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) , mouth_location =
Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and co ...

Le Havre
/
Honfleur Honfleur () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs ...

Honfleur
, mouth_coordinates = , mouth_elevation = , progression = , river_system = Seine basin , basin_size = , tributaries_left =
Yonne Yonne () is a France, French departments of France, department named after the river Yonne (river), Yonne. It is one of the eight constituent departments of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté and is located in the northwest of the region, bordering Île-de ...
,
Loing The Loing () is a long river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without ...

Loing
,
Eure Eure () is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative divisio ...
,
Risle The Risle (; less common: ''Rille'') is a long Rivers of France, river in Normandy, left tributary of the Seine. The river begins in the Orne department west of L'Aigle, crosses the western part of the department of Eure flowing from south to nort ...

Risle
, tributaries_right =
Ource The Ource () is a long river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reac ...

Ource
,
Aube Aube () is a French department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrat ...
, Marne,
Oise Oise ( ; ; pcd, Oése) is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and adm ...
,
Epte The Epte is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching anoth ...
The Seine ( , ) is a river in northern
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the and from the to the and the ; overseas territories include in , in the N ...

France
. Its
drainage basin A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water. The drainage basin includes all the surface water from surface runoff, rain runoff, snowm ...

drainage basin
is in the
Paris Basin The Paris Basin is one of the major geological regions of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Ov ...
(a geological relative lowland) covering most of northern France. It rises at
Source-Seine Source-Seine, known as ''Source Seine'' during the first few months after its formation, is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is ...
, northwest of
Dijon Dijon (, , ) (dated) * it, Digione * la, Diviō or * lmo, Digion is the prefecture of the Côte-d'Or Côte-d'Or (; literally, "Golden Slope" or "Golden Coast") is a department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Bourgogne-Franche-Comt ...

Dijon
in northeastern France in the
Langres Langres () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs ...

Langres
plateau, flowing through
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
and into the
English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" (Cotentinais Cotentinais is the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two ...

English Channel
at
Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and co ...

Le Havre
(and
Honfleur Honfleur () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs ...

Honfleur
on the
left bank The Rive Gauche (, ''Left Bank'') is the southern bank of the river Seine in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated populati ...
). It is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as
Rouen Rouen (, ; or ) is a city on the River Seine in northern France. It is the prefecture of the Regions of France, region of Normandy (administrative region), Normandy and the Departments of France, department of Seine-Maritime. Formerly one of ...

Rouen
, from the sea. Over 60 percent of its length, as far as
Burgundy Burgundy (; french: link=no, Bourgogne ) is a historical territory and a former administrative region Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organizati ...
, is negotiable by large barges and most tour boats, and nearly its whole length is available for recreational boating; excursion boats offer sightseeing tours of the river banks in the capital city, Paris. There are 37
bridges in Paris
bridges in Paris
across the Seine (the most famous of which are the
Pont Alexandre III The Pont Alexandre III is a deck arch bridge that spans the Seine ) , mouth_location = Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French Communes of France, commune and city in the Seine-Maritime Departments of France, depa ...

Pont Alexandre III
and the
Pont Neuf The Pont Neuf (, "New Bridge") is the oldest standing bridge across the river Seine in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estima ...

Pont Neuf
) and dozens
more More or Mores may refer to: Computing * MORE (application), outline software for Mac OS * more (command), a shell command * MORE protocol, a routing protocol * Missouri Research and Education Network Music Albums * More! (album), ''More!'' (album ...
outside the city. A notable bridge, which is also the last along the course of the river, is the
Pont de Normandie The ''Pont de Normandie'' ( en, Normandy Bridge) is a cable-stayed A cable-stayed bridge has one or more ''towers'' (or ''pylons''), from which wire rope, cables support the bridge deck. A distinctive feature are the cables or wikt:stay#Etym ...
, the ninth longest
cable-stayed bridge A cable-stayed bridge has one or more ''towers'' (or ''pylons''), from which cable Cable may refer to: Mechanical * Nautical cable, an assembly of three or more ropes woven against the weave of the ropes, rendering it virtually waterproof * ...

cable-stayed bridge
s in the world, which links
Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and co ...

Le Havre
and
Honfleur Honfleur () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs ...

Honfleur
.


Sources

The Seine rises in the
commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether ...

commune
of
Source-Seine Source-Seine, known as ''Source Seine'' during the first few months after its formation, is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is ...
, about northwest of
Dijon Dijon (, , ) (dated) * it, Digione * la, Diviō or * lmo, Digion is the prefecture of the Côte-d'Or Côte-d'Or (; literally, "Golden Slope" or "Golden Coast") is a department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Bourgogne-Franche-Comt ...

