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Serbs ( sr-Cyr, Срби, Srbi, ) are a South Slavic
ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, ancest ...
and
nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from the term " unit of observation ...

nation
, native to the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather ...

Balkans
in
Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the ...

Southeastern Europe
. The majority of Serbs live in their
nation state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newsp ...
of
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refe ...

Serbia
, as well as in
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
,
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
,
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Црна Гора, Crna Gora, lit. "Black Mountain", ) is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is o ...

Montenegro
, and
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a international recognition of Kosovo, partially recognised state in Southeast Europe. It lies at the centre of the Balkans, occupying an area of , with ...

Kosovo
. They also form significant minorities in
North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe ...
and
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
. There is a large
Serb diaspora Serb diaspora ( sr, Српска дијаспора/Srpska dijaspora) refers to the diaspora communities of ethnic Serbs The Serbs ( sr, Срби, Srbi, ) are a South Slavs, South Slavic ethnic group and nation, native to the Balkans in Sout ...

Serb diaspora
in
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on context. Beginning with foreign exploration during the Age of Discovery, roughly from the 15th century, the concept of ''Europe'' as "the W ...

Western Europe
, and outside
Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both and , and is bordered by the to the ...

Europe
and there are significant communities in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
and
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
. The Serbs share many cultural traits with the rest of the peoples of
Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteri ...

Southeast Europe
. They are predominantly
Eastern Orthodox Christians The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a Communion ( ...
by religion. The Serbian language is official in Serbia, co-official in Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is spoken by the plurality in Montenegro.


Ethnology

The identity of Serbs is rooted in
Eastern Orthodoxy The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a Communion ( ...
and traditions. In the 19th century, the
Serbian national identity Serbia is the nation state of the Serbs, who are Serbia's dominant ethnic group. Serbs are also dominant in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the 19th century, the Serbian national identity was manifested, with awareness of h ...
was manifested, with awareness of history and tradition, medieval heritage, cultural unity, despite living under different empires. Three elements, together with the legacy of the
Nemanjić dynasty The Nemanjić ( sr-Cyrl, Немањић, Nemanjići / Немањићи, ) was the most prominent dynasty of Serbia in the Middle Ages , medieval capital of Serbia (12th-13th century) Serbia in the Middle Ages refers to the medieval period in ...
, were crucial in forging identity and preservation during foreign domination: the
Serbian Orthodox Church The Serbian Orthodox Church ( sr-cyr, Српска православна црква, Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous Autocephaly (; from el, αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the sta ...
, the
Serbian language Serbian (, ) is the standard language, standardized Variety (linguistics)#Standard varieties, variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs. It is the official and national language of Serbia, one of the three official languages of ...
, and the
Kosovo Myth The Kosovo Myth ( sr, Косовски мит / ''Kosovski mit''), also known as the Kosovo Cult and the Kosovo Legend, is a Serbian nation-building myth based on legends about events related to the Battle of Kosovo A battle is an occurrence ...
. When the
Principality of Serbia The Principality of Serbia ( sr, Кнежевина Србија, Kneževina Srbija) was a semi-independent state in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe i ...
gained independence from the Ottoman Empire, Orthodoxy became crucial in defining the national identity, instead of language which was shared by other South Slavs (
Croats Croats (; hr, Hrvati, ), also known as Croatians, are a nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared territory. A nation is more over ...

Croats
and
Bosniaks The Bosniaks or Bosniacs ( bs, Bošnjaci, ; , ) are a and native to the an of , which is today part of . A native minority of Bosniaks live in other countries in the ; especially in the region of and (where Bosniaks form a regional ...
). The tradition of ''
slava The Slava ( sr-Cyrl, слава, lit=celebration, ) is a Serbian Orthodox Christian tradition of the ritual glorification of one's family's patron saint A branch of Saint_Honorius_(Honoré)_is_the_patron_saint_of_bakers_and_confectioners..html" ...

slava
'', the family saint feast day, is an important ethnic marker of Serb identity, and is usually regarded their most significant and most solemn
feast day The calendar of saints is the traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, ho ...
. The origin of the
ethnonym An ethnonym (from the el, ἔθνος 'nation' and 'name') is a name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given ...
is unclear (See: ''
Names of the Serbs and Serbia A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given context. The entity identified by a name is called its referent A referent ( ...
'').


Genetic origins

According to a triple analysis –
autosomal An autosome is any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome (an allosome). The members of an autosome pair in a diploid Ploidy () is the number of complete sets of chromosome A chromosome is a long DNA molecule with part or all of the ...
,
mitochondrial A mitochondrion (, plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit, usually within a cell (biology), cell, that has a specific function. The name ''organelle'' comes from the ide ...

mitochondrial
and
paternal A father is the male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot sexual reproduction, reproduce sexu ...
— of available data from large-scale studies on -Slavs and their proximal populations, the whole genome SNP data situates Serbs with Montenegrins in between two Balkan clusters. Y-DNA results show that haplogroups I2a and
R1a Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup which is distributed in a large region in Eurasia, extending from Scandinavia and Central Europe to southern Siberia and South Asia. While R1a originated ca. 22,000 to ...
together stand for the majority of the makeup, with more than 53 percent. The aforementioned Serbian Y-chromosomes belong to lineages believed to be pre-
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first seen about 12,000 years ago when the first developments of ...
. Such significant levels are possibly the result of Neolithic migrations encroaching on Paleolithic populations against the Adriatic Sea. According to several recent studies Serbia's people are among the tallest in the world, after Montenegro and the Netherlands, with an average male height of .


History


Arrival of the Slavs

Early Slavs The early Slavs were a diverse group of tribal societies The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized ...
, especially
Sclaveni The ' (in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repub ...
and
Antae The Antes, or Antae ( gr, Áνται), were an early East Slavs, early East Slavic tribe, tribal polity of the 6th century CE. They lived on the lower Danube River, in the northwestern Black Sea region (present-day Moldova and central Ukraine), ...
, including the
White Serbs White Serbia ( sr, / ; Sorbian: ''Biеło Srbsko''), called also Boiki ( grc, Βοΐκι, Boiki; sr, / ; Sorbian: ''Boika''), is the name applied to the assumed homeland of the ( sr, / ), a tribal subgroup of Wends, a mixed and the wester ...
, invaded and settled
Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the ...

Southeastern Europe
in the 7th century. Up until the late 560s their activity was raiding, crossing from the Danube, though with limited Slavic settlement mainly through Byzantine ''
foederati ''Foederati'' (, singular: ''foederatus'' ) were peoples and cities bound by a treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and internationa ...
'' colonies. The
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the in Europe, after the in . It flows through much of and , from the into the . Its longest headstream rises in , while the river carries its name from its source confluence in onwards. The Danube was once a long-s ...

