh Canadians with a commemorative stamp in conjunction with the anniversary. Likewise, on 9 April 1999 Indian president K. R. Narayanan issued a stamp commemorating the 300th anniversary of the Khalsa as well. In 2004,
Manmohan Singh Manmohan Singh (; born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist, academic, and politician who served as the 13th Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014. The first Sikh in office, Singh was also the first prime minister since Jawaharlal N ...

Manmohan Singh
became the first Sikh
Prime Minister of India The Prime Minister of India (IAST: ), officially the Prime Minister of the Republic of India, is the leader of the executive branch of the Government of India. The prime minister is the chief adviser to the President of India and the head o ...
, and first Sikh
Head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presides over a cabinet, a gro ...
in the world.


Culture and religious observations

According to Article I of the Sikh ''Rehat Maryada'' ('code of conduct'), a Sikh is:
Any human being who faithfully believes in One Immortal Being; eleven gurus, from Guru Nanak to
Guru Granth Sahib The Guru Granth Sahib ( pa, ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ, ) is the central religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign and eternal Guru following the lineage of the ten human gurus of the religion. ...

Guru Granth Sahib
; the teachings of the 6 Gurus, 15 bhagats, 11 bhatts, 4 Gursikhs and the .


Daily routine

From the
Guru Granth Sahib The Guru Granth Sahib ( pa, ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ, ) is the central religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign and eternal Guru following the lineage of the ten human gurus of the religion. ...

Guru Granth Sahib
:


Five Ks

The five Ks (''panj kakaar'') are five articles of faith which all baptized (''Amritdhari'') Sikhs are obliged to wear. The symbols represent the ideals of Sikhism: honesty, equality, fidelity, meditating on
Waheguru Waheguru ( pa, ਵਾਹਿਗੁਰੂ, translit=vāhigurū, translit-std=IAST) is a word used in Sikhism to refer to God. It is also often uttered as a mantra and is called or gur mantr means the word of the divine which takes you from darkness ...
, and never bowing to tyranny. The five symbols are: #''
Kesh The Energy of Albania () is the largest electricity producing company in Albania. KESH operates the most important electricity generating plants in the country. They include: The Drin River Cascade hydropower plants (Fierza HPP, Komani HPP and Vau i ...
'': Uncut hair, usually tied and wrapped in a ''
dastar A dastār ( pa, ਦਸਤਾਰ, from fa, دستار) which derives from ''dast-e-yār'' or "the hand of God", is an item of headwear associated with Sikhism, and is an important part of Sikh culture. The word is loaned from Persian through Punja ...
'' #''
Kanga Kanga may refer to: Places * Kanga, Tanzania, a ward of Chunya District * Kangavar, a city in Kermanshah Province, Iran People * Guélor Kanga, Gabonese footballer * Hormasji Kanga (1880–1945), Indian cricketer ** Kanga Cricket League, Indian ...
'': A wooden comb, usually worn under a ''dastar'' to always also keep one's hair clean and well groomed. #'' Kachera'': Cotton undergarments, Worn by both sexes, the ''kachera'' is a symbol of chastity, also historically appropriate in battle due to increased mobility when compared to a ''
dhoti The dhoti, also known as panche, dhuti, mardani, chaadra, dhotar or panchey, is a type of sarong, tied in a manner that outwardly resembles "loose trousers". It is a lower garment forming part of the national or ethnic costume for men in the Indi ...
''. #''
Kara Kara or KARA may refer to: Film and television * Kara Film Festival, a film festival held at Karachi, Pakistan * "Kara" (''Smallville'' episode) * ''Kara'', a 2012 short CGI film, which anticipates ''Detroit: Become Human'' Music * Kara (South K ...
'': An iron bracelet, a symbol of eternity, strength and a constant reminder for strength of will to keep hands away from any kind of unethical practices. #''
Kirpan The kirpan is a sword or a knife of any size and shape, carried by Sikhs. It is also part of a religious commandment given by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699, in which he gave an option to the Sikhs, if they accepted they must wear the five articles o ...
'': An iron sword/dagger in different sizes. In the UK, Sikhs can wear a small dagger, but in the Punjab they might wear a traditional curved sword from one to three feet in length. ''Kirpan'' is only a weapon of defense, used to serve humanity and to be used against oppression.


