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Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
of the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
and is part of the
East China East China () is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitan ...

East China
region. Shandong has played a major role in
Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty that ruled in the middle and ...

Chinese history
since the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
. It has served as a pivotal cultural and religious center for
Taoism Taoism (), or Daoism (), is a philosophical and spiritual tradition of China, Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the ''Tao'' (, Taoism#Spelling and pronunciation, or ''Dao''). In Taoism, the ''Tao'' is the source, pattern a ...
,
Chinese Buddhism Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings speci ...

Chinese Buddhism
and
Confucianism Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is a system of thought and behavior originating in ancient China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC ...
. Shandong's
Mount Tai Mount Tai () is a mountain of historical and cultural significance located north of the city of Tai'an Tai'an () is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () ra ...

Mount Tai
is the most revered mountain of Taoism and one of the world's sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship. The
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitu ...

Buddhist
temples in the mountains to the south of the provincial capital of
Jinan Jinan (), as Tsinan, is the of province in . With a population of 9.2 million (including Laiwu), it is the second-largest city in Shandong after . The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region fro ...

Jinan
were once among the foremost Buddhist sites in China. The city of
Qufu Qufu ( ; ) is a city in southwestern Shandong province, East China. It is located about south of the provincial capital Jinan and northeast of the prefectural seat at Jining. Qufu has an area of 815 square kilometers, and a total population of 65 ...
is the birthplace of
Confucius } Confucius ( ; zh, s=, p=Kǒng Fūzǐ, "Master Kǒng"; or commonly zh, s=, p=Kǒngzǐ, labels=no; ) was a Chinese philosopher Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period () and Warring States period (), ...

Confucius
and was later established as the center of Confucianism. Confucianism developed from what was later called the
Hundred Schools of Thought The Hundred Schools of Thought () were philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century BC to 221 BC during the Spring and Autumn period#REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese histo ...
from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. Shandong's location at the intersection of ancient and modern north-south and east-west trading routes has helped establish it as an economic center. After a period of political instability and economic hardship that began in the late 19th century, Shandong has experienced rapid growth in recent decades. Home to over 100 million inhabitants, Shandong is the world's sixth-most populous
subnational entity Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geographical areas into which a particular, ...

subnational entity
, and China's second most populous province. The
economy of Shandong
economy of Shandong
is China's third largest provincial economy with a
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any ...
of
CNY The renminbi (abbreviation An abbreviation (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known ...
¥7.65 trillion in 2018 or
USD The United States dollar (symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, ...

USD
$1.156 trillion; its
GDP per capita Lists of countries by GDP per capita list the countries in the world by their gross domestic product Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money ba ...

GDP per capita
is around the national average.


Etymology

Individually, the two Chinese characters in the name "Shandong" means "mountain" () and "east" (). Shandong could hence be translated literally as "east of the mountains" and refers to the province's location to the east of the
Taihang Mountains The Taihang Mountains () are a Chinese mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, ...
. A common nickname for Shandong is ''Qílǔ'' (), after the States of Qi and
Lu
Lu
that existed in the area during the
Spring and Autumn period#REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the ...
. Whereas the State of Qi was a major power of its era, the State of Lu played only a minor role in the politics of its time. However, Lu became renowned for being the home of
Confucius } Confucius ( ; zh, s=, p=Kǒng Fūzǐ, "Master Kǒng"; or commonly zh, s=, p=Kǒngzǐ, labels=no; ) was a Chinese philosopher Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period () and Warring States period (), ...

Confucius
, and hence its cultural influence came to eclipse that of the State of Qi. The cultural dominance of the State of Lu heritage is reflected in the official abbreviation for Shandong which is "" (). English speakers in the 19th century called the province ''Shan-tung''.


Location

The province is on the eastern edge of the
North China Plain 200px, The North China Plain is shown in dark. The Yellow River is shown as "Río Amarillo". The North China Plain () is a large-scale downfaulted rift basin formed in the late Paleogene The Paleogene ( ; also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; ...
and in the lower reaches of the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
(Huang He), and extends out to sea as the
Shandong Peninsula The Shandong Peninsula or Jiaodong Peninsula is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The su ...
. Shandong borders the
Bohai Sea The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay (), is a marginal sea approximately in area on the east coast of mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland A ...

Bohai Sea
to the north,
Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, firs ...
to the northwest,
Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literally means "central plain" or "midlan ...

Henan
to the west,
Jiangsu Jiangsu (; ; formerly romanized Kiangsu) is an eastern-central coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative regi ...

Jiangsu
to the south, and the
Yellow Sea The Yellow Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% o ...

Yellow Sea
to the southeast; it also shares a very short border with
Anhui Anhui (; as Anhwei) is a landlocked of the , part of the region. Its provincial capital and largest city is . The province is located across the basins of the and the , bordering to the east, to the southeast, to the south, to the southw ...

Anhui
, between Henan and Jiangsu.


History


Ancient history

With its location on the eastern edge of the
North China Plain 200px, The North China Plain is shown in dark. The Yellow River is shown as "Río Amarillo". The North China Plain () is a large-scale downfaulted rift basin formed in the late Paleogene The Paleogene ( ; also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; ...
, Shandong was home to a succession of
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
cultures for millennia, including the Houli culture (6500–5500 BC), the Beixin culture (5300–4100 BC), the
Dawenkou culture Image:Dawenkou Gui Dazhucun.jpg, ''Guī'' (鬹) from Dawenkou Culture The Dawenkou culture is a name given by Archeology, archaeologists to a group of Neolithic communities who lived primarily in Shandong, but also appeared in Anhui, Henan and Jian ...
(4100–2600 BC), the
Longshan culture The Longshan (or Lung-shan) culture, also sometimes referred to as the Black Pottery Culture, was a late Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen i ...
(3000–2000 BC), and the
Yueshi culture The Yueshi culture () was an archaeological culture in the region of eastern China, dated from 1900 to 1500 BC. It spanned the period from the to the early . In the Shandong area, it followed the period (c. 2600–1900 BC), and was later repl ...
(1900–1500 BC). The earliest dynasties (the
Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From ...

