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Sewall Green Wright FRS(For) Honorary
FRSE Fellowship of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (FRSE) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Scotland's national academy of science and Literature, letters, judged to be "eminently distinguished in their subject". ...
(December 21, 1889March 3, 1988) was an American
geneticist A geneticist is a biologist who studies genetics, the science of genes, heredity, and genetic variation, variation of organisms. A geneticist can be employed as a scientist or a lecturer. Geneticists may perform general research on genetic proce ...
known for his influential work on
evolutionary theory Evolution is change in the Heredity, heritable Phenotypic trait, characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. These characteristics are the Gene expression, expressions of genes that are passed on from parent to offs ...
and also for his work on path analysis. He was a founder of
population genetics Population genetics is a subfield of that deals with genetic differences within and between s, and is a part of . Studies in this branch of examine such phenomena as , , and . Population genetics was a vital ingredient in the of the . Its pri ...
alongside
Ronald Fisher Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962) was a British polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a subs ...
and
J. B. S. Haldane
J. B. S. Haldane
, which was a major step in the development of the
modern synthesis Modern synthesis or modern evolutionary synthesis refers to several perspectives on evolutionary biology, namely: * Modern synthesis (20th century), the term coined by Julian Huxley in 1942 to denote the synthesis between Mendelian genetics and s ...
combining
genetics Genetics is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, ...

genetics
with
evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, ...

evolution
. He discovered the
inbreeding coefficient Inbreeding is the production of offspring In biology, offspring are the young born of living organism, organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms. Collective offspring may be known as ...
and methods of computing it in pedigree animals. He extended this work to
population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governments typically quantify the size of the resident population within their jurisdiction by a process called a ...

population
s, computing the amount of
inbreeding Inbreeding is the production of offspring In biology, offspring are the young creation of living organisms, produced either by a Asexual reproduction, single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms. Collective offspri ...
between members of populations as a result of random
genetic drift Genetic drift (allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical stru ...

genetic drift
, and along with Fisher he pioneered methods for computing the distribution of
gene frequencies Allele frequency, or gene frequency, is the relative frequency of an allele An allele (, ; ; modern formation from Greek ἄλλος ''állos'', "other") is one of two, or more, forms of a given gene In biology, a gene (from ''genos'' "...W ...
among populations as a result of the interaction of
natural selection Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype right , Here the relation between genotype and phenotype is illustrated, using a Punnett square, for the character of peta ...
,
mutation In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechan ...
, migration and genetic drift. Wright also made major contributions to
mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be i ...
ian and biochemical genetics.


Biography

Sewall Wright was born in
Melrose, Massachusetts Melrose is a city located in the Greater Boston Greater Boston is the metropolitan region of New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode ...
to
Philip Green Wright Philip Green Wright (October 3, 1861 – September 4, 1934) was an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories an ...
and Elizabeth Quincy Sewall Wright. His parents were first cousins, an interesting fact in light of Wright's later research on
inbreeding Inbreeding is the production of offspring In biology, offspring are the young creation of living organisms, produced either by a Asexual reproduction, single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms. Collective offspri ...
. The family moved three years later after Philip accepted a teaching job at
Lombard College Lombard College was a Universalist Church, Universalist college located in Galesburg, Illinois. History Lombard College was founded in 1853 by the Universalist Church as the Illinois Liberal Institute. In 1855, however, a major fire damaged much ...
, a Universalist college in Galesburg, Illinois. As a child, Wright helped his father and brother print and publish an early book of poems by his father's student
Carl Sandburg Carl August Sandburg (January 6, 1878 – July 22, 1967) was an American poet, biographer, journalist, and editor. He won three Pulitzer Prizes: two for his poetry and one for his biography of Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln (; Febr ...

