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Serbian nationalism asserts that
Serbs Serbs ( sr-Cyr, Срби, Srbi, ) are a South Slavic ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from ...
are a
nation A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, or Identity (social science), identity. Communities may share a sense ...

nation
and promotes the cultural and political unity of Serbs. It is an
ethnic nationalism Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethnonationalism, is a form of nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in t ...
, originally arising in the context of the general rise of nationalism in the Balkans under
Ottoman rule Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman ( ar, عُثْمان, ‘uthmān). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empire The Ott ...
, under the influence of Serbian linguist Vuk Stefanović Karadžić and Serbian statesman
Ilija Garašanin Ilija Garašanin ( sr-cyr, Илија Гарашанин; 28 January 1812 – 22 June 1874) was a Serbian statesman who served as the prime minister of Serbia The Prime Minister of Serbia (Serbian language, Serbian: Премијер Срби ...

Ilija Garašanin
. Serbian nationalism was an important factor during the
Balkan Wars The Balkan Wars consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913. Four Balkan states defeated the Ottoman Empire in the First Balkan War. In the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria fought against all four original comb ...

Balkan Wars
which contributed to the decline of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
, during and after
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
when it contributed to the dissolution of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exer ...
, and again during the
breakup of Yugoslavia A relationship breakup, or simply just breakup, is the termination of an intimate relationship An intimate relationship is an interpersonal relationship The concept of interpersonal relationship involves social associations, connect ...

breakup of Yugoslavia
and the
Yugoslav Wars The Yugoslav Wars were a series of separate but related#Naimark, Naimark (2003), p. xvii. ethnic conflicts, war of independence, wars of independence, and Insurgency, insurgencies fought in the former Yugoslavia from 1991 to 2001, leading up t ...
of the 1990s. After 1878, Serbian nationalists merged their goals with those of Yugoslavists, and emulated the
Piedmont Piedmont ( ; it, Piemonte, ; Piedmontese language, Piedmontese, Lombard language, Lombard, Occitan language, Occitan and frp, Piemont, , , french: Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the regions of Italy, 20 regions of the country. ...
's leading role in the ''
Risorgimento Italian unification ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the Risorgimento (, ; meaning "Resurgence"), was the 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the Merger (politics), consolidation of List of historic states of Ital ...

Risorgimento
'' of Italy, by claiming that
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...

Serbia
sought not only to unite all Serbs in one state, but that Serbia intended to be a South Slavic Piedmont that would unite all South Slavs in one state known as
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh, Jugoslavija / ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; Pannonian Rusyn Image:Novi Sad mayor office.jpg, 250px, Mayor office written in four official languages used in the ...

Yugoslavia
. Serbian nationalists supported a centralized Yugoslav state that guaranteed the unity of the Serbs while resisting efforts to decentralize the state. The
Vidovdan ConstitutionThe Vidovdan Constitution was the first constitution of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. It was approved by the Constitutional Assembly on 28 June 1921 despite the opposition boycotting the vote. The Constitution is named after the feast of ...
adopted by Yugoslavia in 1921 consolidated the country as a centralized state under the Serbian Karađorđević monarchy.
Croatian nationalists Croatian nationalism is the nationalism that asserts the nationality of Croats and promotes the cultural unity of Croats. Modern Croatian nationalism first arose in the 19th century after increasing pressure for Magyarization and started to grow e ...
opposed the centralized state and demanded decentralization and an autonomous Croatia within Yugoslavia, which was accepted by the Yugoslav government in the Cvetković–Maček Agreement of 1939. Serbian nationalists opposed the agreement on the grounds that it weakened the unity of
Serbdom Serbian nationalism asserts that Serbs are a nation and promotes the cultural and political unity of Serbs. It is an ethnic nationalism, originally arising in the context of the general rise of nationalism in the Ottoman Empire, rise of nationalis ...
, asserting its importance to Yugoslavia with the slogan "Strong Serbdom, Strong Yugoslavia". The invasion and partition of Yugoslavia in
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
resulted in violent
ethnic conflict A refugee camp for displaced Rwandans in Zaire following the Rwandan genocide of 1994 An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups. While the source of the conflict may be political, social, economic or religio ...
between nationalist Serbs,
Croats Croats (; hr, Hrvati ), also known as Croatians, are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. ...