Dijon
. The source has been owned by the city of Paris since 1864. A number of closely associated small ditches or depressions provide the source waters, with an artificial
grotto A grotto is a natural or artificial cave A cave or cavern is a natural void in the ground, specifically a space large enough for a human to enter. Caves often form by the weathering Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil Soil ( ...

grotto
laid out to highlight and contain a deemed main source. The grotto includes a statue of a nymph, a dog, and a dragon. On the same site are the buried remains of a Gallo-Roman temple. Small statues of the ''dea Sequana'' "Seine goddess" and other
ex-voto An ex-voto is a votive offering to a saint or to a divinity; the term is usually restricted to Christian examples. It is given in fulfillment of a vow (hence the Latin term, short for ''ex voto suscepto'', "from the vow made") or in gratitude or ...

ex-voto
s found at the same place are now exhibited in the Dijon archaeological museum.


Course

The Seine can artificially be divided into five parts: * the ''Petite Seine'' "Small Seine" from the sources to
Montereau-Fault-Yonne Montereau-Fault-Yonne (), or simply Montereau, is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and con ...
* the ''Haute Seine'' "Upper Seine" from Montereau-Fault-Yonne to Paris * the ''Traversée de Paris'' "the Paris waterway" * the ''Basse Seine'' "Lower Seine" from Paris to Rouen * the ''Seine maritime'' "Maritime Seine" from Rouen to the English channel.


Navigation

The Seine is dredged and ocean-going vessels can dock at
Rouen Rouen (, ; or ) is a city on the River Seine in northern France. It is the prefecture of the Regions of France, region of Normandy (administrative region), Normandy and the Departments of France, department of Seine-Maritime. Formerly one of ...

Rouen
, from the sea. Commercial craft (barges and push-tows) can use the river beginning at
Marcilly-sur-Seine Marcilly-sur-Seine is a Communes of France, commune in the Marne (department), Marne Departments of France, department in north-eastern France. It is near the confluence of the Aube (river) and the Seine. See also *Communes of the Marne department ...
, to its mouth. At Paris, there are 37 bridges. The river is only above sea level from its mouth, making it slow flowing and thus easily navigable. The Seine Maritime, from the English Channel at
Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and co ...

Le Havre
to Rouen, is the only portion of the Seine used by ocean-going craft. The tidal section of the Seine Maritime is followed by a canalized section (''Basse Seine'') with four large multiple locks until the mouth of the
Oise Oise ( ; ; pcd, Oése) is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and adm ...
at
Conflans-Sainte-Honorine Conflans-Sainte-Honorine () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is w ...
(). Smaller locks at
Bougival Bougival is a Communes of France, commune (or village) in the Yvelines Departments of France, department in the Île-de-France Regions of France, region in north-central France. It is located from the Kilometre zero, center of Paris, in its wester ...

Bougival
and at
Suresnes Suresnes () is a Communes of France, commune in the western suburbs of Paris, Île-de-France. Located in Hauts-de-Seine, from the centre of Paris, it had a population of 49,145 as of 2016. The nearest communes are Nanterre, Puteaux, Rueil-Malmaiso ...
lift the vessels to the level of the river in Paris, where the junction with the
Canal Saint-Martin The Canal Saint-Martin is a 4.6 km (2.86 mi) long canal Canals are waterways Channel (geography), channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. They may also help with irrigation. It ...

Canal Saint-Martin
is located. The distance from the mouth of the Oise is . The ''Haute Seine'', from Paris to
Montereau-Fault-Yonne Montereau-Fault-Yonne (), or simply Montereau, is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and con ...
, is long and has 8 locks. At
Charenton-le-Pont Charenton-le-Pont () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what ...
is the mouth of the Marne. Upstream from Paris seven locks ensure navigation to Saint Mammès, where the
Loing The Loing () is a long river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without ...

Loing
mouth is situated. Through an eighth lock the river
Yonne Yonne () is a France, French departments of France, department named after the river Yonne (river), Yonne. It is one of the eight constituent departments of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté and is located in the northwest of the region, bordering Île-de ...
is reached at Montereau-Fault-Yonne. From the mouth of the Yonne, larger ships can continue upstream to
Nogent-sur-Seine Nogent-sur-Seine () is a Communes of France, commune in the Aube Departments of France, department in north-central France. The headquarters of The Soufflet Group is located here, as is the Musée Camille Claudel. The large Nogent Nuclear Power P ...