Music and instruments

The Sikhs have a number of musical instruments, including the
rebab (1932) , Turkey The ''rebab'' ( ar, wikt:ربابة, ربابة, ''rabāba'', variously spelled ''rebap'', ''rubob'', ''rebeb'', ''rababa'', ''rabeba'', ''robab'', ''rubab'', ''rebob'', etc) is the name of several related bowed (but sometimes pl ...
,
dilruba The dilruba (also spelt dilrupa) is a bowed musical instrument originating in India. It is slightly larger than an esraj and has a larger, square resonance box. The dilruba holds particular importance in Sikh history. It attained more global prom ...
, taus, jori, and
sarinda A sarinda is a stringed Indian folk musical instrument similar to lutes or fiddles. It is played with a bow and has between ten and thirty strings. The bottom part of the front of its hollow wooden soundbox is covered with animal skin. It is play ...
. Playing the
sarangi The sārangī is a bowed, short-necked string instrument from the Indian subcontinent, which is used in Punjabi Folk Music, Rajasthani Folk Music, and Boro folk music (there known as the ''serja''). It is said to most resemble the sound of the h ...
was encouraged by
Guru Hargobind Guru Hargobind (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਹਰਿਗੋਬਿੰਦ, pronunciation: , 19 June 1595 – 28 February 1644), revered as the ''sixth Nanak'', was the sixth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion. He had become Guru at the young age of elev ...
. The rebab was played by
Bhai Mardana250px, A rare Tanjore style painting from the late 19th century depicting the ten Sikh Gurus with Bhai Bala and Bhai Mardana Bhai Mardana Ji ( pa, ਭਾਈ ਮਰਦਾਨਾ)6 February (1459–1534) was the first Sikh and longtime companion of Guru ...
as he accompanied
Guru Nanak Gurū Nānak (Punjabi: ; ; ; , ; born as Nānak on 15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539), also referred to as ('father Nānak'), was the founder of Sikhism and is the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. His birth is celebrated worldwide as Guru Nan ...
on his journeys. The jori and sarinda were introduced to Sikh devotional music by
Guru Arjan Guru Arjan (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਅਰਜਨ, pronunciation: ) 15 April 1563 – 30 May 1606) was the first of the two Gurus martyred in the Sikh faith and the fifth of the ten total Sikh Gurus. He compiled the first official edition of the ...

Guru Arjan
. The ''taus'' (Persian for "peacock") was designed by Guru Hargobind, who supposedly heard a peacock singing and wanted to create an instrument mimicking its sounds. The dilruba was designed by
Guru Gobind Singh Guru Gobind Singh (; 22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708), born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher. When his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, was executed by Aurangzeb, Guru Gobind Singh was fo ...

Guru Gobind Singh
at the request of his followers, who wanted a smaller instrument than the taus. After
Japji Sahib ''Japji Sahib'' is a Sikh prayer, that appears at the beginning of the ''Guru Granth Sahib'' – the scripture of the Sikhs. It was composed by Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism. It begins with ''Mool Mantra'' and then follow 38 ''paudis'' (stan ...
, all of the shabad in the
Guru Granth Sahib The Guru Granth Sahib ( pa, ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ, ) is the central religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign and eternal Guru following the lineage of the ten human gurus of the religion. ...

Guru Granth Sahib
were composed as raags. This type of singing is known as
Gurmat Sangeet A ''raga'' or ''raag'' is a complex structure of musical melody used in Indian classical music. It is a set of rules of how to build a melody which can ignite a certain mood in the reciter and listeners. The Sikh holy scripture, Guru Granth Sahib ...
. When they marched into battle, the Sikhs would play a ''ranjit nagara'' ("victory drum") to boost morale. Nagaras (usually two to three feet in diameter, although some were up to five feet in diameter) are played with two sticks. The beat of the large drums, and the raising of the
Nishan Sahib The Nishan Sahib is a Sikh triangular flag made of cotton or silk cloth, with a tassel at its end. The word, ''Nishan Sahib'' means exalted ensign, and the flag is hoisted on a tall flagpole, outside most Gurdwaras. The flagpole itself, covered wit ...

Nishan Sahib
, meant that the Singhs were on their way.


Demographics

Sikhs number about 30 million worldwideand approximately 83% of them live in India. About 76% of all Sikhs live in the north Indian State of Punjab, forming the majority (about two-thirds) of the population. However, there is no data for specific number of Guru Nanak ji followers but they have been estimated to be about 140 million in India, and of the order of 150 million in the world. Karnail Singh Panjoli, member, Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee, says that there are several communities within the term ‘
Nanakpanthi Nanakpanthi (Gurmukhi: ਨਾਨਕਪੰਥੀ )is a follower of the teachings of Guru Nanak (1469-1539), the foundational guru of a spiritual community natively known to as Nanakpanth while known world-wide as Sikhism. Nanakpanth is an open fronti ...
s’ too. Apart from Sindhi Hindus, “There are groups like Sikhligarh, Vanjaarey, Nirmaley, Lubaney, Johri, Satnamiye, Udaasiyas, Punjabi Hindus etc who call themselves Nanakpanthis despite being Hindus. They along with Bhagavad gita follow Nanak and Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Within India, they are spread across states like Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana among others,”. Substantial communities of Sikhs live in the Indian states or union territories of
Chandigarh Chandigarh () is a city, district and union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana. Chandigarh is bordered by the state of Punjab to the north, the west and the south, and by the state ...
where they form 13.11% of the population,
Haryana Haryana () is a state in India located in the northern part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on a linguistic basis. It is ranked 22nd in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land ...
(over 1.2 million),
Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a state in northern India. The state covers an area of or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the largest Indian state by area and the seventh largest by population. Rajast ...
,
West Bengal West Bengal (, Bengali: ''Paschim Banga'' ) is a state in the eastern region of India along the Bay of Bengal. With over 91 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous state and the fourteenth-largest state by area in India. Covering ...
,
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; 'Northern Province') is a state in northern India. With roughly 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world. It was created on 1 April 1937 a ...
,
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. * * * It is bordered by the state of Haryana on ...
,
Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH) is a state in the western peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan Plateau. Maharashtra is the second-most populous state in India as well as the second-most populous country subdivision ...
,
Uttarakhand Uttarakhand (), formerly known as Uttaranchal (), is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the "Devabhumi" (literally "Land of the Gods") due to numerous Hindu temples and pilgrimage centres found throughout the stat ...
,
Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh (, ; meaning ''Central Province'') is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal, and the largest city is Indore, with Jabalpur, Gwalior, Ujjain, Satna, Sagar, Rewa, Khandwa, being the other major cities. Madhya Pradesh is th ...
,
Assam Assam (, ) is a state in northeastern India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys. Assam covers an area of . The state is bordered by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh to the north; Nagaland and Man ...