Danube
and
Sava The Sava (; , ; sr-cyr, Сава, Hungarian: Száva) is a river in Central Europe, Central and Southeast Europe, a right tributary of the Danube. It flows through Slovenia, Croatia and along its border with Bosnia and Herzegovina, and finally t ...

Sava
frontier was overwhelmed by large-scale Slavic settlement in the late 6th and early 7th century. What is today
central Serbia Central Serbia ( sr, централна Србија, centralna Srbija), also referred to as Serbia proper ( sr, link=no, ужа Србија, uža Srbija), is the region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "e ...
was an important geo-strategical province, through which the ''
Via Militaris Via Militaris or Via Diagonalis was an ancient Roman road, starting from Singidunum (today the Serbian capital Belgrade), passing by Danube coast to Viminacium (mod. Požarevac), through Naissus (mod. Niš), Serdica (mod. Sofia), Philippopolis (Thr ...
'' crossed. This area was frequently intruded by
barbarians A barbarian is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, language and tools. They ...
in the 5th and 6th centuries. The numerous Slavs mixed with and assimilated the descendants of the indigenous population (Illyrians, Thracians, Dacians, Romans, Celts). White Serbs from
White Serbia White Serbia ( sr, / ; Sorbian: ''Biеło Srbsko''), called also Boiki ( grc, Βοΐκι, Boiki; sr, / ; Sorbian: ''Boika''), is the name applied to the assumed homeland of the ( sr, / ), a tribal subgroup of Wends 230px, The '' Limes ...
came to an area near Thessaloniki and then they settled area between Dinaric Alps and Adriatic coast. The region of "Rascia" ( Raška) was the center of Serb settlement and Serb tribes also occupied parts of modern-day
Herzegovina /) , timezone1 = Central European Time, CET , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central European Summer Time, CEST , utc_offset1_DST = +2 Herzegovina ( or ; Serbo-Cr ...
and
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Црна Гора, Crna Gora, lit. "Black Mountain", ) is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is o ...

Montenegro
. Prior to their arrival to the Balkans, Serbs were farmers, which is why they settled in areas which were cultivated even during Roman times.


Middle Ages

The first Serb states, Raška and
Duklja Duklja ( sr-cyrl, Дукља; el, Διόκλεια, ''Diokleia''; la, Dioclea) was a medieval South Slavic state which roughly encompassed the territories of modern-day southeastern , from the in the west to the in the east, and to the sour ...
(825-1120), were formed chiefly under the Vlastimorović and Vojislavjević dynasties respectively. With the decline of the Serbian state of Duklja in the late 11th century, Raška separated from it and replaced it as the most powerful Serbian state. Prince
Stefan Nemanja Stefan Nemanja (Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Serbian Cyrillic: , ; – 13 February 1199) was the Grand Prince (Grand Župan#Serbia, Veliki Župan) of the Grand Principality of Serbia, Serbian Grand Principality (also known as Raška (region), Rašk ...

Stefan Nemanja
(r. 1169–96) conquered the neighbouring territories of
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a international recognition of Kosovo, partially recognised state in Southeast Europe. It lies at the centre of the Balkans, occupying an area of , with ...

Kosovo
,
Duklja Duklja ( sr-cyrl, Дукља; el, Διόκλεια, ''Diokleia''; la, Dioclea) was a medieval South Slavic state which roughly encompassed the territories of modern-day southeastern , from the in the west to the in the east, and to the sour ...
and
Zachlumia Zachlumia or Zachumlia ( sh, Zahumlje / Захумље; ), also Hum, was a medieval principality located in the modern-day regions of Herzegovina and southern Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see names in other langua ...
. The
Nemanjić dynasty The Nemanjić ( sr-Cyrl, Немањић, Nemanjići / Немањићи, ) was the most prominent dynasty of Serbia in the Middle Ages , medieval capital of Serbia (12th-13th century) Serbia in the Middle Ages refers to the medieval period in ...
ruled over Serbia until the 14th century. Nemanja's older son, Stefan Nemanjić, became Serbia's first recognized king, while his younger son, Rastko, founded the
Serbian Orthodox Church The Serbian Orthodox Church ( sr-cyr, Српска православна црква, Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous Autocephaly (; from el, αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the sta ...
in the year 1219, and became known as
Saint Sava In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, holiness, likeness, or closeness to God. However, the use of the term ''saint'' depends on the context and Christian denomination, denomination ...

Saint Sava
after his death. Parts of modern-day Montenegro,
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
, and central Serbia would come under the control of Nemanjić. Over the next 140 years, Serbia expanded its borders, from numerous smaller principalities, reaching to a unified
Serbian Empire The Serbian Empire ( sr, / , ) was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affa ...

Serbian Empire
. Its cultural model remained Byzantine, despite political ambitions directed against the empire. The medieval power and influence of Serbia culminated in the reign of
Stefan Dušan Stefan Uroš IV Dušan ( sr-Cyrl, Стефан Урош IV Душан, ), known as Dušan the Mighty ( sr, Душан Силни / Dušan Silni; circa 1308 – 20 December 1355), was the from 8 September 1331 and from 16 April 1346 until his de ...
, who ruled the state from 1331 until his death in 1355. Ruling as Emperor from 1346, his territory included
Macedonia Macedonia most commonly refers to: * North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe. It gained independence in ...
, northern Greece, Montenegro, and almost all of modern
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Medite ...

Albania
. When Dušan died, his son Stephen Uroš V became Emperor. With
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...
invaders beginning their conquest of the Balkans in the 1350s, a major conflict ensued between them and the Serbs, the first major battle was the
Battle of Maritsa The Battle of Maritsa or Battle of Chernomen ( sr, Marička bitka/ Маричка битка, tr, Çirmen Muharebesi, İkinci Meriç Muharebesi in tr. ''Second Battle of Maritsa'') took place at the Maritsa, Maritsa River near the village of Or ...
(1371), in which the Serbs were defeated. With the death of two important Serb leaders in the battle, and with the death of Stephen Uroš that same year, the
Serbian Empire The Serbian Empire ( sr, / , ) was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affa ...

Serbian Empire
broke up into several small Serbian domains. These states were ruled by feudal lords, with Zeta controlled by the Balšić family, Raška,
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a international recognition of Kosovo, partially recognised state in Southeast Europe. It lies at the centre of the Balkans, occupying an area of , with ...

Kosovo
and northern Macedonia held by the Branković family and Lazar Hrebeljanović holding today's
Central Serbia Central Serbia ( sr, централна Србија, centralna Srbija), also referred to as Serbia proper ( sr, link=no, ужа Србија, uža Srbija), is the region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "e ...
and a portion of Kosovo. Hrebeljanović was subsequently accepted as the titular leader of the Serbs because he was married to a member of the Nemanjić dynasty. In 1389, the Serbs faced the Ottomans at the
Battle of Kosovo A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. ...