Shang dynasty
and
Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China ( ...
) exerted varying degrees of control over western Shandong, while eastern Shandong was inhabited by the
Dongyi The Dongyi or Eastern Yi () was a collective term for ancient peoples found in Chinese records. The definition of Dongyi varied across the ages, but in most cases referred to inhabitants of eastern China, then later, the Korean peninsula, and Jap ...
peoples who were considered "barbarians." Over subsequent centuries, the Dongyi were eventually
sinicized Sinicization, sinofication, sinification, or sinonization (from the prefix , 'Chinese, relating to China') is the process by which non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han-Chinese culture, language, so ...
. During the
Spring and Autumn period#REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the ...
and the
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period i ...
, regional states became increasingly powerful. At this time, Shandong was home to two major states: the
state of Qi Qi was a state of the Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty that ruled in the middle and ...
at Linzi and the
state of Lu Lu (, c. 1042–249 BC) was a vassal state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a ...

state of Lu
at
Qufu Qufu ( ; ) is a city in southwestern Shandong province, East China. It is located about south of the provincial capital Jinan and northeast of the prefectural seat at Jining. Qufu has an area of 815 square kilometers, and a total population of 65 ...
. Lu is noted for being the home of
Confucius } Confucius ( ; zh, s=, p=Kǒng Fūzǐ, "Master Kǒng"; or commonly zh, s=, p=Kǒngzǐ, labels=no; ) was a Chinese philosopher Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period () and Warring States period (), ...

Confucius
. However, the state was comparatively small and eventually succumbed to the larger
state of Chu Chu (, Hanyu Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Latin script, Roman ( ...
from the south. The
state of Qi Qi was a state of the Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty that ruled in the middle and ...
, on the other hand, was a significant power throughout the period. Cities it ruled included Linzi,
Jimo Jimo District (), formerly Jimo City (), is a District of Qingdao, Shandong. Location Jimo is located in the southwest of the Shandong Peninsula, bordered by the Yellow Sea on the east and Mount Lao on the south. Climate Jimo has a moderate mo ...
(north of modern
Qingdao Qingdao (, also spelled Tsingtao; , Mandarin: ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative divi ...

Qingdao
) and Ju. The easternmost part of the peninsula was ruled by the Dongyi state of Lai until Qi conquered it in 567 BC.


Early Imperial history

The
Qin dynasty The Qin dynasty, or Ch'in dynasty in Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a Romanization of Chinese, romanization system for Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Francis Wade, during the mid-19th ...

Qin dynasty
conquered Qi and founded the first centralized Chinese state in 221 BC. The
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
that followed created several commanderies supervised by two regions () in what is now modern Shandong: Qingzhou () in the north and Yanzhou () in the south. During the division of the
Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Cao Wei, Wei, Shu Han, Shu, and Eastern Wu, Wu. The Three Kingdoms period started with the End of the Han dynasty, end of the Han dynasty#East ...

Three Kingdoms
, Shandong belonged to the
Cao Wei Wei (220–266), also known as Cao Wei or Former Wei, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the ...
, which ruled over northern China. After the Three Kingdoms period, a brief period of unity under the
Western Jin dynasty Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska Western is a village in Saline County, Nebraska, Saline County, Nebraska, United States. The population was 235 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. History Western was laid out in 1 ...
gave way to invasions by nomadic peoples from the north. Northern China, including Shandong, was overrun. Over the next century or so, Shandong changed hands several times, falling to the
Later Zhao The Later Zhao (; 319–351) was a dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press 200 ...
, then
Former Yan The Former Yan (; 337–370) was a Dynasties in Chinese history, dynastic state ruled by the Xianbei during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. Initially, Murong Huang and his son Murong Jun claimed the Jin dynasty (266–420), Jin dynasty-crea ...
, then
Former Qin The Former Qin, also called Fu Qin (苻秦) (351–394) was a dynastic state of the Sixteen Kingdoms The Sixteen Kingdoms (), less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history The earliest known written reco ...
, then
Later Yan The Later Yan (; 384 – 407 or 409) was a dynastic state ruled by the Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mon ...
, then
Southern Yan The Southern Yan (; 398–410) was a Xianbei-led Dynasties in Chinese history, dynastic state during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. Its territory roughly coincided with modern Shandong. Its founder Murong De was a son of Murong Huang and bro ...
, then the
Liu Song dynasty The Liu Song dynasty (420–479 CE; ), also known as Former Song (前宋) or Southern Song (南朝宋), was the first of the four Southern Dynasties in China, succeeding the Eastern Jin and followed by the Southern Qi. The dynasty was founded ...
, and finally the
Northern Wei dynasty The Northern Wei (), also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), was a founded by the (Tabgach) clan of the , which ruled from 386 to 534 AD (' until 535), during the period of the . Described as "part of an era of pol ...
, the first of the Northern dynasties during the
Northern and Southern dynasties The Northern and Southern dynasties () was a period in the history of China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the king Wu Ding ...
Period. Shandong stayed with the Northern dynasties for the rest of this period. In 412 AD, the Chinese
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitu ...

Buddhist
monk
Faxian Faxian (337 CE – c. 422 CE), also referred to as Fa-Hien, Fa-hsien and Sehi, was a Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the ...
landed at Laoshan, on the southern edge of the Shandong peninsula, and proceeded to
Qingzhou Qingzhou () Wade–Giles: Tsing-chou, sometimes written as Ching-chow-fu, formerly Yidu County (Yitu) (), is a county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city ...
to edit and translate the scriptures he had brought back from
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
. The
Sui dynasty The Sui dynasty (, ) was a short-lived Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese, Han in the entirety of ...