Assam
and
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi, the city of Jammu, with an area of , is s ...
. Another substantial community of Sikhs exists within the Canadian province of British Columbia, numbering 0.2 million or 5% of the total population; outside India, it is the only province or state in the world with Sikhism as the second most followed religion among the populace.


Migration

Sikh migration from
British India The provinces of India, earlier presidencies of British India and still earlier, presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one form or another, the ...

British India
began in earnest during the second half of the 19th century, when the British completed their annexation of the Punjab. The
British Raj The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit and Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown on the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947.''Oxford English Dictionary'', 3rd edition (June 2008), on-line edition (Septembe ...
recruited Sikhs for the
Indian Civil Service The Indian Civil Service (ICS), officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947. Its members ruled over more than 2 ...
(particularly the
British Indian Army The British Indian Army was the main military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947. It was responsible for the defence of both the British Indian Empire and the princely states, which could also have their own armies. ...
), which led to Sikh migration throughout India and the
British Empire#REDIRECT British Empire#REDIRECT British Empire {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
. During the Raj, semiskilled Sikh artisans were transported from the Punjab to
British East Africa East Africa Protectorate (also known as British East Africa) was an area in the African Great Lakes occupying roughly the same terrain as present-day Kenya—approximately —from the Indian Ocean inland to the border with Uganda in the west. C ...
to help build railroads. Sikhs emigrated from India after World War II, most going to the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...
but many to North America. Some Sikhs who had settled in eastern Africa were expelled by Ugandan dictator
Idi Amin Idi Amin Dada Oumee (, ; 16 August 2003) was a Ugandan military officer who served as the President of Uganda from 1971 to 1979. Commonly known as the "Butcher of Uganda", he is considered one of the most brutal despots in world history. Amin ...
in 1972. Economics is a major factor in Sikh migration, and significant communities exist in the United Kingdom, the United States,
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of thirteen states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two regions, Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo's East Malaysia. Pe ...

Malaysia
,
East Africa East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern subregion of the African continent, defined by geography. In the United Nations Statistics Division scheme of geographic regions, 19* territories make up Eastern Africa: *Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwand ...
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixt ...
,
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bordering the Straits ...
and
Thailand ) , royal_anthem = ''Sansoen Phra Barami''( en, "Glorify His prestige") , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Bangkok , coordinates = , largest_city = Bangkok , official_languages = ThaiCanada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering , making it the world's second-largest country by total ...

Canada
is the country that has the highest number of Sikhs in proportion to the population in the world at 1.4 per cent of Canada's total population. After the
Partition of India The Partition of India of 1947 was the division of British India into two independent dominion states, India and Pakistan. The Dominion of India is today the Republic of India; the Dominion of Pakistan is today the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ...

Partition of India
in 1947, many Sikhs from what would become the Punjab of
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212.2 million, and has the wor ...
migrated to India as well as to
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south; Iran to the west ...
in fear of persecution. Afghanistan was home to hundreds of thousands of Sikhs and
Hindu Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, , pages 35–37 Historically, the term has also been used as a ge ...

Hindu
s as of the 1970s, but due to the wars in Afghanistan by the 2010s the vast majority of Afghan Sikhs had migrated to India, Pakistan or the west. Although the rate of Sikh migration from the Punjab has remained high, traditional patterns of Sikh migration favouring English-speaking countries (particularly the United Kingdom) have changed during the past decade due to stricter immigration laws. Moliner (2006) wrote that as a consequence of Sikh migration to the UK becoming "virtually impossible since the late 1970s," migration patterns evolved to continental Europe.
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a continental part, delimited by the Alps, a peninsula and several islands surrounding it. Italy is located in Southern Europ ...
is a rapidly growing destination for Sikh migration, with
Reggio Emilia Reggio nell'Emilia ( egl, Rèz; la, Regium Lepidi), also referred to as Reggio Emilia, Reggio di Lombardia or Reggio by its inhabitants, is a city in northern Italy, in the Emilia-Romagna region. It has about 171,944 inhabitants and is the main ' ...
and
Vicenza Vicenza ( , ; ) is a city in northeastern Italy. It is in the Veneto region at the northern base of the ''Monte Berico'', where it straddles the Bacchiglione River. Vicenza is approximately west of Venice and east of Milan. Vicenza is a thri ...
having significant Sikh population clusters. Italian Sikhs are generally involved in
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled peo ...
, agricultural processing, the manufacture of machine tools, and
horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow flowers, fruits and nuts, vegetables and herbs, as well as ornamental trees and lawns. ...
. Johnson and Barrett (2004) estimate that the global Sikh population increases annually by 392,633 (1.7% per year, based on 2004 figures); this percentage includes births, deaths, and conversions. Primarily for
socio-economic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern societies progress, stagnate, or regress because of their local o ...
reasons, Indian Sikhs have the lowest adjusted growth rate of any major religious group in India, at 16.9 percent per decade (estimated from 1991 to 2001). The Sikh population has the lowest gender balance in India, with only 903 women per 1,000 men according to the 2011 Indian census. It is estimated that world's Sikh population is 30 million in 2020, and will reach 42 million by 2050 and will increase up to 62 million by 2100, given the expected growth rate of 1.7% per year and adding at least 400,000 followers annually.