Nogent-sur-Seine
(, 7 locks). From there on, the river is navigable only by small craft to
Marcilly-sur-Seine Marcilly-sur-Seine is a Communes of France, commune in the Marne (department), Marne Departments of France, department in north-eastern France. It is near the confluence of the Aube (river) and the Seine. See also *Communes of the Marne department ...
(, 4 locks). At Marcilly-sur-Seine the 19th century
Canal de la Haute-Seine The Canal de la Haute-Seine is an abandoned canal in central France. It used to connect the navigable Seine at Marcilly-sur-Seine to Troyes. It was constructed between 1808 and 1846. It was closed for navigation in 1957. See also *List of canals i ...
used to allow vessels to continue all the way to
Troyes Troyes () is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube Aube () is a French department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France. As with sixty departments in France, this department is named after a river: the Aube. Wit ...
. This canal has been abandoned since 1957. The average depth of the Seine today at Paris is about . Until locks were installed to raise the level in the 1800s, the river was much shallower within the city, and consisted of a small channel of continuous flow bordered by sandy banks (depicted in many illustrations of the period). Today the depth is tightly controlled and the entire width of the river between the built-up banks on either side is normally filled with water. The average flow of the river is very low, only a few cubic metres per second, but much higher flows are possible during periods of heavy runoff.


Dams and flood control

Four large storage reservoirs have been built since 1950 on the Seine as well as its tributaries Yonne, Marne, and Aube. These help in maintaining a constant level for the river through the city, but cannot prevent significant increases in river level during periods of extreme runoff. The dams are Lac d’Orient,
Lac des Settons
Lac des Settons
,
Lake Der-Chantecoq Lake Der-Chantecoq (French: ''Lac du Der-Chantecoq'') is situated close to the commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'' ...
, and Auzon-Temple and Amance, respectively.


Flooding

A very severe period of high water in January 1910 resulted in extensive flooding throughout the city. The Seine again rose to threatening levels in 1924, 1955, 1982, 1999–2000, June 2016, and January 2018. After a first-level flood alert in 2003, about 100,000 works of art were moved out of Paris, the largest relocation of art since
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
. Much of the art in Paris is kept in underground storage rooms that would have been flooded. A 2002 report by the French government stated the worst-case Seine flood scenario would cost 10 billion euros and cut telephone service for a million Parisians, leaving 200,000 without electricity and 100,000 without gas.


2018 Paris flood

In January 2018 the Seine again flooded, reaching a flood level of on 29 January. An official warning was issued on 24 January that heavy rainfall was likely to cause the river to flood. By 27 January, the river was rising. The Deputy Mayor of Paris, Colombe Brossel, warned that the heavy rain was caused by
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known event ...
, and that "We have to understand that climatic change is not a word, it's a reality."


Watershed

The basin area, including a part of Belgium, is , 2 percent of which is forest and 78 percent cultivated land. In addition to Paris, three other cities with a population over 100,000 are in the Seine watershed: Le Havre at the estuary, Rouen in the Seine valley and
Reims Reims ( , , ; also spelled Rheims in English) is the most populous city in the French of . The city lies northeast of Paris on the river, a tributary of the . Founded by the , Reims became a major city in the . Reims later played a promin ...

Reims
at the northern limit—with an annual urban growth rate of 0.2 percent. The population density is 201 per square kilometer.


Tributaries

Tributaries of the Seine are, from source to mouth: *
Ource The Ource () is a long river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reac ...

Ource
(right) * (right) *
Aube Aube () is a French department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrat ...
(right) *
Yonne Yonne () is a France, French departments of France, department named after the river Yonne (river), Yonne. It is one of the eight constituent departments of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté and is located in the northwest of the region, bordering Île-de ...
(left) *
Loing The Loing () is a long river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without ...

Loing
(left) * Almont (right) *
Essonne Essonne () is a France, French Departments of France, department in the Regions of France, region of Île-de-France (region), Île-de-France. It is named after the river Essonne (river), Essonne. It was formed on 1 January 1968 when Seine-et-Ois ...
(left) *
Orge The Orge () is a long river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without ...

Orge
(left) * Marne (right) * Bièvre (left) *
Oise Oise ( ; ; pcd, Oése) is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and adm ...
(right) * Aubette de Meulan (right) *
Mauldre The Mauldre () is a 35 km long river in France. It is a left tributary of the Seine. Its basin area is about 410 square kilometres, which covers 66 municipalities corresponding to 400 000 inhabitants. Its source elevation is 135 m. The Mauldre ...
(left) *
Vaucouleurs Vaucouleurs is a commune in the Meuse department of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overse ...
(left) *
Epte The Epte is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching anoth ...
(right) *
Andelle The Andelle is a river of Normandy, France, in length, flowing through the departments of Seine-Maritime and Eure. It is a right tributary of the Seine. Geography The Andelle has its source in the Pays de Bray in the territory of the commune of ...