Sui dynasty
reestablished unity in 589, and the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
(618-907) presided over the next golden age of China. For the earlier part of this period, Shandong was ruled as part of Henan Circuit, one of the
circuitsCircuit may refer to: Science and technology Electrical engineering * Electrical circuit, a complete electrical network with a closed-loop giving a return path for current ** Analog circuit, uses continuous signal levels ** Balanced circuit, p ...
(a political division). Later on, China splintered into warlord factions, resulting in the
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (), from 907 to 979 was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from ...
period. Shandong was part of the Five Dynasties, all based in the north. The
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
reunified China in the late tenth century. The classic novel ''
Water Margin ''Water Margin'' is one of the earliest Chinese novels written in vernacular Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government ...
'' was based on folk tales of outlaw bands active in Shandong during the Song dynasty. In 1996, the discovery of over two hundred buried Buddhist statues at Qingzhou was hailed as a major
archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote ...
find. The statues included early examples of painted figures and are thought to have been buried due to Emperor Huizong's repression of
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
(he favored
Taoism Taoism (), or Daoism (), is a philosophical and spiritual tradition of China, Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the ''Tao'' (, Taoism#Spelling and pronunciation, or ''Dao''). In Taoism, the ''Tao'' is the source, pattern a ...
). The Song dynasty was forced to cede northern China to the
Jurchen Jin dynastyJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people The Jurchen ( Manchu: ''Jušen'', ; zh, 女真, ''Nǚzhēn'', ) is a term used to collectively describe a number of East Asian Tungusic-speaking peoples who lived in the northeast of China, later known a ...
in 1142. Shandong was administered by Jin as Shandong East Circuit and Shandong West Circuit – the first use of its current name.


Early modern history

The modern province of Shandong was created by the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
, where it had a more expansive territory, including the agricultural part of
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivisi ...
. After the Ming–Qing Transition in 1644, Shandong acquired (more or less) its current borders. During the nineteenth century, China became increasingly exposed to Western influence, and Shandong, a coastal province, was significantly affected.
Qingdao Qingdao (, also spelled Tsingtao; , Mandarin: ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative divi ...

Qingdao
was
leased A lease is a contract A contract is a legally binding document between at least two parties that defines and governs the rights and duties of the parties to an agreement. A contract is legally enforceable because it meets the requirements and ...
to Germany in 1897 and
Weihai Weihai (), formerly called Weihaiwei (), is a and major seaport in easternmost province. It borders to the west and the to the east, and is the closest Chinese city to . Weihai's population was 2,804,771 as of the 2010 census. Amongst them, ...

Weihai
to Britain in 1898. As a result of foreign pressure from the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
, which had annexed
Outer Manchuria Outer Manchuria (russian: Приаму́рье, translit=Priamurye; zh, t=外東北, p=Wài Dōngběi, l=Outer Northeast) or Russian Manchuria is a term for a territory in Northeast Asia that is part of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, ...
by 1860, the Qing dynasty encouraged settlement of Shandong people to what remained of
northeast China Northeast China () is a geographical region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth ...

northeast China
. Shandong was one of the first places in which the
Boxer Rebellion The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement, was an armed and violent , , and insurrection in China between 1899 and 1901, towards the end of the . It was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness (''Yìhéquán''), kno ...

Boxer Rebellion
started and became one of the uprising centers. In 1899, the Qing general
Yuan Shikai Yuan Shikai (; 16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese military and government official who rose to power during the late Qing dynasty, becoming the Emperor of the Empire of China (1915–1916). He tried to save the dynasty with a numb ...

Yuan Shikai
was appointed governor of the province to suppress the uprising. He held the post for three years. Germany took control of China’s Shandong Peninsula. In 1898, Germany had leased Jiaozhou Bay and its port of Qingdao under threat of force. Development was a high government priority. Over 200 million marks were invested in world-class harbor facilities (such as berths, heavy machinery, rail yards, and a floating dry dock. Private enterprises worked across the Shandong Province, opening mines, banks, factories, and rail lines. As a consequence of the First World War, Japan seized Germany holdings in
Qingdao Qingdao (, also spelled Tsingtao; , Mandarin: ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative divi ...

Qingdao
and Shandong. The
Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles (french: Traité de Versailles; german: Versailler Vertrag, ) was the most important of the peace treaties A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government ...
transferred ownership to Japan instead of restoring Chinese sovereignty over the area. Popular dissatisfaction with this outcome, referred to as the
Shandong Problem The Shandong Problem or Shandong Question (, Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectan ...
, led to the vehement student protests in the
May Fourth Movement The May Fourth Movement was a Chinese anti-imperialist Anti-imperialism in political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis of pol ...
. Among the reservations to the Treaty that the
United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations The United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee as ...

United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
approved was "to give Shantung to China," the treaty with reservations was not approved. Finally, Shandong reverted to Chinese control in 1922 after the United States' mediation during the
Washington Naval Conference The Washington Naval Conference was a disarmament Disarmament is the act of reducing, limiting, or abolishing weapons. Disarmament generally refers to a country's military or specific type of weaponry. Disarmament is often taken to mean total elim ...
.
Weihai Weihai (), formerly called Weihaiwei (), is a and major seaport in easternmost province. It borders to the west and the to the east, and is the closest Chinese city to . Weihai's population was 2,804,771 as of the 2010 census. Amongst them, ...

Weihai
followed in 1930. Shandong's return of control fell into the
Warlord Era The Warlord Era was a period in the history of the Republic of China The history of the Republic of China begins after the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dy ...
of the Republic of China. Shandong was handed over to the
Zhili clique#REDIRECT Zhili clique The Zhili clique () was one of several mutually hostile cliques or factions that split from the Beiyang clique The term Beiyang (; pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization ...
of warlords, but after the
Second Zhili–Fengtian War The Second Zhili–Fengtian War (Second Chihli-Fengtien War; ) of 1924 was a conflict between the Japanese-backed Fengtian clique based in Manchuria, and the more liberal Zhili clique controlling Beijing and backed by Anglo-American business inter ...

Second Zhili–Fengtian War
of 1924, the northeast China-based
Fengtian clique The Fengtian clique () was one of several opposing military factions that constituted the early Republic of China Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia ...
took over. In April 1925, the Fengtian clique installed the warlord
Zhang Zongchang Zhang Zongchang (; 13 February 1881 – 3 September 1932) was a Chinese warlord A warlord is a strong leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state because of their ab ...

Zhang Zongchang
, nicknamed the "Dogmeat General," as military governor of Shandong Province. ''Time'' dubbed him China's "basest warlord." He ruled over the province until 1928 when he was ousted in the wake of the
Northern Expedition The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the "Chinese Nationalist Party", against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926. The p ...
. He was succeeded by
Han Fuju Han Fuju or Han Fu-chü (; 1890 – 24 January 1938) was a Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT) () is a major political party in Taiwan which originated as a revolutionary political party during the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republican ...