Castes

Since Sikhism has never actively sought converts, Sikhs have remained a relatively homogeneous ethnic group.
Caste Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a style of life which often includes an occupation, ritual status in a hierarchy, and customary social interaction and exclusion based on cultural no ...
is still practiced in the Sikh community, despite Guru Nanak's calls for treating everyone equally in Sri Granth Sahib. As such, Sikhs comprise a number of sub-ethnic groups. Along with Guru Nanak, other
Sikh Gurus The Sikh Gurus (Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖ ਗੁਰੂ) are the spiritual masters of Sikhi, who established this religion over the course of about two and a half centuries, beginning in 1469. The year 1469 marks the birth of Guru Nanak, the founder of ...

Sikh Gurus
had also denounced the hierarchy of the caste system, however, they all belonged to the same caste, the
Khatri Khatri is a predominantly Hindu caste of northern India and Pakistan, mostly from the Punjab region, that provided many significant figures in Sikhism, including all of the Sikh Gurus. The Khatri caste has also provided important figures in th ...
s. Over 60% of Sikhs belong to the
Jat The Jat people () are a traditionally agriculture based community largely in rural parts of Northern India and Pakistan. Originally pastoralists in the lower Indus river-valley of Sindh, Jats migrated north into the Punjab region in late mediev ...
( Jatt) caste, traditionally
agrarian Agrarian means pertaining to agriculture, farmland, or rural areas. Agrarian may refer to: Political philosophy *Agrarianism *Agrarian law, Roman laws regulating the division of the public lands *Agrarian reform *Agrarian socialism Society *Ag ...
in occupation. Despite being very small in numbers, the mercantile Khatri and
Arora The Arora is a community originating from the Punjab region of India and Pakistan. The name is derived from the place Aror (now Rohri, Pakistan) and the community comprises both Hindus and Sikhs. Scott Cameron Levi, believes that they are a " ...
castes also wield considerable influence within the Sikh community. Other common Sikh castes include Ahluwalia (caste), Ahluwalias (brewers), Kamboj, ''Kambojs'' or ''Kambos'' (rural caste), Ramgarhia, ''Ramgarhias'' (artisans), Rajputs (kshatriyas), Saini, ''Sainis'' (kshatriyas/
agrarian Agrarian means pertaining to agriculture, farmland, or rural areas. Agrarian may refer to: Political philosophy *Agrarianism *Agrarian law, Roman laws regulating the division of the public lands *Agrarian reform *Agrarian socialism Society *Ag ...
), Rai Sikh, ''Rai'' Sikh (rural caste), Labana, ''Labanas'' (merchants), and Kumhar, ''Kumhars'', as well as the two Dalit castes known in Sikh terminology as the ''Mazhabi'' and the Ravidasia, ''Ravidasias''. Some Sikhs belonging to the landowning dominant castes have especially not shed all their prejudices against the Dalits. While Dalits would be allowed entry into the village
gurdwara A gurdwara (; meaning "door to the guru") is a place of assembly and worship for Sikhs. Sikhs also refer to gurdwaras as ''Gurdwara Sahib''. People from all faiths are welcomed in gurdwaras. Each gurdwara has a ''Darbar Sahib'' where the current an ...
s but in some gurdwaras they would not be permitted to cook or serve Langar (Sikhism), ''langar'' (communal meal). Therefore, wherever they could mobilize resources, the Sikh Dalits of Punjab have tried to construct their own gurdwara and other local level institutions in order to attain a certain degree of cultural autonomy. In 1953, Sikh leader and activist, Master Tara Singh, succeeded in persuading the Indian government to include Sikh castes of the converted untouchables in the list of scheduled castes.Puri, Harish K. (2003).
The Scheduled Castes in the Sikh Community: A Historical Perspective
. ''Economic & Political Weekly'' 38(26):2693–701. . Republished in ''Dalits in Regional Context'' (2004). .
In the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee, 20 of the 140 seats are reserved for low-caste Sikhs. Other castes (over 1,000 members) include the Arain, Bhatra Sikhs, Bhatra, Bairagi, Vanika, Bania, Basith, Bawaria, Bazigar, Bhabra, Chamar, Chhimba, Chhimba (cotton farmers), Darzi, Dhobi, Gujjar, Gujar, Jhinwar, Kahar, Kalwar, Rajasthan, Kalal, Kumhar, Lohar, Mahtam, Meghwal, Megh, Mirasi, Mochi (Sikh), Mochi, Mohyal, Nai (caste), Nai, Ramgarhia, Sansi people, Sansi, Sudh, Tarkhan (Punjab), Tarkhan, and Kashyap.


3HO

The 3HO organisation claim to have inspired a moderate growth in non-Indian adherents of Sikhism. In 1998, an estimated 7,800 3HO Sikhs, known colloquially as ''gora'' () Sikhs, were mainly centred around Española, New Mexico and Los Angeles, California.