Carl Sandburg
. At the age of seven, in 1897, he wrote his first "book", entitled ''Wonders of Nature'', and he published his last paper in 1988: he can be claimed, therefore, to be the scientist with the longest career of science writing. Wright's astonishing maturity at the age of seven may be judged from the following excerpt quoted in the obituary:
Have you ever examined the gizzard of a fowl? The gizzard of a fowl is a deep red colar with blu at the top. First on the outside is a very thick muscle. Under this is a white and fleecy layer. Holding very tight to the other. I expect you know that chickens eat sand. The next two layers are rough and rumply. These layers hold the sand. They grind the food. One night when we had company we had chicken-pie. Our Aunt Polly cut open the gizzard, and in it we found a lot of grain, and some corn.
He was the oldest of three gifted brothers—the others being the
aeronautical engineer Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft. It has two major and overlapping branches: Aeronautics, aeronautical engineering and Astronautics, astronautical engineering. A ...
Theodore Paul Wright Theodore Paul Wright (May 25, 1895 – August 21, 1970), also known as T. P. Wright, was a United States of America, U.S. aeronautical engineer and educator. Biography He was born in Galesburg, Illinois on May 25, 1895. His father was the econ ...
and the
political scientist Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power r ...
Quincy Wright Philip Quincy Wright (December 28, 1890 – October 17, 1970) was an American political scientist Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making deci ...
. From an early age Wright had a love and talent for
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
and
biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ...

biology
. Wright attended
Galesburg High School Galesburg High School is a public high school in Galesburg, Illinois. Galesburg High School was established in 1861 in downtown Galesburg. It has since moved to Fremont Street on the west side of town. The school is located on of land with a full ...
and graduated in 1906. He then enrolled in
Lombard College Lombard College was a Universalist Church, Universalist college located in Galesburg, Illinois. History Lombard College was founded in 1853 by the Universalist Church as the Illinois Liberal Institute. In 1855, however, a major fire damaged much ...
where his father taught, to study
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
. He was influenced greatly by Professor Wilhelmine Entemann Key, one of the first women to receive a
Ph.D. A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; or ''doctor philosophiae'') is the most common at the highest academic level awarded following a course of study. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. Be ...

Ph.D.
in
biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ...

biology
. Wright received his Ph.D. from
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
, where he worked at the
Bussey Institute The Bussey Institute (1883-1936) was a respected biological institute at Harvard University. It was named for Benjamin Bussey, who, in 1835, endowed the establishment of an undergraduate school of agriculture and horticulture and donated land in Ja ...
with the pioneering mammalian geneticist
William Ernest Castle William Ernest Castle (October 25, 1867 – June 3, 1962) was an early American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of ...
investigating the inheritance of coat colors in
mammals Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...
. He worked for the
U.S. Department of Agriculture The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, rural economic development, ...
until 1925, when he joined the Department of Zoology at the
University of Chicago The University of Chicago (UChicago) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an abse ...
. He remained there until his retirement in 1955, when he moved to the
University of Wisconsin–Madison The University of Wisconsin–Madison (University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of i ...
. He received many honors in his long career, including the
National Medal of Science The National Medal of Science is an honor bestowed by the President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the Fed ...

National Medal of Science
(1966), the
Balzan Prize The International Balzan Prize Foundation awards four annual monetary prizes to people or organizations who have made outstanding achievements in the fields of humanities, natural sciences, culture, as well as for endeavours for peace and the b ...
(1984), and the
Darwin Medal The Darwin Medal is awarded by the Royal Society every alternate year for "work of acknowledged distinction in the broad area of biology in which Charles Darwin worked, notably in evolution, population biology, organismal biology and biologica ...
of the
Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exis ...
(1980). He was a member of the
National Academy of Sciences The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a ...
and a
Foreign Member of the Royal Society Foreign may refer to: Government * Foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its websit ...
. The
American Mathematical Society The American Mathematical Society (AMS) is an association of professional mathematicians dedicated to the interests of mathematics, mathematical research and scholarship, and serves the national and international community through its publicatio ...
selected him as the Josiah Willards Gibbs lecturer for 1941. For his work on genetics of evolutionary processes, Wright was awarded the
Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal The Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal is awarded by the U.S. United States National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Sciences "for meritorious work in zoology or paleontology study published in a three- to five-year period." Named after Daniel Gir ...
from the National Academy of Sciences in 1945. He died in
Madison, Wisconsin Madison is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercas ...
on March 3, 1988.