Croats
,
Bosniaks The Bosniaks or Bosniacs ( bs, Bošnjaci, ; , ) are a and native to the an of , which is today part of . A native minority of Bosniaks live in other countries in the ; especially in the region of and (where Bosniaks form a regional ...
, and others, resulting in a highly violent
sectarian Sectarianism is a political or cultural conflict between two groups often related to the form of government they live under. Prejudice Prejudice can be an affect (psychology), affective feeling towards a person based on their perceived grou ...
variant of Serbian nationalism rising in the
Chetnik The Chetniks ( sh, Четници, Četnici, ; sl, Četniki), formally the Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army, and also the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland and the Ravna Gora Movement, was a Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav royalist and Ser ...
movement. The decentralization of the
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, commonly referred to as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a Socialist state, socialist country in Southeast Europe, Southeast and Central Europe that existed from its foundation in the afte ...
in the 1960s and the suppression of all ethnic nationalist sentiments led to a Serbian nationalist backlash and resurgence in the 1980s, that condemned post-
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
Yugoslavism and the decentralization of Yugoslavia. Upon Yugoslavia collapsing in the 1990s with multiple republics seeking secession, Serbian nationalists demanded that all Serbs in all the Yugoslav republics had the right to be united in a common state, ethnic conflict occurred between Serbs seeking unity with Serbia and other Yugoslav
ethnicities An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousne ...
seeking independence.


History


Serbian Revolution

The origins of Serbian nationalism date back to the 19th century, beginning with the 1804 uprisings by Serbs against Ottoman rule that eventually led to the creation of an independent Serbian state in 1878. However, Serbian nationalists themselves cite the origins of the movement as being the
Battle of Kosovo A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. ...

Battle of Kosovo
on the Serbian national and religious holiday
Vidovdan Vidovdan ( sr-cyr, Видовдан, "St. Vitus Day") is a Serbian national and religious holiday, a ''slava'' (feast day) celebrated on 28 June (Gregorian calendar), or 15 June according to the Julian calendar. The Serbian Church designates it as ...
( Saint Vitus Day) in 1389 between Serbia and the Ottoman Empire, the battle that holds important symbolic meaning to Serbian nationalists. The Serbian linguist Vuk Stefanović Karadžić is considered by some authors to be the father of Serbian nationalism. Karadžić created a linguistic definition of the Serbs that included all speakers of the Štokavian dialect regardless of their religious affiliation or geographical origin. However, Karadžić acknowledged the right of some Štokavian-speaking peoples to call themselves names other than Serbs. German historian Michael Weithmann considers Karadžić's theory that all southern Slavs are Serbs as a "dangerous political and ideological idea in scientific shape" while Czech historian Jan Rychlik considers Karadžić to have been a "propagator of greater Serbian ideology".
Ilija Garašanin Ilija Garašanin ( sr-cyr, Илија Гарашанин; 28 January 1812 – 22 June 1874) was a Serbian statesman who served as the prime minister of Serbia The Prime Minister of Serbia (Serbian language, Serbian: Премијер Срби ...

Ilija Garašanin
was another early proponent of Serbian nationalism and a proponent of a
Greater Serbia The term Greater Serbia or Great Serbia ( sr, Велика Србија, Velika Srbija) describes the Serbian nationalist and irredentist ideology An ideology () is a set of beliefs or philosophies attributed to a person or group of persons, ...

Greater Serbia
- a Serbian state whose borders were extended to include all Serbs in the Balkan region. After Serbia was recognized as an independent state in 1878, both
South Slavs The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are n ...
and the Serbian government considered their peoples in
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...
-ruled
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exe ...