Han Fuju
, who was loyal to the warlord
Feng Yuxiang Feng Yuxiang (; ; 6 November 1882 – 1 September 1948), courtesy name Huanzhang (焕章), was a warlord A warlord is a person who exercises military, economic, and political control over a region in a country without a strong national go ...

Feng Yuxiang
but later switched his allegiance to the Nanjing government headed by
Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also known as Chiang Chung-cheng and romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured syst ...

Chiang Kai-shek
. Han Fuju also ousted the warlord Liu Zhennian, nicknamed the "King of Shandong East," who ruled eastern Shandong Province, hence unifying the province under his rule. In 1937 Japan began its invasion of China proper in the Second Sino-Japanese War, which would eventually become part of the Pacific theatre of the Second World War. Han Fuju was made Deputy Commander in Chief of the 5th War Area and put in charge of defending the lower Yellow River valley. However, he abandoned his base in Jinan when Japanese troops crossed the Yellow River. He was executed for not following orders shortly thereafter. Shandong was occupied by Japan, with resistance continuing in the countryside, and was one of the provinces where a scorched earth policy ("Three Alls Policy": "kill all," "burn all," "loot all") was implemented by Japanese general Yasuji Okamura. This lasted until Japan's surrender in 1945, killing millions of people in Shandong and Northern China. By 1945, Communist Party of China, communist forces already held some parts of Shandong. Over the next four years of the Chinese Civil War, they expanded their holdings, eventually driving the Kuomintang (government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China) out of Shandong by June 1949. The People's Republic of China was founded in October of the same year. Under the new government, parts of western Shandong were initially given to the short-lived Pingyuan Province, but this did not last. Shandong also acquired the Xuzhou and Lianyungang areas from
Jiangsu Jiangsu (; ; formerly romanized Kiangsu) is an eastern-central coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative regi ...

Jiangsu
province, but this did not last either. For the most part, Shandong has kept the same borders that it has today. About six million people starved to death in Shandong during Great Chinese Famine. In recent years, Shandong, especially eastern Shandong, has enjoyed significant economic development, becoming one of the People's Republic of China's richest provinces.


Geography

The northwestern, western, and southwestern parts of the province are all part of the vast
North China Plain 200px, The North China Plain is shown in dark. The Yellow River is shown as "Río Amarillo". The North China Plain () is a large-scale downfaulted rift basin formed in the late Paleogene The Paleogene ( ; also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; ...
. The province's center is more mountainous, with
Mount Tai Mount Tai () is a mountain of historical and cultural significance located north of the city of Tai'an Tai'an () is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () ra ...

Mount Tai
being the most prominent. The east of the province is the hilly
Shandong Peninsula The Shandong Peninsula or Jiaodong Peninsula is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The su ...
extending into the sea; it separates
Bohai Sea The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay (), is a marginal sea approximately in area on the east coast of mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland A ...

Bohai Sea
in the northwest from the
Yellow Sea The Yellow Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% o ...

Yellow Sea
to the east and south. The highest peak of Shandong is Jade Emperor Peak, with a height of , which is also the highest peak in the Taishan area. The
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
passes through Shandong's western areas, entering the sea along Shandong's northern coast; in its traversal of Shandong, it flows on a levee, higher than the surrounding land, and dividing western Shandong into the Hai He watershed in the north and the Huai River watershed in the south. The Grand Canal of China enters Shandong from the northwest and leaves on the southwest. Nansi Lake, Weishan Lake is the largest lake in the province. Shandong's coastline is long.
Shandong Peninsula The Shandong Peninsula or Jiaodong Peninsula is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The su ...
has a rocky coastline with cliffs, bays, and islands; the large Laizhou Bay, the southernmost of the three bays of
Bohai Sea The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay (), is a marginal sea approximately in area on the east coast of mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland A ...

Bohai Sea
, is found to the north, between Dongying and Penglai city, Penglai; Jiaozhou Bay, which is much smaller, is found to the south, next to
Qingdao Qingdao (, also spelled Tsingtao; , Mandarin: ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative divi ...

Qingdao
. The Miaodao Islands extends northwards from the northern coast of the peninsula. With
Jinan Jinan (), as Tsinan, is the of province in . With a population of 9.2 million (including Laiwu), it is the second-largest city in Shandong after . The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region fro ...

Jinan
serving as the province's economic and cultural center, the province's economic prowess has led to the development of modern coastal cities located at
Qingdao Qingdao (, also spelled Tsingtao; , Mandarin: ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative divi ...

Qingdao
,
Weihai Weihai (), formerly called Weihaiwei (), is a and major seaport in easternmost province. It borders to the west and the to the east, and is the closest Chinese city to . Weihai's population was 2,804,771 as of the 2010 census. Amongst them, ...

Weihai
, and Yantai.


Climate

Shandong has a temperate climate, lying in the transition between the humid subtropical (''Cwa'' under the Köppen climate classification) and humid continental (Köppen ''Dwa'') zones with four distinct seasons. Summers are hot and rainy (except for a few coastal areas), while winters are cold and dry. Average temperatures are in January and in July. Annual precipitation is , the vast majority of which occurs during summer, due to monsoonal influences.


Geology

Shandong is part of the Eastern Block of the North China craton. Beginning in the Mesozoic, Shandong has undergone a crustal thinning that is unusual for a craton and that has reduced the thickness of the crust from to as little as . Shandong has hence experienced extensive volcanism in the Tertiary. Some geological formations in Shandong are rich in fossils. For example, Zhucheng in southeastern Shandong has been the site of many dinosaur fossils. A major find of 7,600 dinosaur bones that including ''Tyrannosaurus'' and ''Ankylosaurus'' remains was announced in 2008, and is believed to be the largest collection ever found.


Politics

The Shandong Provincial People's Congress is the highest organ of state power in Shandong province and Shandong's provincial legislature. Its standing committee exercises the majority of the power of The Shandong Provincial People's Congress. The current chairman of the standing committee is Li Ganjie. The Shandong Provincial People's Government is the State Administration in Shandong province. Its main officials are elected and appointed by The Shandong Provincial People's Congress. The provincial government reports to Shandong Provincial People's Congress and State Council of the People's Republic of China. The current Governor of Shandong is Zhou Naixiang.