Family

Wright married Louise Lane Williams (1895–1975) in 1921. They had three children: Richard, Robert, and Elizabeth. Sewall Wright worshipped as a
Unitarian Unitarian or Unitarianism may refer to: Christian and Christian-derived theologies A Unitarian is a follower of, or a member of an organisation that follows, any of several theologies referred to as Unitarianism: * Unitarianism (1565–present), ...
.


Scientific achievements and credits


Population genetics

His papers on
inbreeding Inbreeding is the production of offspring In biology, offspring are the young creation of living organisms, produced either by a Asexual reproduction, single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms. Collective offspri ...
,
mating system A mating system is a way in which a group is structured in relation to sexual behaviour. The precise meaning depends upon the context. With respect to animals Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular Multicellular organisms are or ...
s, and
genetic drift Genetic drift (allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical stru ...

genetic drift
make him a principal founder of theoretical population genetics, along with
R. A. Fisher Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962) was a British statistician A statistician is a person who works with theoretical or applied statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organiz ...
and . Their theoretical work is the origin of the modern evolutionary synthesis or neodarwinian synthesis. Wright was the inventor/discoverer of the
inbreeding coefficient Inbreeding is the production of offspring In biology, offspring are the young born of living organism, organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms. Collective offspring may be known as ...
and
F-statistics In population genetics, ''F''-statistics (also known as fixation indices) describe the statistically expected level of Zygosity, heterozygosity in a population; more specifically the expected degree of (usually) a reduction in heterozygosity when ...

F-statistics
, standard tools in population genetics. He was the chief developer of the mathematical theory of
genetic drift Genetic drift (allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical stru ...

genetic drift
, which is sometimes known as the Sewall Wright effect, cumulative stochastic changes in
gene frequencies Allele frequency, or gene frequency, is the relative frequency of an allele An allele (, ; ; modern formation from Greek ἄλλος ''állos'', "other") is one of two, or more, forms of a given gene In biology, a gene (from ''genos'' "...W ...
that arise from random births, deaths, and Mendelian segregations in reproduction. In this work he also introduced the concept of
effective population size The effective population size (''N'e'') is the number of individuals that an idealised population would need to have in order for some specified quantity of interest to be the same in the idealised population as in the real population. Idealised ...
. Wright was convinced that the interaction of
genetic drift Genetic drift (allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical stru ...

genetic drift
and the other evolutionary forces was important in the process of adaptation. He described the relationship between genotype or phenotype and fitness as fitness surfaces or
evolutionary landscape An evolutionary landscape is a metaphorWright, Sewall (1932) The Roles of Mutation, Inbreeding, Crossbreeding, and Selection in Evolution. ''Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Genetics'' 1: 356–366 or a construct used to think abo ...
s. On these landscapes mean population fitness was the height, plotted against horizontal axes representing the
allele frequencies Allele frequency, or gene frequency, is the relative frequency of an allele An allele (, ; ; modern formation from Greek ἄλλος ''állos'', "other") is one of two, or more, forms of a given gene In biology, a gene (from ''genos'' "... ...
or the average phenotypes of the population.
Natural selection Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype right , Here the relation between genotype and phenotype is illustrated, using a Punnett square, for the character of peta ...
would lead to a population climbing the nearest peak, while
genetic drift Genetic drift (allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical stru ...

genetic drift
would cause random wandering. He did not accept Fisher's genetic theory of dominance, but instead considered it to arise from biochemical considerations. Although set aside for many years, his interpretation is at the basis of modern ideas of dominance.