Austria-Hungary
to be under occupation, resulting in increasing antagonism between Serbia and Austria-Hungary from the late 19th century to the early 20th century.


World War I

In 1914 Austrian
Archduke Franz Ferdinand Archduke Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria of Austria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was the heir presumptive to the throne of Austria-Hungary. His Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, assassination in Sarajevo is conside ...

Archduke Franz Ferdinand
was assassinated by
Bosnian Serb The Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina ( sr-cyr, Срби у Босни и Херцеговини, Srbi u Bosni i Hercegovini) are one of the three constitutive nations (state-forming nations) of the country, predominantly residing in the politica ...
revolutionary
Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip ( sr-Cyrl, Гаврило Принцип, ; 25 July 189428 April 1918) was a Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnian Serb student who Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, assassinated Archduke Archduke Franz Ferdinand of A ...
, resulting in Austria-Hungary accusing Serbia of involvement and subsequently declaring war on Serbia, resulting in a clash of alliances and the eruption of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. In spite of heavy casualties, Serbia benefited from Allies' victory against Germany and Austria-Hungary, with Serbia subsequently joining with territories claimed by Yugoslav nationalists to form the
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes The Kingdom of Yugoslavia ( sh, Kraljevina Jugoslavija / Краљевина Југославија; sl, Kraljevina Jugoslavija) was a state in Southeast The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomic ...
, informally known as
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh, Jugoslavija / ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; Pannonian Rusyn Image:Novi Sad mayor office.jpg, 250px, Mayor office written in four official languages used in the ...

Yugoslavia
, in 1918. Serbian nationalists associated with a
centralist Centralisation or centralization (see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English orthog ...
vision of Yugoslavia as opposed to a confederal or federal state as advocated by non-Serbs. The antagonism between a centralized Yugoslavia supported by Serbian nationalists and a decentralized Yugoslavia supported by
Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also

* Croatia (disambiguation) * Serbo-Croatian (di ...
and Slovenian nationalists was the main cause of unstable governance in Yugoslavia during the
interwar period In the history of the 20th century, the Interwar period lasted from 11 November 1918 to 1 September 1939 (20 years, 9 months and 21 days), the end of the First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as t ...
.


Yugoslavia

In 1920, the centralized vision of Yugoslavia as supported by Serbian nationalists was enacted in the Constitution of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes passed on Serbian national and religious holiday
Vidovdan Vidovdan ( sr-cyr, Видовдан, "St. Vitus Day") is a Serbian national and religious holiday, a ''slava'' (feast day) celebrated on 28 June (Gregorian calendar), or 15 June according to the Julian calendar. The Serbian Church designates it as ...
(
Saint Vitus Vitus (), whose name is sometimes rendered Guy or Guido, was a Christian martyr from Lucania. Although his cult is ancient, his surviving hagiography A hagiography (; ) or vita (from Latin ''vita'', life, which begins the title of most med ...