Economy

As of 1832, Shandong was exporting fruits, vegetables, wine, drugs, and deerskin, often heading to Guangzhou to exchange clothing and fabrics. Shandong ranks first among the provinces in the production of a variety of products, including cotton, wheat, and garlic as well as precious metals such as gold and diamonds. It also has one of the biggest sapphire deposits in the world. Other important crops include sorghum and maize. Shandong has extensive petroleum deposits as well, especially in the Dongying area in the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
delta, where the Shengli Oil Field (lit. Victory Oilfield) is one of the major oilfields of China. Shandong also produces bromine from underground wells and table salt, salt from seawater. It is the largest agricultural exporter in China. Shandong is one of China's richest provinces, and its economic development focuses on large enterprises with well-known brand names. Shandong is the biggest industrial producer and one of the top manufacturing provinces in China. Shandong has also benefited from South Korean and Japanese investment and tourism, due to its geographical proximity to those countries.http://www.thechinaperspective.com/topics/province/shandong-province/ The richest part of the province is the
Shandong Peninsula The Shandong Peninsula or Jiaodong Peninsula is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The su ...
, where the city of
Qingdao Qingdao (, also spelled Tsingtao; , Mandarin: ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative divi ...

Qingdao
is home to three of the most well-known brand names of China: Tsingtao Brewery, Tsingtao Beer, Haier and Hisense. Besides, Dongying's oil fields and petroleum industries form an important component of Shandong's economy. Despite the primacy of Shandong's energy sector, the province has also been plagued with problems of inefficiency and ranks as the largest consumer of fossil fuels in all of China. In 2011, the nominal GDP for Shandong was Chinese yuan, ¥4.50 trillion (US$711 billion), ranking third in the country (behind Guangdong and
Jiangsu Jiangsu (; ; formerly romanized Kiangsu) is an eastern-central coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative regi ...

Jiangsu
). Its GDP per capita was ¥42,014 (US$6,365), ranking eighth. In late 2019 financial reporting noted private company defaults and practices of cross guarantees of debt which troubled investors.


Wine industry

The production of wine is the second largest industry in the Shandong Province, second only to agriculture. Geographically, the southern hills average an elevation of , while the coastal areas remain relatively flat. Most of the soil is loose, well-ventilated, and rich in minerals and organic matter that enable full development of the root systems. Presently, there are more than 140 wineries in the region, mainly distributed in the Nanwang Grape Valley and the Yan-Peng Sightseeing Highway. The region produced more than 40% of China's grape wine production. Main varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt, Merlot, Riesling and Chardonnay are all at 20 years of age, considered to be the golden stage for these grapes. Most of them maintain an average saccharinity of above 20%. Major producers *Changyu, Changyu Pioneer Wine Co. *Great Wall Wine, China Great Wall Wine Co. Ltd.


Economic and technological development zones

*
Jinan Jinan (), as Tsinan, is the of province in . With a population of 9.2 million (including Laiwu), it is the second-largest city in Shandong after . The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region fro ...

Jinan
High-tech Industrial Development Zone Founded in 1991, the Jinan High-tech Industrial Development zone was one of the first of its kind approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China, State Council. The zone is located to the east of the city and covers a total planning area of that is divided into a central area covering , an export processing district of , and an eastern extension area of . Since its foundation, the Jinan High-tech Industrial Development Zone has attracted enterprises as LG, Panasonic, Volvo, and Sanyo. In 2000, it joined the world science and technology association and set up a China-Ukraine High-tech Cooperation Park. The Qilu Software Park became the sister park of Bangalore park of India. *
Jinan Jinan (), as Tsinan, is the of province in . With a population of 9.2 million (including Laiwu), it is the second-largest city in Shandong after . The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region fro ...

Jinan
Export Processing Zone The export processing zone is located in the eastern suburbs of Jinan, east of the Jinan High-tech Industrial Development Zone, and to the north of the Jiwang highway. The distances to the Jiqing Highway and the Jinan Airport are respectively. *
Qingdao Qingdao (, also spelled Tsingtao; , Mandarin: ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative divi ...

Qingdao
Economic & Technological Development Area Approved by the State Council in October 1984, Qingdao Economic and Technical Development Zone has a plan of . In 2004 the local GDP was ¥27.51 billion, which increased by 28.9%; the total industrial output value is ¥60.6 billion, which increased by 31%. There have been 48 projects invested by companies listed among the Global Fortune 500 in the zone. With the fast development of reform and opening-up, Haier, Hisense, Aucma, Sinopec, China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation, CSIC, CNOOC, CIMC etc. are all located in the zone. *
Qingdao Qingdao (, also spelled Tsingtao; , Mandarin: ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative divi ...

Qingdao
Free Trade Zone The State Council established Qingdao Free Trade Zone in 1992. The zone is away from Qingdao Liuting Airport. It is also close to Qingdao Qianwan Container Terminal. At present, more than 40 foreign-invested enterprises have moved in, and 2000 projects have been approved. It is one of the special economic areas which enjoys the most favorable investment policies on customs, foreign exchange, foreign trade, and taxation in China. *
Qingdao Qingdao (, also spelled Tsingtao; , Mandarin: ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative divi ...

Qingdao
High-tech Industrial Zone The State Council approved Qingdao High-Tech Industrial Development Zone in 1992. The zone is located close to Qingdao Liuting Airport and Qingdao Harbor. Encouraged industries include electronic information, biotechnology, medicine, new materials, new energy, advanced equipment manufacturing, marine science & technology, national defense technology. * Weifang Binhai Economic & Technological Development Area (BEDA) Established in August 1995, Weifang Binhai Economic & Technological Development Area (BEDA) is a national economic and technological development area approved by the State Council. Covering an area of , BEDA has a population of 100,000. BEDA possesses a large state-owned industrial land for use with an area of . The land can be transacted conveniently, guaranteeing the demand of any project construction and providing broad development space for the enterprises in the area. Continuously, BEDA has been accredited as National Demonstration Zone invigorating the Sea by Science and Technology, National Innovation Base for Rejuvenating Trade through Science and Technology and National Demonstration Eco-Industry Park. *
Weihai Weihai (), formerly called Weihaiwei (), is a and major seaport in easternmost province. It borders to the west and the to the east, and is the closest Chinese city to . Weihai's population was 2,804,771 as of the 2010 census. Amongst them, ...