Battle of Kosovo
on the plain of
Kosovo Polje Fushë Kosova ( sq-definite, Fushë Kosovë), or Kosovo Polje ( sr-Cyrl, Косово Поље, "Kosovo Field"), is a List of cities in Kosovo, town and Municipalities of Kosovo, municipality located in the District of Prishtina in central Kosovo. ...
, near the town of
Priština Pristina (, , , ; sq, or , sr, / ) is the capital of Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a international recognition of Kosovo, partially recognised state in Southeastern E ...

Priština
. Both Lazar and
Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phone ...

Sultan
Murad I Murad I ( ota, مراد اول; tr, I. Murad, Murad-ı Hüdavendigâr (nicknamed ''Hüdavendigâr'', from fa, خداوندگار, translit=Khodāvandgār, lit=the devotee of God – meaning "sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied ...

Murad I
were killed in the fighting. The battle most likely ended in a stalemate, and afterwards Serbia enjoyed a short period of prosperity under despot
Stefan Lazarević Stefan Lazarević ( sr-Cyrl, Стефан Лазаревић, 1377 – 19 July 1427), also known as Stefan the Tall ( sr, Стефан Високи / ''Stefan Visoki''), was the ruler of Serbia as prince (1389–1402) and despot (court title), d ...
and resisted falling to the Turks until 1459.


Early modern period

The Serbs had taken an active part in the wars fought in the Balkans against the Ottoman Empire, and also organized uprisings; because of this, they suffered persecution and their territories were devastated – major migrations from Serbia into Habsburg territory ensued. After allied Christian forces had captured Buda from the Ottoman Empire in 1686 during the
Great Turkish War The Great Turkish War (german: Großer Türkenkrieg) or the Wars of the Holy League ( tr, Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin L ...
, Serbs from
Pannonian Plain alt=The Roman empire in red with a land in darker red; water is in pale blue, and non-Roman land in grey, The highlighted borders of the province of Pannonia within the Roman Empire The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin s ...
(present-day
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
,
Slavonia Slavonia (; hr, Slavonija) is, with , , and , one of the four of . Taking up the east of the country, it roughly corresponds with five : , , , , and , although the territory of the counties includes , and the definition of the western exte ...

Slavonia
region in present-day
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
,
Bačka Bačka ( sr, Бачка / ''Bačka'', ; hu, Bácska, ) is a geographical and Historical regions of Central Europe, historical area within the Pannonian Plain bordered by the river Danube to the west and south, and by the river Tisza to the east ...

Bačka
and
Banat Banat (, ) is a geographical and historical region straddling between Central and Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Western Europe and Asia. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it ...

Banat
regions in present-day
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refe ...

Serbia
) joined the troops of the Habsburg Monarchy as separate units known as
Serbian Militia The Serbian Militia ( lat, Rascianica militia; sr, Српска Милиција or ) was a military unit of the Habsburg-Austrian army consisting of Serbs, that existed in ca. 1686–1704. During the Great Turkish War (1686–99) After allie ...
. Serbs, as volunteers, massively joined the Austrian side. Many Serbs were recruited during the
devshirme Devshirme ( ota, دوشيرمه, ''devşirme''; usually translated as "child levy" or "blood tax") was the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman practice of forcibly recruiting soldiers and bureaucrats from among the children of their Balkan Christian subject ...
system, a form of
slavery in the Ottoman Empire Slavery in the Ottoman Empire was a legal and significant part of the Ottoman Empire's economy and traditional society. The main sources of slaves were wars and politically organized enslavement expeditions in Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, t ...
, in which boys from Balkan Christian families were forcibly converted to
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
and trained for infantry units of the
Ottoman army The history of the military of the Ottoman Empire can be divided in five main periods. The foundation era covers the years between 1300 (Byzantine expedition) and 1453 (Conquest of Constantinople The fall of Constantinople ( grc-x-byzant, Ἅ ...
known as the
Janissaries A Janissary ( ota, يڭيچرى, yeŋiçeri, , ) was a member of the elite infantry Infantry is an army specialization whose military personnel, personnel engage in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and ar ...
. A number of Serbs who converted to Islam occupied high-ranking positions within the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
, such as
Grand Vizier Grand vizier ( fa, وزيرِ اعظم, vazîr-i aʾzam; ota, صدر اعظم, sadr-ı aʾzam; tr, sadrazam) was the title of the effective head of government of many sovereign states in the Islamic world. The office of Grand Vizier was first he ...
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha Sokollu Mehmed Pasha ( ota, سوکلو محمد پاشا, Ṣoḳollu Meḥmed Pașa, tr, Sokollu Mehmet Paşa; ; Ottoman Turkish: ; 1506 – 11 October 1579) was an Ottoman Empire, Ottoman statesman most notable for being the Grand Vizier of t ...
and
Minister of War A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet official position in charge of a ministry of defense, which regulates the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force ...
field marshal Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is the most senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space force ...

field marshal
Omar Pasha Latas. In 1688, Siege of Belgrade (1688), the Habsburg army took Belgrade and entered the territory of present-day
Central Serbia Central Serbia ( sr, централна Србија, centralna Srbija), also referred to as Serbia proper ( sr, link=no, ужа Србија, uža Srbija), is the region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "e ...
. Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden called Serbian Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević to raise arms against the Turks; the Patriarch accepted and returned to the liberated Peć. As Serbia fell under Habsburg control, Leopold I granted Arsenije nobility and the title of duke. In early November, Arsenije III met with Habsburg commander-in-chief, General Enea Silvio Piccolomini in Prizren; after this talk he sent a note to all Serb bishops to come to him and collaborate only with Habsburg forces. A Great Migration of the Serbs (1690) to Habsburg lands was undertaken by Patriarch Arsenije III. The large community of Serbs concentrated in Banat, southern Hungary and the Military Frontier included merchants and craftsmen in the cities, but mainly refugees that were peasants. The Serbian Revolution for independence from the Ottoman Empire lasted eleven years, from 1804 until 1815. The revolution comprised two separate uprisings which gained autonomy from the Ottoman Empire that eventually evolved towards full independence (1835–1867). During the First Serbian Uprising, led by Duke Karađorđe Petrović, Serbia was independent for almost a decade before the Ottoman army was able to reoccupy the country. Shortly after this, the Second Serbian Uprising began. Led by Miloš Obrenović, it ended in 1815 with a compromise between Serbian revolutionaries and Ottoman authorities. Likewise, Serbia was one of the first nations in the Balkans to abolish feudalism. Serbs are among the first ethnic groups in Europe to form a
nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from the term " unit of observation ...

nation
and a clear sense of national identity.