Saint Vitus
Day) that became known as the "
Vidovdan ConstitutionThe Vidovdan Constitution was the first constitution of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. It was approved by the Constitutional Assembly on 28 June 1921 despite the opposition boycotting the vote. The Constitution is named after the feast of ...
" or "St. Vitus Day Constitution" (Видовдански устав / ''Vidovdanski ustav''). Antagonism which rose between Serbian nationalists versus Croatian and Slovenian nationalists culminated in the 1928 assassination of Stjepan Radić on the floor of the Yugoslav parliament and the subsequent deterioration of parliamentary democracy in the country. In the aftermath King Alexander discarded the St. Vitus Day Constitution, proclaimed a royal dictatorship, and officially renamed the country Kingdom of Yugoslavia. King Alexander pursued a policy of encouraging modern Yugoslav nationalism which caused dissatisfaction amongst Serbian nationalists who saw Yugoslav nationalism as a disavowal of Serbian nationalism. Serbian nationalists were outraged at the Cvetković–Maček Agreement between Serb and Croat political leaders that created the
Banovina of Croatia The Banovina of Croatia or Banate of Croatia ( sh, Banovina Hrvatska / Бановина Хрватска) was an autonomous province ( banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia The Kingdom of Yugoslavia ( sh, Kraljevina Jugoslavija / Краље ...
, an autonomous province within the kingdom which gave Croatia virtual autonomy. In response, Serbian nationalists founded the Serb Cultural Club which attacked the new Yugoslav nationalism under the motto of "Strong Serbdom, Strong Yugoslavia". Yugoslavia was invaded and occupied by the Axis Powers during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, with
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
establishing puppet states throughout occupied Yugoslavia. Serbian nationalism rose in a militant response by the
Chetnik The Chetniks ( sh, Четници, Četnici, ; sl, Četniki), formally the Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army, and also the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland and the Ravna Gora Movement, was a Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav royalist and Ser ...
forces of
Draža Mihailović Dragoljub "Draža" Mihailović ( sr-Cyrl, Драгољуб Дража Михаиловић; 27 April 1893 – 17 July 1946) was a Yugoslavs, Yugoslav Serb general during World War II. He was the leader of the Chetniks, Chetnik Detachments of ...
against both the Axis forces and the communist
Yugoslav Partisans The Yugoslav Partisans,Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian language, Macedonian, Slovene language, Slovene: ''Partizani,'' Партизани or the National Liberation Army, sh, Narodnooslobodilačka vojska (NOV), Народноослободилачк ...
. The war saw the rise of an extreme anti-Muslim variant of Serbian nationalism practised by the Chetniks who massacred
Bosnian Muslims The Bosniaks or Bosniacs ( bs, Bošnjaci, ; , ) are a South Slavic nation A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (no ...
during the war. In the aftermath of World War II and the seizure of power by the Yugoslav Partisans,
Josip Broz Tito Josip Broz ( sh-Cyrl, Јосип Броз, ; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (; sh-Cyrl, Тито, links=no, ), was a Yugoslav communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belon ...

Josip Broz Tito
's
communist Yugoslavia The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, commonly referred to as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country in Southeast The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a ...
was established. The new regime repressed nationalism of any culture that was deemed to be a threat to the state. Serbian nationalism then developed during the 1960s by intellectuals such as
Dobrica Ćosić Dobrica Ćosić ( sr-cyr, Добрица Ћосић, ; 29 December 1921 – 18 May 2014) was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician, writer, and political theorist. Ćosić was twice awarded the prestigious NIN Prize, NIN award for literature and Medal ...
and challenged the state-sponsored policies of
Yugoslavism Yugoslavism, / ; sl, јugoslavizem; mk, југословизмот Yugoslavdom, / ; hr, jugoslavenstvo; sl, јugoslovanstvo; mk, југословенството or Yugoslav nationalism is an ideology supporting the notion that the South ...
and "
Brotherhood and Unity Brotherhood and Unity was a popular slogan of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia that was coined during the Yugoslav People's Liberation War (1941–45), and which evolved into a guiding principle of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Y ...
". Tito's later expulsion of the nationalist-leaning Serbian communist official
Aleksandar Ranković Aleksandar Ranković (nom de guerre Marko; sr-Cyrl, Александар Ранковић Лека; 28 November 1909 – 19 August 1983) was a Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav communist politician, considered to be the third mos ...