Weihai
Economic & Technological Development Zone Weihai Economic and Technological Development Zone is a state-level development zone approved by the State Council on Oct 21, 1992. The administrative area has an area of , including the programmed area of and an initial area of . Its nearest port is Weihai Port, and the airport closest to the zone is Wuhai Airport. *
Weihai Weihai (), formerly called Weihaiwei (), is a and major seaport in easternmost province. It borders to the west and the to the east, and is the closest Chinese city to . Weihai's population was 2,804,771 as of the 2010 census. Amongst them, ...

Weihai
Export Processing Zone Weihai Export & Processing Zone (EPZ) was set up by the approval of the State Council on April 27, 2000. Weihai EPZ is located in Weihai Economic & Technological Development Zone with programmed area of . Weihai EPZ belongs to comprehensive export & processing zone. The EPZ is located to Weihai Airport, to Weihai Railway Station and to Weihai Harbor. *
Weihai Weihai (), formerly called Weihaiwei (), is a and major seaport in easternmost province. It borders to the west and the to the east, and is the closest Chinese city to . Weihai's population was 2,804,771 as of the 2010 census. Amongst them, ...

Weihai
Torch Hi-Tech Science Park Weihai Torch Hi-Tech Science Park is a state-level development zone approved by the State Council in March 1991. Located in Weihai's northwest zone of culture, education and science, the Park has the total area of , the coastal line of and 150,000 residents. It is away from the city center, away from Weihai Port, away from Weihai Railway Station, away from Weihai Airport and away from Yantai Airport. * Yantai Economic and Technological Development Area Yantai Economic and Technological Development Area is one of the earliest approved state level economic development zones in China. It now has planned area of and a population of 115,000. It lies on the tip of the Shandong Peninsula facing the Huanghai Sea. It adjoins to downtown Yantai, merely away from Yantai Port, away from Yantai Railway Station, and a 30-minute drive to Yantai International Airport. * Yantai Export Processing Zone Yantai Export Processing Zone (YTEPZ) is one of the first 15 export processing zones approved by the State Council. The total construction area of YTEPZ is , in which the initial zone covers . After developing for several years, YTEPZ is completely constructed. At present, the infrastructure has been completed, standard workshops of and bonded warehouses of have been built up. Up to now, owning perfect investment environment and conditions, YTEPZ has attracted investors both from foreign countries and regions such as Japan, Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Sweden, the United States, Canada, etc., and from the domestic to invest and operate in the zone. * Zibo National New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone


Demographics

Shandong is the second most populous province of China, after Guangdong, just slightly ahead of
Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literally means "central plain" or "midlan ...

Henan
, with a population of more than 101,527,453 at the 2020 Chinese census. Over 99% of Shandong's population is Han Chinese. Minority groups include the Hui people, Hui and the Manchus. Shandong citizens are also known to have the tallest average height of any Chinese province. As of 2010, 16-18-year-old male students in Yantai measured while female students measured .


Religion

The predominant religions in Shandong are Chinese folk religions, Taoism, Taoist traditions and
Chinese Buddhism Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings speci ...

Chinese Buddhism
. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 25,28% of the population believes in Chinese ancestral religion, ancestor veneration, while 1.21% of the population identifies as Christian, decreasing from 1.30% in 2004. The Christians were 1.89% of the province's population in 1949, the largest proportion in China at that time. According to a survey of the year 2010, Muslims constitute 0.55% of Shandong's population up from 0.14% in 1949.Min Junqing. ''The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam in China''. JISMOR, 8
2010 Islam by province, page 29
Data from: Yang Zongde, ''Study on Current Muslim Population in China'', Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010.
The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 80.05% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religion, worship of nature deities, Buddhism,
Confucianism Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is a system of thought and behavior originating in ancient China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC ...
, Taoism, and Chinese salvationist religions, folk religious sects. Shandong is the province where
Confucius } Confucius ( ; zh, s=, p=Kǒng Fūzǐ, "Master Kǒng"; or commonly zh, s=, p=Kǒngzǐ, labels=no; ) was a Chinese philosopher Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period () and Warring States period (), ...

Confucius
was born in the year 551 B.C.
Confucianism Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is a system of thought and behavior originating in ancient China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC ...
: The most well-known humanity of Shandong is Confucianism. Each year thousands of people come to Shandong to visit and learn about Confucius' culture. According to Chinese tradition, Confucius was a thinker, political figure, educator, and founder of the Ru School of Chinese thought. His teachings, preserved in the Lunyu or Analects, form the foundation of much of subsequent Chinese speculation on the ideal man's education and comportment, how such an individual should live his life and interact with others, and the forms of society and government in which he should participate. Additionally, there are many famous books about Confucius; the most famous one is the Analects written by his students. Confucius also helped edit Four Books and Five Classics, The Five Classics (五经). The Five Classics include The Book of Songs, History, Changes and Rites.


Famous view and arts

* Northern Shaolin (martial art), Northern Shaolin Seven Star Praying Mantis Style of Kung fu is also taught in this province. It is also said that Northern Mantis had originated here and not in the Shaolin temple in Henan Province, which is always stated in books. * Guandi is also known for Guangong, Guanyu. He is a famous general in the book Romance of the Three Kingdoms. In Daojiao (a traditional Chinese Religion), Guangong is also one of the four Protectors. * Temple of Confucius, Qufu, Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong is a very famous World Heritage Site in China, and it is also a 5A Tourist Attraction. Lying to the Temple's east, the Kong Family Mansion developed from a small family house linked to the temple into an aristocratic mansion. The male direct descendants of Confucius lived and worked.


Administrative divisions

Shandong is divided into sixteen Administrative divisions of China#Prefectural level, prefecture-level divisions: all Prefecture-level city, prefecture-level cities (including two Sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, sub-provincial cities). On January 1, 2019, Laiwu was wholly annexed to Jinan: The 16 prefecture-level cities of Shandong are subdivided into 137 Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China#County level, county-level divisions (55 District of China, districts, 26 county-level cities, and 56 County (People's Republic of China), counties). Those are in turn divided into 1941 Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China#Township level, township-level divisions (1223 town of China, towns, 293 Townships of the People's Republic of China, townships, two ethnic townships, and 423 Subdistricts of China, subdistricts).


