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The She people (; Shehua: ; Cantonese: , Fuzhou: ) are an ethnic group in China. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. The She are the largest ethnic minority in Fujian, Zhejiang, and Jiangxi Provinces. They are also present in the provinces of Anhui and Guangdong. Some descendants of the She also exist amongst the Hakka minority in Taiwan.

Languages

Today, over 400,000 She people of Fujian, Zhejiang, and Jiangxi provinces speak Shehua, an unclassified Chinese variety that has been heavily influenced by Hakka Chinese. There are approximately 1,200 She people in Guangdong province who speak a Hmong–Mien language called She, also called ''Ho Ne'' meaning "mountain people" (). Some said they were descendants of Dongyi, Nanman or Yue peoples. ''Shēhuà'' () should not be confused with (), also known as Ho Ne, which is a Hmong-Mien language spoken in east-central Guangdong. Shehua and Sheyu speakers have separate histories and identities, although both are officially classified by the Chinese government as She people. The Dongjia of Majiang County, Guizhou are also officially classified as She people, but speak a Western Hmongic language closely related to Chong'anjiang Miao ().

History

The She people are some of the earliest known settlers of Guangdong; they are thought to have originally settled along the shallow shore for easier fishing access during the Neolithic era. Eventually, after an influx of Yuet people moved south during the Warring States period, serious competition between the two peoples for resources developed. From the time of the Qin dynasty on, waves of migrants from northern China have had a serious impact on the She people. Because they possessed superior tools and technology, these migrants were able to displace the She and occupy the better land for farming. As a result of this, some of the She were forced to relocate into the hilly areas of the Jiangxi and Fujian provinces. Following this relocation, the She people became hillside farmers. Their methods of farming included burning grasses on the slope, casting rice seeds on those embers and then harvesting the produce following the growth season. Some of the She people also participated in the production and trade of salt, obtained from the evaporation of local pools of salt water. Many conflicts took place between the Han Chinese and She peoples. For example, in one incident, She salt producers on Lantau Island in Hong Kong attacked the city of Canton in a revolt during the Song dynasty. During the Ming-Qing dynasties they moved into and settled Zhejiang's southern region and mountain districts in the Lower Yangtze region, after they left their homeland in Northern Fujian. It is theorized that the She were pushed out of their land by the Hakka, which caused them to move into Zhejiang.

PRC Autonomous Counties and Ethnic Townships



Zhejiang



Hangzhou

*Eshan She Ethnic Township () in Tonglu County

Quzhou

*Muchen She Ethnic Township () in Longyou County

Jinhua

*Shuiting She Ethnic Township () in Lanxi City *Liucheng She Ethnic Town () in Wuyi County

Wenzhou

*Qingjie She Ethnic Township () in Pingyang County *Xikeng She Ethnic Town () in Wencheng County *Zhoushan She Ethnic Township () in Wencheng County *Fengyang She Ethnic Township () in Cangnan County *Dailing She Ethnic Township () in Cangnan County *Siqian She Ethnic Town () in Taishun County *Zhuli She Ethnic Township () in Taishun County

Lishui

*Jingning She Autonomous County () *Laozhu She Ethnic Town () in Liandu District *Lixin She Ethnic Township () in Liandu District *Wuxi She Ethnic Township () in Yunhe County *Anxi She Ethnic Township () in Yunhe County *Zhuyang She Ethnic Township () in Longquan City *Sanren She Ethnic Township () in Suichang County *Banqiao She Ethnic Township () in Songyang County

Anhui



Xuancheng

*Yunti She Ethnic Township () in Ningguo City

Fujian



Fuzhou

*Xiaocang She Ethnic Township () in Lianjiang County

Ningde

*Muyun She Ethnic Township () in Fu'an City *Kangcuo She Ethnic Township () in Fu'an City *Banzhong She Ethnic Township () in Fu'an City *Xiamen She Ethnic Township () in Fuding City *Yantian She Ethnic Township () in Xiapu County *Shuimen She Ethnic Township () in Xiapu County *Chongru She Ethnic Township () in Xiapu County

Zhangzhou

*Longjiao She Ethnic Township () in Longhai City *Huxi She Ethnic Township () in Zhangpu County *Chiling She Ethnic Township () in Zhangpu County

Longyan

*Gongzhuang She Ethnic Township () in Shanghang County *Lufeng She Ethnic Township () in Shanghang County

Jiangxi



Shangrao

*Taiyuan She Ethnic Township () in Yanshan County *Huangbi She Ethnic Township () in Yanshan County

Yingtan

*Zhangping She Ethnic Township () in Guixi City

Fuzhou

*Jinzhu She Ethnic Township () in Le'an County

Ganzhou

*Chitu She Ethnic Township () in Nankang City

Ji'an

*Donggu She Ethnic Township () in Qingyuan District *Longgang She Ethnic Township () in Yongfeng County *Jinping Ethnic Township () in Xiajiang County

Guangdong



Heyuan

*Zhangxi She Ethnic Township () in Dongyuan County


Distribution of She people in China


The roughly 45,000 She living in Guizhou Province form a separate subgroup, the Dongjia (), who differ notably in culture from the She in other areas.


Provincial level


In a 2000 census, 709,592 She have been counted in China. ;Distribution of She people in China


District level


;Distribution of She people by district (as of 2000) Only values of 0.5% and greater have been considered.

Notes and references

*

External links


Official Website of Jingning She Autonomous County 畲族网
{{DEFAULTSORT:She People Category:Ethnic groups in Fujian Category:Zhejiang Category:Ethnic groups officially recognized by China