Aleksandar Ranković
in the 1960s was perceived as an attack on Serbian nationalism. After the ousting of Ranković, Serbian nationalist intellectuals increasingly began viewing Yugoslavia as a detrimental experience for the Serb nation. Serbian nationalism escalated following the death of Tito in 1980.Ramet 2006, 322. Serbian intellectuals began breaking a number of taboos—for example, Branko Petranović identified Mihailović, the
Chetnik The Chetniks ( sh, Четници, Četnici, ; sl, Četniki), formally the Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army, and also the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland and the Ravna Gora Movement, was a Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav royalist and Ser ...
rival of Tito during World War II as being an important "
anti-fascist Anti-fascism is a political movement in opposition to fascist Fascism () is a form of far-right, authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and strong regimentation of socie ...

anti-fascist
". Dobrica Ćosić joined other Serb political writers in writing the highly controversial
Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts The Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, known simply as the SANU Memorandum ( sr-cyr, Меморандум САНУ), was a draft document produced by a 16-member committee of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts The Serbi ...
of 1986. The Memorandum claimed to promote solutions to restore Yugoslav unity, but it focused on fiercely condemning Titoist Yugoslavia of having economically subjugated Serbia to Croatia and Slovenia and accused ethnic Albanians of committing
genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish t ...
against Serbs in Kosovo. The Memorandum was harshly condemned by the ruling
League of Communists of Yugoslavia The League of Communists of Yugoslavia, sl, Zveza komunistov Jugoslavije mk, Сојуз на комунистите на Југославија, Sojuz na komunistite na Jugoslavija known until 1952 as the Communist Party of Yugoslavia,, sh-La ...
as well as the government of Serbia led by
Ivan Stambolić Ivan Stambolić ( sr, Иван Стамболић; 5 November 1936 – 25 August 2000) was a Serbian politician. He was a prominent member of the League of Communists of Serbia who served as the President of the Presidency of Serbia in the 1980 ...
. Members who would later support Serbian nationalism chose follow the party line and denounced the Memorandum as well.
Slobodan Milošević Slobodan Milošević ( sr-Cyrl, Слободан Милошевић, ; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav and Serbian politician who served as the President of Serbia, President of Republic of ...
, at the time a Serbian communist official, did not speak publicly about the issue, but in a meeting with members of the secret police he formally endorsed the official government denouncement of the Memorandum, stating:
The appearance of the Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Arts and Sciences represents nothing else but the darkest nationalism. It means the liquidation of the current socialist system of our country, that is the disintegration after which there is no survival for any nation or nationality. ... Tito's policy of
brotherhood and unity Brotherhood and Unity was a popular slogan of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia that was coined during the Yugoslav People's Liberation War (1941–45), and which evolved into a guiding principle of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Y ...
... is the only basis on which Yugoslavia’s survival can be secured.