Urban areas


Culture

Mandarin dialects are spoken in Shandong. Linguists classify these dialects into three broad categories: Ji Lu Mandarin spoken in the northwest (as well as in neighboring
Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, firs ...
), such as the Jinan dialect; Zhongyuan Mandarin spoken in the southwest (as well as in neighboring
Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literally means "central plain" or "midlan ...

Henan
); and Jiao Liao Mandarin spoken in the
Shandong Peninsula The Shandong Peninsula or Jiaodong Peninsula is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The su ...
(as well as the Liaodong Peninsula across the sea), such as the Qingdao dialect. When people speak of the "Shandong dialect" (), it is generally the first or the second that is meant; the Jiao Liao dialects of Shandong are commonly called the "Jiaodong dialect" (). Shandong cuisine () is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. It is known for its breads and fish dishes. It can be more finely divided into inland Shandong cuisine (e.g. Jinan cuisine); the seafood-centered Jiaodong cuisine in the peninsula; and Confucius's Mansion cuisine, an elaborate tradition originally intended for imperial and other important feasts. Shandong Bangzi and Lüju are popular types of Chinese opera in Shandong; both originated from southwestern Shandong.


Transport

The Jingjiu Railway (Beijing-Kowloon) and Jinghu Railway (Beijing-Shanghai) are both major arterial railways that pass through the western part of Shandong. The Jingjiu passes through Liaocheng and Heze; the Jinghu passes through Dezhou,
Jinan Jinan (), as Tsinan, is the of province in . With a population of 9.2 million (including Laiwu), it is the second-largest city in Shandong after . The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region fro ...

Jinan
, Tai'an, Yanzhou (the Jinghu high-speed railway will through
Qufu Qufu ( ; ) is a city in southwestern Shandong province, East China. It is located about south of the provincial capital Jinan and northeast of the prefectural seat at Jining. Qufu has an area of 815 square kilometers, and a total population of 65 ...
) and Zaozhuang. The Jiaoji Railway is an important railway of Shandong, linking its two largest cities of
Qingdao Qingdao (, also spelled Tsingtao; , Mandarin: ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative divi ...

Qingdao
and
Jinan Jinan (), as Tsinan, is the of province in . With a population of 9.2 million (including Laiwu), it is the second-largest city in Shandong after . The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region fro ...

Jinan
, with the longest history of all. Shandong has one of the densest and highest quality expressways of China, expressway networks among all Chinese provinces. At over , the total length of Shandong's expressways is the highest among the provinces. These Expressways of China, National Trunk Highway System (NTHS) expressways pass through or begin in Shandong. Expressways that begin in Shandong are in bold: * G2 Jinghu Expressway (Beijing–Shanghai) * G3 Jingtai Expressway (Beijing–Taipei, Taiwan) * G15 Shenhai Expressway (Shenyang,
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivisi ...
–Haikou, Hainan) * G18 G18 Rongcheng–Wuhai Expressway, Rongwu Expressway (Rongcheng, Shandong, Rongcheng–Wuhai, Inner Mongolia) * G20 G20 Qingdao–Yinchuan Expressway, Qingyin Expressway (
Qingdao Qingdao (, also spelled Tsingtao; , Mandarin: ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative divi ...

Qingdao
–Yinchuan, Ningxia) * G22 G22 Qingdao–Lanzhou Expressway, Qinglan Expressway (Qingdao–Lanzhou, Gansu) * G25 G25 Changchun–Shenzhen Expressway, Changshen Expressway (Changchun, Jilin–Shenzhen, Guangdong) There are also many shorter regional expressways within Shandong. The
Shandong Peninsula The Shandong Peninsula or Jiaodong Peninsula is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The su ...
, with its bays and harbours, has many important ports, including
Qingdao Qingdao (, also spelled Tsingtao; , Mandarin: ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative divi ...

Qingdao
, Yantai,
Weihai Weihai (), formerly called Weihaiwei (), is a and major seaport in easternmost province. It borders to the west and the to the east, and is the closest Chinese city to . Weihai's population was 2,804,771 as of the 2010 census. Amongst them, ...

Weihai
, Rizhao, Dongying and Longkou. Many of these ports have historical significance and the sites of former foreign naval bases or historical battles. Ferries link the cities on the north coast of the peninsula with the Liaodong Peninsula, further north across the sea. Important airports include Jinan Yaoqiang Airport and Qingdao Jiaodong International Airport. Other airports are Dongying Shengli Airport, Jining Qufu Airport, Linyi Shubuling Airport, Weifang Airport, Weihai Dashuibo Airport and Yantai Laishan International Airport. As of the end of 2018, Qingdao Metro, Qingdao is the only city in Shandong with a metro system, with four lines in operation. Jinan Metro, Jinan will be operating its metro system in early 2019.


Tourism

Tourist attractions in Shandong include: *
Jinan Jinan (), as Tsinan, is the of province in . With a population of 9.2 million (including Laiwu), it is the second-largest city in Shandong after . The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region fro ...

Jinan
, the capital city of Shandong since
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
, renowned for its List of sites in Jinan#Springs, 72 Famous Springs. **Baotu Spring, a culturally significant artesian karst spring, declared as "Number One Spring under the Heaven" () by the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty. **Daming Lake, the largest lake in Jinan, whose water is from the area's springs. Marco Polo described its beauty in his works. **Thousand Buddha Mountain, renowned for its numerous Buddha images which have been carved out of the hill's rock faces or free-standing structures erect since the times of the
Sui dynasty The Sui dynasty (, ) was a short-lived Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese, Han in the entirety of ...

Sui dynasty
and its Xingguochan Temple. **Lingyan Temple (Jinan), Lingyan Temple, one of the four most famous temples () in
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
, in which there is 11th century Pizhi Pagoda and the Thousand Buddha Hall which houses a
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
bronze Buddha statue as well as 40 painted clay statues of life-size Arhat, luohan from the
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
. **remnant of Great Wall of Qi, the oldest existing Great Wall in China, which is built in 685 BCE and stretches from
Jinan Jinan (), as Tsinan, is the of province in . With a population of 9.2 million (including Laiwu), it is the second-largest city in Shandong after . The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region fro ...