Evolutionary theory

Wright's explanation for
stasis Stasis (from Greek στάσις "a standing still") may refer to: * A state in stability theory In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, s ...

stasis
was that organisms come to occupy
adaptive peak In evolutionary biology, fitness landscapes or adaptive landscapes (types of evolutionary landscapes) are used to visualize the relationship between genotypes and reproductive success. It is assumed that every genotype has a well-defined replicat ...
s. In order to evolve to another, higher peak, the species would first have to pass through a valley of maladaptive intermediate stages. This could happen by
genetic drift Genetic drift (allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical stru ...

genetic drift
if the population is small enough. If a species was divided into small populations, some could find higher peaks. If there was some
gene flow In population genetics Population genetics is a subfield of that deals with genetic differences within and between s, and is a part of . Studies in this branch of examine such phenomena as , , and . Population genetics was a vital ingredient ...

gene flow
between the populations, these adaptations could spread to the rest of the species. This was Wright's
shifting balance theory The shifting balance theory is a theory of evolution proposed in 1932 by Sewall Wright, suggesting that adaptive evolution may proceed most quickly when a population divides into subpopulations with restricted gene flow. The name of the theory i ...
of evolution. There has been much skepticism among evolutionary biologists as to whether these rather delicate conditions hold often in natural populations. Wright had a long-standing and bitter debate about this with
R. A. Fisher Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962) was a British statistician A statistician is a person who works with theoretical or applied statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organiz ...
, who felt that most populations in nature were too large for these effects of genetic drift to be important.


Path analysis

Wright's statistical method of path analysis, which he invented in 1921 and which was one of the first methods using a
graphical model A graphical model or probabilistic graphical model (PGM) or structured probabilistic model is a probabilistic model for which a Graph (discrete mathematics), graph expresses the conditional dependence structure between random variables. They are ...
, is still widely used in social science. He was a hugely influential reviewer of manuscripts, as one of the most frequent reviewers for Genetics. Such was his reputation that he was often credited with reviews that he did not write.


Plant and animal breeding

Wright strongly influenced
Jay Lush Jay Laurence Lush (January 3, 1896 – May 22, 1982) was a pioneering animal geneticist who made important contributions to livestock breeding. He is sometimes known as the father of modern scientific animal breeding. Lush received National Medal ...
, who was the most influential figure in introducing
quantitative genetics Quantitative genetics deals with phenotypes that vary continuously (in characters such as height or mass)—as opposed to discretely identifiable phenotypes and gene-products (such as eye-colour, or the presence of a particular biochemical). Bo ...
into
animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...
and
plant breeding Plant breeding is the science of changing the traits of plants Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy ...
. From 1915 to 1925 Wright was employed by the Animal Husbandry Division of the U.S. Bureau of Animal Husbandry. His main project was to investigate the inbreeding that had occurred in the artificial selection that resulted in the leading breeds of livestock used in American beef production. He also performed experiments with 80,000 guinea pigs in the study of physiological genetics. Further more he analyzed characters of some 40,000 guinea pigs in 23 strains of brother-sister matings against a random-bred stock. (Wright 1922a-c). The concentrated study of these two groups of mammals eventually led to the Shifting Balance Theory and the concept of "surfaces of selective value" in 1932. He did major work on the genetics of
guinea pigs The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig (''Cavia porcellus''), also known as the cavy or domestic cavy (), is a species of rodent Rodents (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic br ...

guinea pigs
,and many of his students became influential in the development of mammalian genetics. He appreciated as early as 1917 that genes acted by controlling
enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrate (chemistry), substrates, and the enzyme converts the substrates in ...

enzyme
s. An anecdote about Wright, disclaimed by Wright himself, describes a lecture during which Wright tucked an unruly guinea pig under his armpit, where he usually held a chalkboard eraser: according to the anecdote, at the conclusion of the lecture, Wright absent-mindedly began to erase the blackboard using the guinea pig.


Statistics

The creation of the
statistical Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statist ...

statistical
coefficient of determination In statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In ...

coefficient of determination
has been attributed to Sewall Wright and was first published in 1921. This metric is commonly employed to evaluate regression analyses in
computational statistics Computational statistics, or statistical computing, is the interface between statistics and computer science. It means statistical methods that are enabled by using computational methods. It is the area of computational science (or scientific com ...
and
machine learning Machine learning (ML) is the study of computer algorithms that can improve automatically through experience and by the use of data. It is seen as a part of artificial intelligence. Machine learning algorithms build a model based on sample data ...

machine learning
.