Breakup of Yugoslavia and Yugoslav Wars

However, amidst the rising nationalist sentiment in Serbia in 1987, Milošević became their major spokesperson in the communist establishment. Milošević supported the premises of the Memorandum that included promoting centralization of power in the federal Yugoslav government to decrease the powers of the republics and autonomous provinces and a nationalist motto of "strong Serbia, strong Yugoslavia". During the
Anti-Bureaucratic Revolution The anti-bureaucratic revolution ( sr, Антибирократска револуција, translit=Antibirokratska revolucija) was a campaign of street protests by supporters of Serbian leader Slobodan Milošević that ran between 1988 and 1989 i ...
, Milošević urged Serbians and Montenegrins to "take to the streets" and utilized the slogan "Strong Serbia, Strong Yugoslavia" that drew support from Serbs but alienated Bosnian Muslims, Croats, Kosovo Albanians, Macedonians, and Slovenes. To these groups, Milošević's agenda reminded them of the Serb hegemonic political affairs of the
Kingdom of Yugoslavia The Kingdom of Yugoslavia ( sh, Kraljevina Jugoslavija / Краљевина Југославија; sl, Kraljevina Jugoslavija) was a state in Southeast Europe, Southeast and Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1941. From 1918 to 1929 ...
and Ranković's policies. Milošević and his supporters appealed to nationalist and populist passion by speaking of Serbia's importance to the world and using aggressive and violent political rhetoric, in a Belgrade speech on 19 November 1988, he spoke of Serbia as facing battles against both internal and external enemies. In Vojvodina, pro-Milošević demonstrators that included 500 Kosovo Serbs and local Serbs demonstrated at the provincial capital, accusing the leadership in Vojvodina of supporting separatism and for being "traitors". In August 1988, meetings by supporters of the Anti-Bureaucratic Revolution were held in many locations in Serbia and Montenegro, with increasingly violent nature, with calls being heard such as "Give us arms!", "We want weapons!", "Long live Serbia—death to Albanians!", and "Montenegro is Serbia!". In the same month, Milošević began efforts designed to destabilize the governments in Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina to allow him to install his followers in those republics. By 1989, Milošević and his supporters controlled Central Serbia along with the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina, supporters in the leadership of Montenegro, and agents of the Serbian security service were pursuing efforts to destabilize the government in Bosnia & Herzegovina. In 1989, Serbian media began to speak of "the alleged imperilment of the Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina", as tensions between Serbs and Bosnian Muslims and Croats increased over Serbs' support for Milošević. Efforts to spread the cult of personality of Milošević into the republic of Macedonia began in 1989 with slogans, graffiti, and songs glorifying Milošević spreading in the republic. Furthermore, Milošević proposed a law to restore land titles held by Serbs in the interwar period that effectively provided a legal basis for large numbers of Serbs to move to Kosovo and Macedonia to regain those lands while displacing the Albanian residents there. Beginning in 1989, Milošević had given support to Croatian Serbs who were vouching for the creation of an autonomous province for Croatia's Serbs that was opposed by Croatia's communist authorities. In the late 1980s Milošević allowed the mobilization of Serb nationalist organizations to go unhindered by actions from the Serbian government, with Chetniks holding demonstrations, and the Serbian government embraced the
Serbian Orthodox Church The Serbian Orthodox Church ( sr-cyr, Српска православна црква, Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous Autocephaly (; from el, αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the s ...
and restored its legitimacy in Serbia. Milošević and the Serbian government supported a tricameral legislature, that would include a Chamber of Citizens to represent the population of Yugoslavia, a system that would give Serbs a majority; a Chamber of Provinces and Republics to represent regional affairs; and a Chamber of Associated Labour. Serbia's specific endorsement of a Chamber of Citizens and a Chamber of Associated Labour faced opposition from the republics of Croatia and Slovenia as they saw the proposals as increasing Serbia's power and federal state control over the economy, which was the opposite of their intention to decrease federal state control over the economy. Slovenia staunchly opposed the Milošević government's plans and promoted its own reforms that would make Yugoslavia a decentralized
confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty, confederations of states tend to be established for dealing with critical issu ...
. Croatia and Slovenia denounced the actions by Milošević and began to demand that Yugoslavia be made a full multi-party confederal state. Milošević claimed that he opposed a confederal system but also declared that should a confederal system be created, the external borders of Serbia would be an "open question", insinuating that his government would pursue creating an enlarged Serbian federal republic if Yugoslavia was decentralized. In 1989, the autonomy of
SAP Kosovo The Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo ( sr, Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Косово, Socijalistička Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo; sq, Krahina Socialiste Autonome e Kosovës), comprising the Kosovo ...

SAP Kosovo
and were ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with ''de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
'' abolished by constitutional reforms that transferred powers away from the provinces to the Serbian government. Milošević rejected the independence of Croatia in 1991, and even after the formation of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), it too did not initially recognize Croatia's independence. Plans by Milošević to carve out territory from Croatia to the local Serbs had begun by June 1990, according to the diary of Serbian official
Borisav Jović Borisav Jović ( sr-Cyrl, Борисав Јовић, ; born 19 October 1928) is an economist, former Serbian and Yugoslavia, Yugoslav diplomat and politician, who was Yugoslavia's ambassador to Italy from the mid to late 1970s, was the Serbian rep ...