Modern period

In the early 1830s, Serbia gained autonomy and its borders were recognized, with Miloš Obrenović I, Prince of Serbia, Miloš Obrenović being recognized as its ruler. Serbia is the fourth modern-day European country, after France, Austria and the Netherlands, to have a codified legal system, as of 1844. The last Ottoman troops withdrew from Serbia in 1867, although Serbia's and Montenegro's independence was not recognized internationally until the Congress of Berlin in 1878. Serbia fought in the Balkan Wars of 1912–13, which forced the Ottomans out of the Balkans and doubled the territory and population of the Kingdom of Serbia. In 1914, a young Bosnian Serb student named Gavrilo Princip Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, which directly contributed to the outbreak of World War I. In the fighting that ensued, Serbia was invaded by Austria-Hungary. Despite being outnumbered, the Serbs defeated the Austro-Hungarians at the Battle of Cer, which marked the first Allies of World War I, Allied victory over the Central Powers in the war. Further victories at the battles of Battle of Kolubara, Kolubara and the Battle of the Drina, Drina meant that Serbia remained unconquered as the war entered its second year. However, an invasion by the forces of German Empire, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Kingdom of Bulgaria, Bulgaria overwhelmed the Serbs in the winter of 1915, and a subsequent withdrawal by the Serbian Army through Albania took the lives of more than 240,000 Serbs. Serb forces spent the remaining years of the war fighting on the Salonika Front in Greece, before liberating Serbia from Austro-Hungarian occupation in November 1918. Serbia suffered World War I casualties, the biggest casualty rate in World War I. Following the victory in WWI Serbs subsequently formed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes with other South Slavic peoples. The country was later renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and was led from 1921 to 1934 by King Alexander I of Yugoslavia, Alexander I of the Serbian Karađorđević dynasty. During World War II, Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers in April 1941. The country was subsequently divided into many pieces, with Serbia being directly occupied by the Germans. Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) were targeted for extermination as part of Genocide of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia, genocide by the Croatian ultra-nationalist, fascist Ustaše. The Ustaše view of national and racial identity, as well as the theory of Serbs as an racism, inferior race, was under the influence of Croatian nationalism, Croatian nationalists and intellectuals from the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. Jasenovac concentration camp, Jasenovac camp was notorious for the barbaric practices which occurred in it. Sisak children's concentration camp, Sisak and Jastrebarsko children's camp, Jastrebarsko concentration camp were specially Children in the Holocaust, formed for children. Serbs in the NDH suffered among the highest casualty rates in Europe during the World War II, while the NDH was one of the most lethal regimes in the 20th century. Diana Budisavljević, a humanitarian of Austrian descent, carried out rescue operations from Ustaše camps and saved more than 15,000 children, mostly Serbs. More than half a million Serbs were killed in the territory of Yugoslavia during World War II. Serbs in occupied Yugoslavia subsequently formed a resistance movement known as the Chetniks, Yugoslav Army in the Homeland, or the Chetniks. The Chetniks had the official support of the Allies of World War II, Allies until 1943, when Allied support shifted to the Communist Yugoslav Partisans, a multi-ethnic force, formed in 1941, which also had a large majority of Serbs in its ranks in the first two years of war. Over the entirety of the war, the ethnic composition of the Partisans was 53 percent Serb. During the entire course of the WWII in Yugoslavia, 64.1% of all Bosnian Partisans were Serbs. Later, after the fall of Italy in September 1943, other ethnic groups joined Partisans in larger numbers. At the end of the war, the Partisans, led by Josip Broz Tito, emerged victorious. Yugoslavia subsequently became a Communist state. Tito died in 1980, and his death saw Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia plunge into economic turmoil. Yugoslavia Breakup of Yugoslavia, disintegrated in the early 1990s, and a Yugoslav Wars, series of wars resulted in the creation of five new states. The heaviest fighting occurred in
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
,
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
, whose Serb populations rebelled and declared independence. The Croatian War of Independence, war in Croatia ended in August 1995, with a Croatian military offensive known as Operation Storm crushing the Croatian Serb rebellion and causing as many as 200,000 Serbs to flee the country. The Bosnian War ended that same year, with the Dayton Agreement dividing the country along ethnic lines. In 1998–99, a Kosovo War, conflict in Kosovo between the Yugoslav Army and Albanians seeking independence erupted into full-out war, resulting in a 78-day-long NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, NATO bombing campaign which effectively drove Yugoslav security forces from Kosovo. Subsequently, more than 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanians fled the province. On 5 October 2000, Yugoslav President of Serbia and Montenegro, President Slobodan Milosević was overthrown in a bloodless revolt after he refused to admit defeat in the Yugoslavian general election, 2000, 2000 Yugoslav general election.


Demographics

Modern demographic distribution of ethnic Serbs throughout homeland and native regions, as well as in Serbs in diaspora, Serbian ethnic diaspora, represents an outcome of several historical and demographic processes, shaped both by economic migrations and forced displacements during the recent Yugoslav Wars (1991–1999).


Balkans

There are nearly 8 million Serbs living in their native homelands, within the geographical borders of former Yugoslavia. In Serbia itself, around 6 million people identify themselves as ethnic Serbs, and constitute about 83% of the population. More than a million live in Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina (predominantly in the Republika Srpska), where they are one of the three Nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina, constituent ethnic groups. Serbs in Serbs in Croatia, Croatia and Serbs of Montenegro, Montenegro also have recognized collective rights, and number some 186,000 and 178,000 people, respectively, while another estimated 96,000 live in the disputed area of Serbs of Kosovo, Kosovo. Smaller minorities exist in Serbs in Slovenia, Slovenia and Serbs of North Macedonia, North Macedonia, some 36,000 and 39,000 people, respectively. Outside of the former Yugoslavia, but within their historical and migratory areal, Serbs are officially recognized as national minority in Serbs in Albania, Albania, Serbs in Romania, Romania (18,000), Serbs in Hungary, Hungary (7,000), as well as in the Czech Republic and Serbs of Slovakia, Slovakia.


Diaspora

There are over 2 million Serbs in diaspora throughout the world; some sources put that figure as high as 4 million. There is a large diaspora in Western Europe, particularly in Serbs in Germany, Germany, Serbs in Austria, Austria, Immigration from the former Yugoslavia to Switzerland, Switzerland, Serbs in France, France, Serbs in Italy, Italy, Swedish Serbs, Sweden and Serbs in the United Kingdom, United Kingdom. Outside Europe, there are significant Serb communities in the Serbian American, United States, Serbian Canadians, Canada, Serbian Australian, Australia, South America and Southern Africa. The existence of a large diaspora is mainly a consequence of either economic or political (coercion or expulsions) reasons. There were several waves of Serb emigration: * The first wave took place since the end of the 19th century and lasted until World War II and was caused by economic reasons; particularly large numbers of Serbs (mainly from peripheral ethnic areas such as
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,
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Црна Гора, Crna Gora, lit. "Black Mountain", ) is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is o ...