Jinan
to
Qingdao Qingdao (, also spelled Tsingtao; , Mandarin: ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative divi ...

Qingdao
. * Penglai City, Penglai, a town on the north of the Shandong peninsula famed in
Taoism Taoism (), or Daoism (), is a philosophical and spiritual tradition of China, Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the ''Tao'' (, Taoism#Spelling and pronunciation, or ''Dao''). In Taoism, the ''Tao'' is the source, pattern a ...
. *
Qingdao Qingdao (, also spelled Tsingtao; , Mandarin: ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative divi ...

Qingdao
(a former German port city), is a beach resort city on the south of the peninsula that has Germany, German-era heritage architecture and is also famous for its Tsingtao beer. ** Ba Da Guan, made up of eight streets named after the eight great military forts of ancient times. ** Zhan Qiao, a long strip pier stretches into the sea and was the first wharf at Qingdao. ** Laoshan, a scenic area and Daoist center to the east of Qingdao. *
Qingzhou Qingzhou () Wade–Giles: Tsing-chou, sometimes written as Ching-chow-fu, formerly Yidu County (Yitu) (), is a county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city ...
, an ancient trading and administrative center with some famous archaeological discoveries. *
Weihai Weihai (), formerly called Weihaiwei (), is a and major seaport in easternmost province. It borders to the west and the to the east, and is the closest Chinese city to . Weihai's population was 2,804,771 as of the 2010 census. Amongst them, ...

Weihai
, a former British port city important in the second Sino-Japanese War has United Kingdom, British-era heritage architecture. * World Heritage Sites: **Temple of Confucius, Qufu, Temple and Cemetery of Confucius, and the Kong Family Mansion in
Qufu Qufu ( ; ) is a city in southwestern Shandong province, East China. It is located about south of the provincial capital Jinan and northeast of the prefectural seat at Jining. Qufu has an area of 815 square kilometers, and a total population of 65 ...
** Mount Tai, Tai Shan, sacred mountain, in Tai'an *Weifang has numerous natural and historic sites, such as Shihu Garden (from the Late Ming and early Qing dynasty), Fangong Pavilion (from the Song dynasty), fossil sites (including dinosaur fossils, in Shanwang, Linqu), Mount Yi National Forest Park and Mount Qingyun. Yangjiabu has painted New Year woodcuts, which are also famous all around China.


Five-Year Clean Heating Plan

In 2017 Pollution in China, air pollution contributed to about 21% of deaths in China. In 2017, the Chinese government began a five-year plan to convert half of northern China to Sustainable energy, clean energy for winter heating. Haiyang, Haiyang city is expected to convert completely to nuclear power by 2021, reducing Greenhouse gas emissions by China, fossil fuel emissions by more than 60,000 tons annually.


Education


Colleges and universities

*Shandong University (Jinan) *Ocean University of China (Qingdao) *China University of Petroleum (Huadong), China University of Petroleum (Dongying and Qingdao) *University of Jinan (Jinan) *Shandong Normal University *Shandong Agricultural University (Tai'an) *Shandong University of Finance and Economics (Jinan) *Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Jinan) *Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) *China Agricultural University (Yantai) *Harbin University of Science and Technology (Weihai) *Yantai University (Yantai) *Qufu Normal University (Qufu) *Qingdao University (Qingdao) *Shandong University of Science and Technology (Qingdao) *Shandong University of Technology (Zibo) *Liaocheng University (Liaocheng) *Linyi University (Linyi) *Qingdao Agricultural University (Qingdao) *Binzhou Medical College (Binzhou) *Jining Medical University (Jining) *Weifang Medical University (Weifang) *Weifang University (Weifang) *Shandong Institute of Business and Technology (Yantai) *Shandong Women's University (Jinan) *Qingdao Technical College (Qingdao) *Rizhao Polytechnic (Rizhao) *Zibo Vocational Institute (Zibo) *Qingdao Binhai University (Qingdao) *Shandong Foreign Languages Vocational College (Rizhao)


Senior high schools


Shandong Experimental High School
()
Jinan Foreign Language School
()
Senior High School Attached to Shandong Normal University
()
Zibo Experimental High School
()
ShengLi NO.1 Senior High school of Dongying
()
Shandong Tai'an No.1 Senior High School
()
Weifang NO.1 Middle School
()
Zouping NO.1 High School
()
Laiwu NO.1 Middle School
()
Linyi No.1 Middle School
()


Sports


Events held in Shandong

* 2009 National Games of China * Table Tennis World Cup, 2002 Table Tennis World Cup * 2004 AFC Asian Cup * 2007 A3 Champions Cup * Sailing at the 2008 Summer Olympics and Sailing at the 2008 Summer Paralympics, Paralympics * 2011 Sudirman Cup * 2012 Badminton Asia Championships * 2012 Asian Beach Games


Professional sports teams based in Shandong

* Chinese Basketball Association ** Shandong Hi-Speed Kirin **Qingdao Eagles * Chinese Super League ** Shandong Taishan F.C., Shandong Taishan * China League One ** Qingdao Zhongneng ** Qingdao Huanghai F.C., Qingdao Huanghai


Former professional sports teams based in Shandong

* Qingdao Haisha * Qingdao Sunrise * Qingdao Hailifeng F.C., Qingdao Hailifeng * Zhejiang Yiteng F.C., Yantai Yiteng F.C. * Shenyang Dongjin F.C., Jining Dranix * Shandong Tengding F.C., Shandong Tengding


See also

*Major national historical and cultural sites (Shandong), Major national historical and cultural sites in Shandong *Shandong people *Shantungosaurus *Shantung Problem *East Asian snowstorms of 2009–2010 *East Asian snowstorms of late 2009


Notes


References


Citations


Sources


China's agricultural export powerhouse faces grim year - Business - Chinadaily.com.cn
at Hong Kong Trade Development Council, HKTDC


External links

* *
Shandong Government website
*
Complete Map of the Seven Coastal Provinces
from 1821-1850
Shandong Article
Encyclopædia Britannica {{Portal bar, China Shandong, Provinces of the People's Republic of China East China