Diaspora

During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Sikhs began to emigrate to
East Africa East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern subregion of the African continent, defined by geography. In the United Nations Statistics Division scheme of geographic regions, 19* territories make up Eastern Africa: *Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwand ...
, the Far East, Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom. In 1907 the Khalsa Diwan Society Vancouver, Khalsa Diwan Society was established in Vancouver, and four years later the first
gurdwara A gurdwara (; meaning "door to the guru") is a place of assembly and worship for Sikhs. Sikhs also refer to gurdwaras as ''Gurdwara Sahib''. People from all faiths are welcomed in gurdwaras. Each gurdwara has a ''Darbar Sahib'' where the current an ...
was established in London. In 1912 the first gurdwara in the United States was founded in Stockton, California. There was a large Sikh immigration to Canada. While Sikhs were temporarily disenfranchised several decades ago, currently 17 of the 338 Canadian legislators are Sikhs, which is disproportionately higher than their share of the total Canadian population. As Sikhs wear
turban A turban (from Persian دولبند‌, ''dulband''; via Middle French ''turbant'') is a type of headwear based on cloth winding. Featuring many variations, it is worn as customary headwear by people of various cultures. Communities with prominent ...
s and keep beards (among other physical similarities to Middle Eastern men), Sikh men in Western world, Western countries have been mistaken for Muslim, Arabic, and/or Afghan since the September 11 attacks and the Iraq War. Several days after the 9/11 attacks, Sikhism in the United States, Sikh-American gas station owner Balbir Singh Sodhi was murdered in Arizona by a man who took Sodhi to be a member of al-Qaeda, marking the first recorded hate-crime in America motivated by 9/11. CNN would go on to suggest an increase in hate crimes against Sikh men in the US and the UK after the 9/11 attacks. In an attempt to foster Sikh leaders in the Western world, youth initiatives by a number of organisations exist. The Sikh Youth Alliance of North America sponsors an annual Sikh Youth Symposium, a public-speaking and debate competition held in gurdwaras throughout the US and Canada. The Sikh diaspora has been most successful in North America, and UK Sikhs have the highest percentage of home ownership (82%) of any religious community. UK Sikhs are the second-wealthiest religious group in the UK (after the Jewish community), with a median total household wealth of . In May 2019, the UK government exempted "
Kirpan The kirpan is a sword or a knife of any size and shape, carried by Sikhs. It is also part of a religious commandment given by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699, in which he gave an option to the Sikhs, if they accepted they must wear the five articles o ...
" from the list of banned knives. The U.K. government has passed an amendment by which Sikhs in the country will be allowed to carry kirpans and use it during religious and cultural functions. The bill had been amended late last year to ensure that it would not impact the right of the British Sikh community to possess and supply kirpans, or religious swords. Similarly, the Sikh American Legal Defense and Education Fund overturned a 1925 Oregon law banning the wearing of turbans by teachers and government officials.


Agriculture

Historically, most Indians have been farmers and 66 per cent of the Indian population are engaged in
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled peo ...
. Indian Sikhs are employed in agriculture to a lesser extent; India's 2001 census found 39 per cent of the working population of the Punjab employed in this sector. According to the Swedish political scientist Ishtiaq Ahmed (political scientist), Ishtiaq Ahmad, a factor in the success of the Indian green revolution was the "Sikh cultivator, often the Jat and Kamboj or Kamboh, whose courage, perseverance, spirit of enterprise and muscle prowess proved crucial." However, Indian physicist Vandana Shiva wrote that the green revolution made the "negative and destructive impacts of science [i.e. the green revolution] on nature and society" invisible, and was a catalyst for Punjabi Sikh and Hindu tensions despite a growth in material wealth.


Sikhs in modern history

Manmohan Singh Manmohan Singh (; born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist, academic, and politician who served as the 13th Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014. The first Sikh in office, Singh was also the first prime minister since Jawaharlal N ...

Manmohan Singh
is an Indian economist, academic, and politician who served as the 13th Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014. The first Sikh in office, Singh was also the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru to be re-elected after completing a full five-year term. In the United States, the former US Ambassador to the United Nations and former governor of South Carolina, Nikki Haley, was born and raised as a Sikh, but converted to Christianity after her marriage. She still actively attends both Sikh and Christian services. Notable Sikhs in science include nuclear physics, nuclear scientist Piara Singh Gill, who worked on the Manhattan Project; fibre optics, fibre-optics pioneer Narinder Singh Kapany; and physicist, science writer and broadcaster Simon Singh. In business, the UK-based clothing retailers New Look (store), New Look and the Thai-based JASPAL were founded by Sikhs. India's largest pharmaceutical company, Ranbaxy Laboratories, is headed by Sikhs. Apollo Tyres is headed by Onkar Singh Kanwar. In Singapore Kartar Singh Thakral expanded his family's trading business, Thakral Holdings, into total assets of almost and is Singapore's 25th-richest person. Sikh Bob Singh Dhillon is the first Indo-Canadian billionaire. Mastercard CEO is a Sikh named Ajaypal Singh Banga In sports, Sikhs include England cricketer Monty Panesar; former 400-metre runner Milkha Singh; his son, professional golfer Jeev Milkha Singh; Indian wrestler and actor Dara Singh; former Indian hockey team captains Sandeep Singh, Ajitpal Singh and Balbir Singh Sr.; former Indian cricket captain Bishen Singh Bedi; Harbhajan Singh, India's most successful off spin bowling (cricket), cricket bowler; Yuvraj Singh, World Cup winning allrounder; Maninder Singh (cricketer), Maninder Singh, World Cup winning off spinner; and Navjot Singh Sidhu, former Indian cricketer-turned-politician. Sikhs in Bollywood, in the arts in general, include poet and lyricist Rajkavi Inderjeet Singh Tulsi; Gulzar; Jagjit Singh; Dharmendra; Sunny Deol; writer Khushwant Singh; actresses Neetu Singh, Simran Judge, Poonam Dhillon, Mahi Gill, Esha Deol, Parminder Nagra, Gul Panag, Mona Singh, Namrata Singh Gujral; and directors Gurinder Chadha and Parminder Gill. Sikhs in Punjabi Music industry include Gurdas Maan, Diljit Dosanjh, Kuldeep Manak and Babu Singh Maan.