Montenegro
, Dalmatia, and Lika) emigrated to the United States. * The second wave took place after the end of World War II. At this time, members of royalist Chetniks and other political opponents of communist regime fled the country mainly going overseas (United States and
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
) and, to a lesser degree, United Kingdom. * The third wave, by far the largest, consisted of economic emigration beginning in the 1960s when several Western European countries signed bilateral agreements with Yugoslavia, allowing the recruitment of industrial workers to those countries; this lasted until the end of the 1980s. The major destinations for migrants were West Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, and to a lesser extent France and Sweden. That generation of diaspora is collectively known as ''gastarbajteri'', after German ''gastarbeiter'' ("guest-worker"), since most of the emigrants headed for German-speaking countries. * Later emigration took place during the 1990s, and was caused by both political and economic reasons. The Yugoslav wars caused many Serbs from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to leave their countries in the first half of the 1990s. The Sanctions against Serbia, economic sanctions imposed on Serbia caused an economic collapse with an estimated 300,000 people leaving Serbia during that period, 20% of which had a higher education.


Language

Serbs speak Serbian, a member of the Slavic languages, South Slavic group of languages, specifically the Southwestern group. Standard Serbian is a standardized Variety (linguistics)#Standard varieties, variety of Serbo-Croatian, and therefore mutually intelligible with Standard Croatian language, Croatian and Standard Bosnian language, Bosnian (see Differences in standard Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian), which are all based on the Shtokavian dialect. Serbian is an official language in Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina and is a recognized minority language in Montenegro (although spoken by a plurality of population), Croatia, North Macedonia, Romania, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia. Older forms of literary Serbian are Church Slavonic of the Serbian recension, which is still used for ecclesiastical purposes, and Slavonic-Serbian—a mixture of Serbian, Church Slavonic and Russian language, Russian used from the mid-18th century to the first decades of the 19th century. Serbian has active digraphia, using both Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Cyrillic and Gaj's Latin alphabet, Latin alphabets. Serbian Cyrillic was devised in 1814 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić, who created the alphabet on phonemic principles. Serbian Latin was created by Ljudevit Gaj and published in 1830. His alphabet mapped completely on Serbian Cyrillic which had been standardized by Vuk Karadžić a few years before. Loanwords in the Serbian language besides common internationalisms are mostly from Greek language, Greek, GermanЛексикон страних речи и израза / Милан Вујаклија, Просвета, Београд (1954) and Italian, while words of Hungarian language, Hungarian origin are present mostly in the north. There are some Turkish loanwords used (but mostly in rural areas) and they are mostly related to food. A considerable number of those words are actually Persian in origin but entered Serbian through Ottomans and are therefore considered ''Turkisms''. There is considerable usage of French words as well, especially in military related terms. One Serbian word that is used in many of the world's languages is "vampire" (''vampir'').


Culture

Literature of Serbia, Literature, icon painting, music, dance and medieval architecture are the artistic forms for which Serbia is best known. Traditional Art of Serbia, Serbian visual art (specifically frescoes, and to some extent icons), as well as ecclesiastical architecture, are highly reflective of Byzantine traditions, with some Mediterranean and Western influence. Many Serbian monuments and works of art have been lost forever due to various wars and peacetime marginalizations. In modern times (since the 19th century) Serbs also have a noteworthy classical music and works of philosophy. Notable philosophers include Branislav Petronijević, Radomir Konstantinović, Ksenija Atanasijević, Nikola Milošević (politician), Nikola Milošević, Mihailo Marković, Svetozar Marković, Mihailo Đurić.


Art, music, theatre and cinema

During the 12th and 13th centuries, many icons, wall paintings and manuscript miniatures came into existence, as many Serbian Orthodox monasteries and churches such as Hilandar, Žiča, Studenica monastery, Studenica, Sopoćani, Mileševa Monastery, Mileševa, Gračanica monastery, Gračanica and Visoki Dečani were built. The architecture of some of these monasteries is world-famous. Prominent architectural styles in the Middle Ages were Raška architectural school, Morava architectural school and Serbo-Byzantine architecture, Serbo-Byzantin architectural style. During the same period UNESCO World Heritage Site, UNESCO protected Stećak monumental medieval tombstones were built. The Independence of Serbia in the 19th century was soon followed with Serbo-Byzantine Revival in architecture. Baroque and rococo trends in Serbian art emerged in the 18th century and are mostly represented in icon painting and portraits. Most of the Baroque authors were from the territory of Habsburg Monarchy, Austrian Empire, such as Nikola Nešković, Teodor Kračun, Teodor Ilić Češljar, Zaharije Orfelin and Jakov Orfelin. Serbian painting showed the influence of Biedermeier and Neoclassicism as seen in works by Konstantin Danil and Pavel Đurković. Many painters followed the artistic trends set in the 19th century Romanticism, notably Đura Jakšić, Stevan Todorović, Katarina Ivanović and Novak Radonić. Since the mid-1800s, Serbia has produced a number of famous painters who are representative of general European artistic trends. One of the most prominent of these was Paja Jovanović, who painted massive canvases on historical themes such as the ''Migration of the Serbs (painting), Migration of the Serbs'' (1896). Painter Uroš Predić was also prominent in the field of Serbian art, painting the ''Kosovo Maiden'' and ''Happy Brothers''. While Jovanović and Predić were both Realism (arts), realist painters, artist Nadežda Petrović was an Impressionism, impressionist and Fauvism, fauvist and Sava Šumanović was an accomplished Cubist. Painters Petar Lubarda, Vladimir Veličković and Ljubomir Popović were famous for their surrealism. Marina Abramović is a world-renowned performance artist, writer, and art filmmaker. Traditional Serbian music includes various kinds of bagpipes, flutes, French horn, horns, trumpets, lutes, psalteries, drums and cymbals. The kolo (dance), kolo is the traditional collective folk dance, which has a number of varieties throughout the regions. Composer and musicology, musicologist Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac is considered one of the most important founders of modern Serbian music. Other noted classical composers include Kornelije Stanković, Stanislav Binički, Petar Konjović, Miloje Milojević, Stevan Hristić, Josif Marinković, Luigi von Kunits and Vasilije Mokranjac. Well-known musicians include Zdravko Čolić, Arsen Dedić, Predrag Gojković-Cune, Toma Zdravković, Milan Mladenović, Bora Đorđević, Momčilo Bajagić Bajaga, Đorđe Balašević, Ceca (singer), Ceca and others. Serbia has produced many talented filmmakers, the most famous of whom are Slavko Vorkapić, Dušan Makavejev, Živojin Pavlović, Goran Paskaljević, Emir Kusturica, Želimir Žilnik, Srdan Golubović and Mila Turajlić. Žilnik and Stefan Arsenijević won the Golden Bear award at Berlinale, while Mila Turajlić won the main award at International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam, IDFA. Kusturica became world-renowned after winning the Palme d'Or twice at the Cannes Film Festival, numerous other prizes, and is a UNICEF National Ambassador for Serbia. Several Americans of Serb origin have been featured prominently in Hollywood. The most notable of these are Academy Award winners Karl Malden, Steve Tesich, Peter Bogdanovich, Tony Award, Tony-winning theatre director Darko Tresnjak, Emmy Award, Emmy-winning director Marina Zenovich and actors Iván Petrovich, Brad Dexter, Lolita Davidovich, Milla Jovovich and Stana Katic. File:Стеван Стојановић Мокрањац-Милан Јовановић.jpg, Stevan Mokranjac, composer and musical educator considered the "father of Serbian music." File:PajaJovanovic.jpg, Paja Jovanović, Serbia's most acclaimed Realism (arts), realist painter. File:Nadezda Petrovic.jpg, Nadežda Petrović, impressionist and fauvism, fauvist painter. File:Karl Malden - autographed.jpg, Karl Malden, Academy Award-winning Hollywood actor. File:Vojin Bakić.jpg, Vojin Bakić, a prominent sculptor