Borisav Jović
. The Serbian government along with a clique of pro-Milošević members of the Yugoslav army and its general staff, secretly adopted the RAM or "frame" plan that involved the partition of Croatia and Bosnia to give large amounts of territory to the local Serbs that would remain united with Serbia, effectively a Greater Serbia. Armaments and military equipment were placed in strategic positions throughout Croatia and Bosnia for use by the Serbs, and local Serbs were trained as police and paramilitary soldiers in preparation for war. Interviews with government officials involved in political affairs between Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia have revealed that Milošević planned to arrest the Republic of Macedonia's political leadership and replace it with politicians loyal to Serbia, when the Republic of Macedonia was still part of Yugoslavia. Upon the
Republic of Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subr ...
seceding in 1991, the Serbian government declared that Macedonia was an "artificial nation" and Serbia allied with Greece against the Republic of Macedonia, even suggesting a partition of the Republic of Macedonia between Serbia and Greece. Milošević demanded the self-determination of Serbs in the Republic of Macedonia and did not recognize the independence of the Republic of Macedonia until 1996. Serbian nationalists claim that in Communist historiography, Serbs were transformed into oppressors, the
Chetniks The Chetniks ( sh-Cyrl, Четници, sh-Latn, Četnici, ; sl, Četniki), formally the Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army, and also the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland and the Ravna Gora Movement, was a Yugoslav Yugoslav or Yugoslavian ...
of World War II branded as collaborationist as the
Ustaše The Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Movement ( hr, Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret), commonly known as Ustaše () or by anglicised versions Ustasha or Ustashe, was a Croats, Croatian Fascism, fascist, ultranationalism, ultranation ...
, and the massacres of Serbs were downplayed.


List of Serbian nationalist parties


Serbia

*
Serbian Radical Party The Serbian Radical Party ( sr, Српска радикална странка, Srpska radikalna stranka; abbr. CPC or ''SRS'') is a Far-right politics, far-right Ultranationalism, ultranationalist List of political parties in Serbia, political ...
(1991–present) *
Dveri The Serbian Movement "Dveri" ( sr-Cyr, Српски покрет Двери, Srpski pokret Dveri; meaning doors) is a right-wing Serbian nationalism, nationalist Opposition (politics), opposition List of political parties in Serbia, political pa ...

Dveri
(1999–present) * Obraz (1993–present) * Serbian Action (2010–present) * Serbian Party Oathkeepers (2012–present) * Leviathan Movement (2020–present) * Serbian Right (2018–present) *
Party of Serbian Unity The Party of Serbian Unity ( sr, Странка српског јединства, CCJ / Stranka srpskog jedinstva, SSJ) was a nationalist Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a in-gr ...
(1993–2007) (defunct) * 1389 Movement (defunct) * Nacionalni stroj (defunct) * Tsar Lazar Guard (defunct)


Republika Srpska

* Serb Democratic Party (1990–present) (
parliamentary A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' an ...
) *
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats The Alliance of Independent Social Democrats (; abbr. СНСД or SNSD) is a Serb political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally ...
(1996–present) (
parliamentary A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' an ...
)


See also


Notes


References

* * * * * * *


Further reading

* * Clark, Christopher. 2012. ''The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914'' (2012) * * Levine, Louis. 1914. "Pan-Slavism and European Politics." ''Political Science Quarterly'' 29.4 (1914): 664–686
in JSTOR free
* * * * Jelavich, Charles. 1958. ''Tsarist Russia and Balkan nationalism: Russian influence in the internal affairs of Bulgaria and Serbia, 1879-1886'' (1958). * Jelavich, Charles. 1990. ''South Slav nationalisms--textbooks and Yugoslav Union before 1914'' (Ohio State Univ Press, 1990). * Jelavich, Charles. 1962. ''Serbian nationalism and the question of union with Croatia in the nineteenth century'' (1962). * * * * *


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Serbian Nationalism National mysticism Romantic nationalism Politics of Republika Srpska Politics of Serbia 20th century in Serbia 19th century in Serbia