In the Indian and British armies

According to a 1994 estimate, Punjabis (Sikhs and non-Sikhs) comprised 10 to 15% of all ranks in the Indian Army. The Indian government does not release religious or ethnic origins of the military personnel, but a 1991 report by Tim McGirk estimated that 20% of Indian Army officers were Sikhs. Together with the Gurkhas recruited from Nepal, the Maratha Light Infantry from Maharashtra and the Jat Regiment, the Sikhs are one of the few communities to have exclusive regiments in the Indian Army. The Sikh Regiment is one of the most-decorated regiments in the army, with 73 Battle Honours, 14 Victoria Crosses, 21 first-class Indian Order of Merit, Indian Orders of Merit (equivalent to the Victoria Cross), 15 Battle honour, Theatre Honours, 5 COAS Unit Citations, two Param Vir Chakras, 14 Maha Vir Chakras, 5 Kirti Chakras, 67 Vir Chakras, and 1,596 other awards. The highest-ranking general in the history of the Indian Air Force is a Punjabi Sikh, Marshal of the Air Force Arjan Singh. Plans by the Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), United Kingdom Ministry of Defence for a Sikh infantry regiment were scrapped in June 2007. Sikhs supported the British during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. By the beginning of World War I, Sikhs in the
British Indian Army The British Indian Army was the main military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947. It was responsible for the defence of both the British Indian Empire and the princely states, which could also have their own armies. ...
totaled over 100,000 (20 per cent of the force). Until 1945 fourteen Victoria Crosses (VC) were awarded to Sikhs, a per-capita regimental record. In 2002 the names of all Sikh VC and George Cross recipients were inscribed on the monument of the Memorial Gates (Constitution Hill), Memorial Gates on Constitution Hill, London, Constitution Hill, next to Buckingham Palace. Chanan Singh Dhillon was instrumental in campaigning for the memorial. During World War I, Sikh battalions fought in Egypt, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Gallipoli and France. Six battalions of the Sikh Regiment were raised during World War II, serving in the Second Battle of El Alamein, the Burma Campaign, Burma and Italian Campaign (World War II), Italian campaigns and in Anglo-Iraqi War, Iraq and receiving 27 battle honours. Around the world, Sikhs are commemorated in Commonwealth War Graves Commission, Commonwealth cemeteries.