Literature

Most literature written by early Serbs was about religious themes. Various gospels, psalters, menologies, hagiographies, and essays and sermons of the founders of the Serbian Orthodox Church were written. At the end of the 12th century, two of the most important pieces of Serbian medieval literature were created– the Miroslav Gospels and the Vukan Gospels, which combined handwritten Biblical texts with painted initials and small pictures. Notable Baroque-influenced authors were Andrija Zmajević, Gavril Stefanović Venclović, Jovan Rajić, Zaharije Orfelin and others. Dositej Obradović was the most prominent figure of the Age of Enlightenment, while the most notable Classicist writer was Jovan Sterija Popović, although his works also contained elements of Romanticism. Modern Serbian literature began with Vuk Karadžić's collections of folk songs in the 19th century, and the writings of Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, Njegoš and Branko Radičević. The first prominent representative of Serbian literature in the 20th century was Jovan Skerlić, who wrote in pre–World War I Belgrade and helped introduce Serbian writers to literary modernism. The most important Serbian writer in the inter-war period was Miloš Crnjanski. The first Serb authors who appeared after World War II were Mihailo Lalić and Dobrica Ćosić. Other notable post-war Yugoslav authors such as Ivo Andrić and Meša Selimović were assimilated to Serbian culture, and both identified as Serbs. Andrić went on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1961. Danilo Kiš, another popular Serbian writer, was known for writing ''A Tomb for Boris Davidovich'', as well as several acclaimed novels. Amongst contemporary Serbian writers, Milorad Pavić (writer), Milorad Pavić stands out as being the most critically acclaimed, with his novels ''Dictionary of the Khazars'', ''Landscape Painted with Tea'' and ''The Inner Side of the Wind'' bringing him international recognition. Highly revered in Europe and in South America, Pavić is considered one of the most intriguing writers from the beginning of the 21st century. Charles Simic is a notable contemporary Serbian-American poet, former United States Poet Laureate and a Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, Pulitzer Prize winner. File:Петар II Петровић Његош , песник и владика.jpg, Petar II Petrović-Njegoš is considered one of the best poets of Serbian literature. File:S. Kragujevic, Ivo Andric, 1961.jpg, Ivo Andrić, a novelist, poet and short story writer who won the Nobel Prize in 1961. File:Desanka Maksimović 1969.jpg, Desanka Maksimović, the most notable Serbian and Yugoslav female poet of the 20th century File:Miloš Crnjanski 1914.jpg, Miloš Crnjanski, a poet of the expressionist wing of Serbian modernism and writer. File:13 - 1987-arh-Miodrag-Pecic-Beograd-01-N Jerusalim.jpg, Borislav Pekić was a major writer and dramatist of the second half of the 20th century.


Education and science

Many Serbs have contributed to the field of science and technology. Serbian American scientist, inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla is regarded as one of the most important inventors in history. He is renowned for his contributions to the discipline of electricity and magnetism in the late 19th and early 20th century. Seven Serbian American engineers and scientists known as ''Serbo 7'' took part in construction of the Apollo (spacecraft), Apollo spaceship. Physicist and physical chemist Mihajlo Pupin is best known for his landmark theory of modern electrical filters as well as for his numerous patents, while Milutin Milanković is best known for his theory of long-term climate change (general concept), climate change caused by changes in the position of the Earth in comparison to the Sun, now known as Milankovitch cycles. Mihailo Petrović is known for having contributed significantly to differential equations and phenomenology, as well as inventing one of the first prototypes of an analog computer. Roger Joseph Boscovich was a Ragusan physicist, astronomer, mathematician and polymath of paternal Serbian origin (although there are competing claims for Bošković's nationality) who produced a precursor of atomic theory and made many contributions to astronomy and also discovered the Atmosphere of the Moon, absence of atmosphere on the Moon. Jovan Cvijić founded modern geography in Serbia and made pioneering research on the geography of the Balkan Peninsula, Dinaric race and karst. Josif Pančić made contributions to botany and discovered a number of new floral species including the Serbian spruce. Biologist and physiologist Ivan Đaja performed research in the role of the adrenal glands in thermoregulation, as well as pioneering work in hypothermia. Valtazar Bogišić is considered to be a pioneer in the sociology of law and sociological jurisprudence. Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic is a Serbian American biomedical engineer focusing on engineering human tissues for regenerative medicine, stem cell research and modeling of disease. She is one of the most highly cited scientists of all times. File:Tesla circa 1890.jpeg, Nikola Tesla, inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineering, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist. File:Mihajlo Pupin.jpg, Mihajlo Pupin, physicist and Physical chemistry, physical chemist and a founding member of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, NACA which later became NASA. File:Јован Цвијић, географ (1865-1927).jpg, Jovan Cvijić, geographer, geologist, Human geography, human geographer and Ethnology, ethnologist. File:Mihailo Petrovic.jpg, Mihailo Petrović, mathematician, contributor to the study of differential equations and inventor of early version of analog computer. File:Milutin Milanković 2.jpg, Milutin Milanković, mathematician, climatologist and geophysics, geophysicist.