Wright and philosophy

Wright was one of the few geneticists of his time to venture into
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ...

philosophy
. He found a union of concept in
Charles Hartshorne Charles Hartshorne (; June 5, 1897 – October 9, 2000) was an American philosopher who concentrated primarily on the philosophy of religion and metaphysics, but also contributed to ornithology. He developed the neoclassical idea of God and ...
, who became a lifelong friend and philosophical collaborator. Wright endorsed a form of
panpsychism In philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relationship with the body. The mind–body problem is a paradigmatic issue in philosophy of mind, although a number o ...
. He believed that the birth of the consciousness was not due to a mysterious property of increasing complexity, but rather an inherent property, therefore implying these properties were in the most elementary particles.


Legacy

Wright and Fisher, along with J.B.S. Haldane, were the key figures in the
modern synthesis Modern synthesis or modern evolutionary synthesis refers to several perspectives on evolutionary biology, namely: * Modern synthesis (20th century), the term coined by Julian Huxley in 1942 to denote the synthesis between Mendelian genetics and s ...
that brought genetics and evolution together. Their work was essential to the contributions of
Dobzhansky Theodosius Grygorovych Dobzhansky ( uk, Теодо́сій Григо́рович Добжа́нський; russian: Феодо́сий Григо́рьевич Добржа́нский; January 25, 1900 – December 18, 1975) was a prominent Ukr ...
,
Mayr Mayr is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Andrea Mayr (born 1979), Austrian female long-distance runner * Ernst Mayr (1904–2005), German American evolutionary biologist * Georg Mayr (1564–1623), Bavarian Jesuit pries ...
,
Simpson Simpson most often refers to: * Simpson (name), a British surname *''The Simpsons'', an animated American sitcom **The Simpson family, central characters of the series ''The Simpsons'' Simpson may also refer to: Organizations Schools *Simpso ...

Simpson
,
Julian Huxley Sir Julian Sorell Huxley (22 June 1887 – 14 February 1975) was an English evolutionary biologist Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes ( natural selection, common descent, speciation) t ...
, and Stebbins. The modern synthesis was the most important development in evolutionary biology after
Darwin Darwin most often refers to: * Charles Darwin (1809–1882), English naturalist and writer, best known as the originator of the theory of biological evolution by natural selection * Darwin, Northern Territory, a capital city in Australia * Darwin ( ...

Darwin
. Wright also had a major effect on the development of mammalian genetics and biochemical genetics. "The Book of Why" by
Judea Pearl Judea Pearl (born September 4, 1936) is an Israeli-American computer scientist A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, ...

Judea Pearl
and Mackenzie (2018) describes the contribution of Wright's work on path analysis and delays in its acceptance by several technical disciplines (specifically statistics and formal causal analysis).
OpenMx OpenMx is an open source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source mode ...
has as its icon a representation of Wright's Piebald
Guinea Pig The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig (''Cavia porcellus''), also known as the cavy or domestic cavy (), is a species of rodent Rodents (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the I ...

Guinea Pig
.


Bibliography

* ** vol. 1, Genetic & Biometric Foundations. ** vol. 2, Theory of Gene Frequencies. ** vol. 3, Experimental Results and Evolutionary Deductions. ** vol. 4, Variability within and Among Natural Populations.


References


Further reading

* Ghiselin, Michael T. (1997
''Metaphysics and the Origin of Species''
NY: SUNY Press. * * * Wright 1934
"The Method of Path Coefficients"
''Annals of Mathematical Statistics'', 5: 161-215 * * Wright 1983
"Path Analysis in Genetic Epidemiology: A Critique"


External links



by Edric Lescouflair and James F. Crow
Sewall Wright Papers
at the
American Philosophical Society The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 in Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community ...
* {{DEFAULTSORT:Wright, Sewall Green 1889 births 1988 deaths American biologists American statisticians American Unitarians Evolutionary biologists Fellows of the Econometric Society Foreign Members of the Royal Society Bussey Institution alumni History of genetics Lombard College alumni Members of the United States National Academy of Sciences Modern synthesis (20th century) National Medal of Science laureates Panpsychism Population geneticists 20th-century biologists