Sikh nationalism and the Khalistan movement

The Khalistan movement is a Sikh separatist movement, which seeks to create a separate country called Khalistān ("The -stan, Land of the
Khalsa Khalsa ( pa, ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ, , "To be pure, to be clear, to be free from") refers to both a community that considers Sikhism as its faith,
") in the
Punjab region Punjab (Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Paki ...
of South Asia to serve as a homeland for Sikhs. The territorial definition of the proposed country Khalistan consists of both the Punjab, India, along with Punjab, Pakistan, and includes parts of
Haryana Haryana () is a state in India located in the northern part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on a linguistic basis. It is ranked 22nd in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land ...
,
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; "snow-laden province") is a state in the northern part of India. Situated in the Western Himalayas, it is one of the eleven mountain states and is characterized by an extreme landscape featuring several peaks and extensive r ...
,
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi, the city of Jammu, with an area of , is s ...
, and
Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a state in northern India. The state covers an area of or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the largest Indian state by area and the seventh largest by population. Rajast ...
.''Amritsar to Lahore: A Journey Across the India-Pakistan Border'' - Stephen Alter "''Ever since the separatist movement gathered force in the 1980s, Pakistan has sided with the Sikhs, the territorial ambitions of Khalistan have at times included Chandigarh, sections of the Indian Punjab, including whole North India and some parts of western states of India.''" Khalistan movement began as an expatriate venture. In 1971, the first explicit call for Khalistan was made in an advertisement published in the ''New York Times'' by an expat [Jagjit Singh Chohan]. By proclaiming the formation of Khalistan he was able to collect millions of dollars from the Sikh diaspora. On 12 April 1980 he declared the formation of "National Council of Khalistan", at Anandpur Sahib. He declared himself as the President of the council, and named Balbir Singh Sandhu as its Secretary General. In May 1980, Chohan traveled to London and announced the formation of Khalistan. A similar announcement was made by Balbir Singh Sandhu in Amritsar, where he began releasing stamps and currency of Khalistan. The inaction of the authorities in Amritsar and elsewhere was decried by the Akali Dal, headed by the Sikh leader Harchand Singh Longowal, as a political stunt by the Indian National Congress, Congress(I) party of Indira Gandhi. With the financial and political support of the Sikh diaspora, the movement flourished in the Indian Punjab, India, state of Punjab, which has a Demographics of Punjab, India, Sikh-majority population and reached its zenith in the late 1970s and 1980s when the secessionist movement caused large scale violence among the local population.
Operation Blue Star Operation Blue Star was the code name of an Indian military action which was carried out between 1 and 10 June 1984, in order to capture the Sikh leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his followers hidden inside the buildings of Harmandir Sahib ...
was an Indian military operation carried out between 1 and 8 June 1984, ordered by Prime Minister of India, Prime Minister
Indira Gandhi Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (; ''née'' Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician and a central figure of the Indian National Congress. She was the first and, to date, only female Prime Minister of India. I ...
to remove militant religious leader
Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale (; born Jarnail Singh Brar; 12 February 1947 – 6 June 1984) was the fourteenth ''jathedar'', or leader, of the prominent orthodox Sikh religious institution Damdami Taksal. He was an advocate of the Anandpur Sahib R ...
and his armed followers from the buildings of the Harmandir Sahib complex in Amritsar,
Punjab Punjab (Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Paki ...
. In July 1983, the Sikh political party Akali Dal's President Harchand Singh Longowal had invited Bhindranwale to take up residence in Golden Temple, Golden Temple Complex, Akal Thakt. Bhindranwale later on made the sacred temple complex an arsenal, armoury and headquarters. In the violent events leading up to the Operation Blue Star since the inception of Akali Dharm Yudh Morcha, the militants had killed 165 Hindus and Nirankaris, even 39 Sikhs opposed to Bhindranwale were killed. The total number of deaths was 410 in violent incidents and riots while 1,180 people were injured. Casualty figures for the Army were 83 dead and 249 injured. According to the official estimate presented by the Indian government, 1592 were apprehended and there were 493 combined militant and civilian casualties. The attack took place on a gurpurb, and thousands of pilgrims had arrived from across the country to observe the anniversary of
Guru Arjan Guru Arjan (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਅਰਜਨ, pronunciation: ) 15 April 1563 – 30 May 1606) was the first of the two Gurus martyred in the Sikh faith and the fifth of the ten total Sikh Gurus. He compiled the first official edition of the ...

Guru Arjan
's martyrdom. The Indian government alleges the militants used pilgrims as human shields, hence the high civilian casualties. However, independent sources have confirmed that Indian forces allowed thousands of pilgrims into the complex before the attack, and then did not let any of them leave once the raid began. 8 months later, Indira Gandhi was Assassination of Indira Gandhi, assassinated by her 2 Sikh body guards in retaliation for Operation Bluestar. In the immediate aftermath, thousands of Sikh civilians were killed in the 1984 anti-Sikh riots. In June 1985, Air India Flight 182, Air India Flight 182 was bombed by Babbar Khalsa, a pro-Khalistani terrorist organization. In January 1986, the Golden Temple was occupied by militants belonging to All India Sikh Students Federation and Damdami Taksal. On 26 January 1986, a gathering known as the Sarbat Khalsa (a de facto parliament) passed a resolution (''gurmattā'') favouring the creation of Khalistan. Subsequently, a number of rebel militant groups in favour of Khalistan waged a Punjab insurgency, major insurgency against the government of India. Indian security forces suppressed the insurgency in the early 1990s, but Sikh political groups such as the Khalsa Raj Party and Shiromani Akali Dal (Amritsar), SAD (A) continued to pursue an independent Khalistan through non-violent means. Pro-Khalistan organisations such as Dal Khalsa (International) are also active outside India, supported by a section of the Sikh diaspora. In the 1990s the insurgency petered out, and the movement failed to reach its objective due to multiple reasons including a heavy police crackdown on separatists, divisions among the Sikhs and loss of support from the Sikh population. However, various pro-Khalistan groups, both political and militant, remain committed to the separatist movement. There are claims of funding from Sikh diaspora, Sikhs outside India to attract young people into militant groups.