Names

There are several different layers of Serbian names. Serbian given names largely originate from Slavic names, Slavic roots: e.g., Vuk (name), Vuk, Bojan, Goran (Slavic name), Goran, Zoran, Dragan, Milan (given name), Milan, Miroslav (given name), Miroslav, Vladimir (name), Vladimir, Slobodan, Dušan, Milica, Nevena, Vesna (name), Vesna, Radmila. Other names are of Christian origin, originating from the bible (Hebrew language, Hebrew, through Greek), such as Lazar (name), Lazar, Mihailo, Ivan (name), Ivan, Jovan (given name), Jovan, Ilija (given name), Ilija, Maria (given name), Marija, Anna (given name), Ana, Ivana. Along similar lines of non-Slavic Christian names are Greeks, Greek ones such as: Stefan (given name), Stefan, Nikola, Aleksandar, Philip (name), Filip, Đorđe, Andrej, Jelena (disambiguation), Jelena, Katarina (given name), Katarina, Vasilije, Todor, while those of Latin origin include: Marko (given name), Marko, Anthony (given name), Antonije, Srđan, Marina (given name), Marina, Petar, Paul (name), Pavle, Natalia (given name), Natalija, Igor (given name), Igor (through Russian). Most Serbian surnames are paternal, maternal, occupational or derived from personal traits. It is estimated that over two thirds of all Serbian surnames have the suffix ''-ić'' (-ић) (), a Slavic diminutive, originally functioning to create patronymics. Thus the surname Petrović means the "son of Petar" (from a male progenitor, the root is extended with possessive ''-ov'' or ''-ev''). Due to limited use of international typewriters and unicode computer encoding, the suffix may be simplified to ''-ic'', historically transcribed with a phonetic ending, ''-ich'' or ''-itch'' in foreign languages. Other common surname suffixes found among Serbian surnames are ''-ov'', ''-ev'', ''-in'' and ''-ski'' (without ''-ić'') which is the Slavic genitive case, possessive case suffix, thus Nikola's son becomes Nikolin, Petar's son Petrov, and Jovan's son Jovanov. Other, less common suffices are ''-alj/olj/elj'', ''-ija'', ''-ica'', ''-ar/ac/an''. The ten most common surnames in Serbia, in order, are Jovanović, Petrović, Nikolić, Marković, Đorđević, Stojanović, Ilić, Stanković, Pavlović and Milošević.


Religion

Serbs are predominantly Eastern Orthodox Church, Orthodox Christians. The autocephaly of the
Serbian Orthodox Church The Serbian Orthodox Church ( sr-cyr, Српска православна црква, Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous Autocephaly (; from el, αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the sta ...
, was established in 1219, as an Archbishopric, and raised to the Serbian Patriarchate of Peć, Patriarchate in 1346. It is led by the List of heads of the Serbian Orthodox Church, Serbian Patriarch, and consists of three archbishoprics, six metropolitanates and thirty-one eparchies, having around 10 million adherents. Followers of the church form the largest religious group in Serbia and Montenegro, and the second-largest in
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
and
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
. The church has an archbishopric in
North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe ...
and dioceses in Western Europe, North America, South America and Australia. The identity of ethnic Serbs was historically largely based on Orthodox Christianity and on the Serbian Church in particular. The conversion of the South Slavs from paganism to Christianity took place before the East–West Schism, Great Schism. After the Schism, those who lived under the Orthodox sphere of influence became Orthodox and those who lived under the Catholic sphere of influence became Catholic. With the arrival of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
, some Serbs converted to
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
. This was particularly, but not wholly, the case in Ottoman Bosnia, Bosnia. Since the second half of the 19th century, a small number of Serbs converted to Protestantism, while historically some Serbs were Catholics (especially in Bay of Kotor and Dalmatia; e.g. Serb-Catholic movement in Dubrovnik). In a personal correspondence with author and critic dr. Milan Šević in 1932, Marko Murat complained that Orthodox Serbs are not acknowledging the Catholic Serb community on the basis of their faith. The remainder of Serbs remain predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christians.


Symbols

Among the most notable national and ethnic symbols are the flag of Serbia and the coat of arms of Serbia. The flag consists of a red-blue-white tricolour (flag), tricolour, rooted in Pan-Slavism, and has been used since the 19th century. Apart from being the national flag, it is also used officially in Republika Srpska (by Bosnian Serbs) and as the official ethnic Flag of Serbs of Croatia. The coat of arms, which includes both the Serbian eagle and Serbian cross, has also been officially used since the 19th century, its elements dating back to the Middle Ages, showing Byzantine and Christian heritage. These symbols are used by various Serb organisations, political parties and institutions. The Three-finger salute (Serbian), Three-finger salute, also called the "Serb salute", is a popular expression for ethnic Serbs and Serbia, originally expressing Serbian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodoxy and today simply being a symbol for ethnic Serbs and the Serbian nation, made by extending the thumb, index, and middle fingers of one or both hands. File:Civil Flag of Serbia.svg, National colours of Serbia, Serbian national colours, in use since 1835 File:Serbian_Cross.svg, Serbian cross File:Tri prsta3.jpg, Three-finger salute (Serbian), Three-finger salute


Traditions and customs

;Folklore Traditional clothing varies due to diverse geography and climate of the territory inhabited by the Serbs. The traditional footwear, ''opanak, opanci'', is worn throughout the Balkans. The most common Serbian national costume, folk costume of Serbia is that of Šumadija, a region in central Serbia, which includes the national hat, the Šajkača. Older villagers still wear their traditional costumes. The traditional dance is the circle dance, called ''kolo (dance), kolo''. Zmijanje embroidery is a specific technique of embroidery practised by the women of villages in area Zmijanje on mountain Manjača and as such is a part of the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Pirot carpet is a variety of flat tapestry woven rug traditionally produced in Pirot, a town in southeastern Serbia. ;Traditions ''Slava'' is the family's annual ceremony and veneration of their patron saint, a social event in which the family is together at the house of the patriarch. The tradition is an important ethnic marker of Serb identity. Serbs usually regard the Slava as their most significant and most solemn
feast day The calendar of saints is the traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, ho ...
. Serbs have Serbian Christmas traditions, their own customs regarding Christmas, which includes the sacral tree, the ''Badnjak (Serbian), badnjak'', a young oak. On Orthodox Easter, Serbs have the tradition of Egg decorating in Slavic culture, Slavic Egg decorating. Čuvari Hristovog groba is a religious/cultural practice of guarding a representation of Jesus, Christ's grave on Good Friday in the Church of St. Nicholas, Vrlika, Church of St. Nicholas by the Serbian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox inhabitants in the town of Vrlika. Srpska nosnja.jpg, Traditional Serbian costumes from Šumadija Ensemble "Kolo" dancing Old Silent dance from Glamoč.jpg, Old Silent dance from Glamoč. Sveti Jovan.jpg, ''Slava'', a family feast in honour of its patron saint. Badnjak-Beograd.jpg, An Serbian Orthodox Church, Orthodox priest places the ''badnjak (Serbian), badnjak'' on a fire during Christmas Eve. File:Gusle on kelim rug.JPG, The national instrument Gusle placed on Pirot carpet