Art and culture

File:HarmindarSahib.jpg, alt=Large building on the water, Darbar Sahib, circa 1870 Sikh art and culture are nearly synonymous with that of the Punjab, and Sikhs are easily recognised by their distinctive turban (Dastar). The Punjab has been called India's melting pot, due to the confluence of invading cultures from the rivers from which the region gets its name. Sikh culture is therefore a synthesis of cultures.
Sikhism Sikhism () or Sikhi ( pa, ਸਿੱਖੀ ', , from pa, ਸਿੱਖ, lit=disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner, translit=Sikh, label=none)''Sikhism'' (indigenously known as ''Sikhī'') originated from the word ''Sikh'', which comes from the Sanskrit ro ...
has forged a unique Sikh architecture, architecture, which S. S. Bhatti described as "inspired by
Guru Nanak Gurū Nānak (Punjabi: ; ; ; , ; born as Nānak on 15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539), also referred to as ('father Nānak'), was the founder of Sikhism and is the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. His birth is celebrated worldwide as Guru Nan ...
's creative mysticism" and "is a mute harbinger of holistic humanism based on pragmatic spirituality". The American non-profit organization United Sikhs has fought to have Sikh included on the United States, U.S. census as well, arguing that Sikhs "self-identify as an 'ethnic minority'" and believe "that they are more than just a religion". During the Mughal Empire, Mughal and Durrani, Afghan persecution of the Sikhs during the 17th and 18th centuries, the latter were concerned with preserving their religion and gave little thought to art and culture. With the rise of Ranjit Singh and the Sikh Raj in
Lahore Lahore (; pnb, ; ; ur, ; ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and is the country's 2nd largest city after Karachi and before Faisalabad as well as the 26th largest city in the world. Lahore is one of Pakistan's wealthiest ci ...
and
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. * * * It is bordered by the state of Haryana on ...
, there was a change in the landscape of art and culture in the Punjab; Hindus and Sikhs could build decorated shrines without the fear of destruction or looting. The Sikh Confederacy was the catalyst for a uniquely Sikh form of expression, with Ranjit Singh commissioning forts, palaces, bungas (residential places) and colleges in a Sikh style. Sikh architecture is characterised by gilded fluted domes, cupolas, kiosks, stone lanterns, ornate balusters and square roofs. A pinnacle of Sikh style is Harmandir Sahib (also known as the Golden Temple) in Amritsar. Sikh culture is influenced by militaristic motifs (with the Khanda (religious symbol), Khanda the most obvious), and most Sikh artifacts—except for the relics of the Sikh Gurus, Gurus—have a military theme. This theme is evident in the Sikh festivals of Hola Mohalla and
Vaisakhi Vaisakhi (IAST: ), also pronounced as Baisakhi is observed by Hindus and Sikhs. It also marks the beginning of Hindu solar New year. Vaisakhi marks the first day of the month of Vaisakha, is usually celebrated on 13 or 14 April every year and ...
, which feature marching and displays of valor. Although the art and culture of the Sikh diaspora have merged with that of other Indo-immigrant groups into categories like "British Asian", "Indo-Canadian" and "Desi-Culture", a minor cultural phenomenon which can be described as "political Sikh" has arisen. The art of diaspora Sikhs like Amarjeet Kaur Nandhra, and Amrit and Rabindra Kaur Singh (The Singh Twins) is influenced by their Sikhism and current affairs in the Punjab. Bhangra (dance), Bhangra and Giddha are two forms of Punjabi folk dancing which have been adapted and pioneered by Sikhs. Punjabi Sikhs have championed these forms of expression worldwide, resulting in Sikh culture becoming linked to Bhangra (although "Bhangra is not a Sikh institution but a Punjabi one").


Painting

Sikh painting is a direct offshoot of the Kangra painting, Kangra school of painting. In 1810, Ranjeet Singh (1780–1839) occupied Kangra Fort and appointed Sardar Desa Singh Majithia his governor of the Punjab hills. In 1813 the Sikh army occupied Guler State, and Raja Bhup Singh became a vassal of the Sikhs. With the Sikh kingdom of Lahore becoming the paramount power, some of the Pahari painters from Guler migrated to Lahore for the patronage of Maharaja Ranjeet Singh and his Sardars. The Sikh school adapted Kangra painting to Sikh needs and ideals. Its main subjects are the ten Sikh gurus and stories from Guru Nanak's Janamsakhis. The tenth Guru, Gobind Singh, left a deep impression on the followers of the new faith because of his courage and sacrifices. Hunting scenes and portraits are also common in Sikh painting.


See also

* Jat Sikh * Sikhism in India * List of British Sikhs * Mazhabi Sikh * Ganga Sagar (urn) * Turban training centre


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

* *


Further reading

* ''The Sikhs in History: A Millennium Study '' by Sangat Singh, Noel Quinton King. New York 1995. * ''A History of the Sikhs: Volume 1: 1469–1838'' by Khushwant Singh. Oxford India Paperbacks (13 January 2005). * ''The Sikhs'' by Patwant Singh. Image (17 July 2001). * ''The Sikhs of the Punjab'' by J. S. Grewal. Published by Cambridge University Press (28 October 1998). . * ''The Sikhs: History, Religion, and Society'' by W. H. McLeod. Published by Columbia University Press (15 April 1989). * ''The Sikh Diaspora: Tradition and Change in an Immigrant Community (Asian Americans — Reconceptualising Culture, History, Politics)'' by Michael Angelo. Published by Routledge (1 September 1997). * ''Glory of Sikhism'' by R. M. Chopra, Sanbun Publishers, 2001, , . * ''The Philosophical and Religious Thought of Sikhism'' by R. M. Chopra, 2014, Sparrow Publication, Kolkata, *
The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh Tradition
' - H Oberoi - 1994 University of Chicago Press, * ''Architectural Heritage of a Sikh State: Faridkot'' by Subhash Parihar, Delhi: Aryan Books International, 2009, * ''A Study of Religions'' by R. M. Chopra, Anuradha Prakashan, New Delhi, 2015. .


External links


Sikhism
at the BBC {{Sikhism Sikhs, Ethno-cultural designations Ethnoreligious groups Punjabi words and phrases Religious identity