Cuisine

Serbian cuisine is largely heterogeneous, with heavy Oriental, Central European and Mediterranean influences. Despite this, it has evolved and achieved its own culinary identity. Food is very important in Serbian social life, particularly during religious holidays such as Christmas, Easter and feast days, i.e., ''
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slava
''. Staples of the Serbian diet include bread, meat, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Traditionally, three meals are consumed per day. Breakfast generally consists of eggs, meat and bread. Lunch is considered the main meal, and is normally eaten in the afternoon. Traditionally, Turkish coffee is prepared after a meal, and is served in small cups. Bread is the basis of all Serbian meals, and it plays an important role in Serbian cuisine and can be found in religious rituals. A traditional Serbian welcome is to offer bread and salt to guests, and also ''slatko'' (fruit preserve). Meat is widely consumed, as is fish. Serbian specialties include ''kajmak'' (a dairy product similar to clotted cream), ''proja'' (cornbread), ''kačamak'' (corn-flour porridge), and ''gibanica'' (cheese and kajmak pie). Ćevapčići, caseless grilled and seasoned sausages made of minced meat, is the national dish of Serbia. Slivovitz#Serbia, Šljivovica (Slivovitz) is the national drink of Serbia in domestic production for centuries, and plum is the national fruit. The international name ''Slivovitz'' is derived from Serbian. Plum and its products are of great importance to Serbs and part of numerous customs. A Serbian meal usually starts or ends with plum products and Šljivovica is served as an aperitif. A saying goes that the best place to build a house is where a plum tree grows best. Traditionally, Šljivovica (commonly referred to as "rakija") is connected to Serbian culture as a drink used at all important rites of passage (birth, baptism, military service, marriage, death, etc.), and in the Serbian Orthodox patron saint celebration (''
slava The Slava ( sr-Cyrl, слава, lit=celebration, ) is a Serbian Orthodox Christian tradition of the ritual glorification of one's family's patron saint A branch of Saint_Honorius_(Honoré)_is_the_patron_saint_of_bakers_and_confectioners..html" ...

slava
''). It is used in numerous folk remedies, and is given certain degree of respect above all other alcoholic drinks. The fertile region of Šumadija in central Serbia is particularly known for its plums and Šljivovica. Serbia is the largest exporter of Slivovitz in the world, and second largest plum producer in the world.


Sport

Serbs are known for their sporting achievements, and have produced a number of talented athletes. The Hungarians, Hungarian citizen Momčilo Tapavica was the first Slavs, Slav and Serb to win an Olympic medal, in the 1896 Summer Olympics. Over the years Serbia has been home to many internationally successful football players such as Dragan Džajić (officially recognized as "the best Serbian footballer of all times" by Football Association of Serbia; 1968 Ballon d'Or third place) and more recent likes of Dejan Stanković, Nemanja Vidić (two-time Premier League Player of the Season and member of FIFPro World XI), Branislav Ivanović (Serbia's most capped player) and Nemanja Matić. Radomir Antić is a notable football coach, best known for his work with Serbia national football team, the national team, Real Madrid C.F. and FC Barcelona. Serbia has developed a reputation as one of the world's biggest exporters of expat footballers. A total of 22 Serbian players have played in the National Basketball Association, NBA in the last two decades, including three-time List of NBA All-Stars, NBA All-Star Peja Stojaković, Predrag "Peja" Stojaković, NBA All-Star and both FIBA Hall of Fame, FIBA and Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, NBA Hall of Fame inductee Vlade Divac, and the 2020–21 NBA season, 2020–21 NBA Most Valuable Player Award winner Nikola Jokić. Serbian players that made a great impact in Europe include four members of the FIBA Hall of Fame from the 1960s and 1970s – Dragan Kićanović, Dražen Dalipagić, Radivoj Korać, and Zoran Slavnić – as well as recent stars such as Dejan Bodiroga (2002 All-Europe Player of the Year), Aleksandar Đorđević (1994 and 1995 Mr. Europa), Miloš Teodosić (2009–10 Euroleague MVP), Nemanja Bjelica (2014–15 Euroleague MVP), and Vasilije Micić (2020–21 Euroleague MVP). The "Serbian coaching school" produced many of the most successful European coaches of all times, such as Željko Obradović (a record nine Euroleague titles), Božidar Maljković (four Euroleague titles), Aleksandar Nikolić (three Euroleague titles), Dušan Ivković (two Euroleague titles), and Svetislav Pešić (one Euroleague title). The most notable Serbian Tennis, tennis player is Novak Djokovic. He is a nineteen-time Grand Slam (tennis), Grand Slam champion, a four-time Laureus World Sports Award for Sportsman of the Year, Laureus Sportsman of the Year, and has been year-end World No. 1 on a joint record six occasions. Ana Ivanovic (champion of 2008 French Open) and Jelena Janković were both ranked No. 1 in the WTA Rankings, while Nenad Zimonjić and Slobodan Živojinović were ranked No. 1 in doubles. Notable Serbia men's national water polo team, water polo players are Vladimir Vujasinović, Aleksandar Šapić, Vanja Udovičić, Andrija Prlainović and Filip Filipović (water polo), Filip Filipović. Other noted Serbian athletes, including Olympic and world champions and medalists, are: swimmer Milorad Čavić, volleyball player Nikola Grbić, handball player Svetlana Kitić, long-jumper Ivana Španović, shooter Jasna Šekarić, Canoe sprint, sprint canoer Marko Tomićević, judoka Nemanja Majdov and taekwondoist Milica Mandić. A number of sportspeople of Serb origin represented other nations, such as tennis players Daniel Nestor, Jelena Dokic, Milos Raonic and Kristina Mladenovic, NHL player Milan Lucic, NBA All-star Pete Maravich, wrestler Jim Trifunov, racquetball player Rhonda Rajsich and racing driver Bill Vukovich.


See also

* List of Serbs


Notes


References


Sources


Primary sources

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Secondary sources

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External links


Byzantine Illiricum - The Slavs Settlement (History of Balkan, part 1, Official chanel)

Byzantine Illiricum – The Slavs Settlement (History of Balkan, part 2, Official chanel)

Byzantine Illiricum – The Slavs Settlement (History of Balkan, part 3, Official chanel)

Byzantine Dalmatian – The Arrival of Serbs (History of Balkan, part 1, Official chanel)

Byzantine Dalmatian – The Arrival of Serbs (History of Balkan, part 2, Official chanel)

Byzantine Dalmatia – The Arrival of Serbs (History of Balkan, part 3, Official chanel)

Project Rastko – Serbian cultural and historical research society
{{Authority control Serb people, Ethnic groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina Ethnic groups in Croatia Ethnic groups in Hungary Ethnic groups in Montenegro Ethnic groups in Romania Ethnic groups in Serbia, Ethnic groups in Slovenia Ethnic groups in North Macedonia Serbian people, Serbian society Slavic ethnic groups South Slavs Ethnoreligious groups in Europe Ethnic groups in the Balkans