Andelle
(right) *
Eure Eure () is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative divisio ...
(left) * Oison (left) * Aubette (right) * Cailly (right) * Austreberthe (right) *
Commerce Commerce is the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale. Etymology The English-language word ''commerce'' has been derived from the Latin word ''commercium'', from ''com'' ("together") and ''merx'' ("merchandise"). History ...
(right) *
Risle The Risle (; less common: ''Rille'') is a long Rivers of France, river in Normandy, left tributary of the Seine. The river begins in the Orne department west of L'Aigle, crosses the western part of the department of Eure flowing from south to nort ...

Risle
(left) * Lézarde (right)


Water quality

Periodically the sewerage systems of Paris experience a failure known as
sanitary sewer overflow Sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) is a condition in which untreated sewage Sewage, or domestic/municipal wastewater, is a type of wastewater that is produced by a community of people. It is characterized by volume Volume is the quantity of t ...
, often in periods of high rainfall. Under these conditions untreated
sewage Sewage (or domestic sewage, domestic wastewater, municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater Wastewater is generated after the use of fresh water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and n ...
is discharged into the Seine. The resulting
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

oxygen
deficit is principally caused by
allochthonous River ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energ ...
bacteria larger than one micrometre in size. The specific activity of these sewage bacteria is typically three to four times greater than that of the autochthonous (background) bacterial population. Heavy metal concentrations in the Seine are relatively high. The pH level of the Seine at Pont Neuf has been measured to be 8.46. Despite this, the water quality has improved significantly over what several historians at various times in the past called an "open sewer". In 2009, it was announced that
Atlantic salmon The Atlantic salmon (''Salmo salar'') is a species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae Salmonidae is a Family (biology), family of ray-finned fish, the only living family currently placed in the Order (biology), order Salmoniformes ...

Atlantic salmon
had returned to the Seine.


History


Name

The name comes from Gaullish , from the Celtic
Gallo-Roman Gallo-Roman culture was a consequence of the Romanization (cultural), Romanization of Gauls, Gaulish peoples under the rule of the Roman Empire. It was characterized by the Gaulish adoption or adaptation of Roman culture, Roman culture, languag ...
goddess of the river, offerings for her were found at the source. Sometimes it is associated with Latin; the Latin word seems to derive from the same root as Latin ''sequor'' (I follow) and English ''sequence'', namely
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
''*seikw-'', signifying 'to flow' or 'to pour forth'.


Events

On 28 or 29 March 845, an army of
Vikings Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In ...

Vikings
led by a chieftain named Reginherus, which is possibly another name for
Ragnar Lothbrok Ragnar Lodbrok or Lothbrok ( non, Ragnarr Loðbrók, "Ragnar shaggy breeches", Modern Icelandic: ''Ragnar Loðbrók'') is a legendary Viking hero, as well as, according to the ''Gesta Danorum'', a legendary Legendary kings of Denmark, Danish and ...
, sailed up the River Seine with siege towers and sacked Paris. On 25 November 885, another Viking expedition led by
Rollo Rollo ( nrf, Rou, ''Rollo(u)n''; non, Hrólfr; french: Rollon;  – ) was a Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-su ...

Rollo
was sent up the River Seine to attack Paris again. In March, 1314, King
Philip IV of France Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called Philip the Fair (french: Philippe le Bel), was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french ...

Philip IV of France
had
Jacques de Molay Jacques de Molay (; c. 1240–1250 – 11 or 18 March 1314), also spelled "Molai",Demurger, pp. 1-4. "So no conclusive decision can be reached, and we must stay in the realm of approximations, confining ourselves to placing Molay's date of birt ...

Jacques de Molay
, last
Grand Master Grandmaster or Grand Master may refer to: People * Grandmaster Flash, Joseph Saddler (born 1958), hip-hop musician and disc jockey * Grandmaster Melle Mel, Melvin Glover (born 1961), hip-hop musician * "Grandmaster Sexay", nickname for profession ...
of the
Knights Templar The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon ( la, Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar, or simply the Templars, was a Catholic military order (so ...
, burned on a scaffold on an
island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), sometimes known as a coral atoll, i ...
in the River Seine in front of
Notre Dame de Paris Notre-Dame de Paris (; meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), referred to simply as Notre-Dame, is a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and prese ...

Notre Dame de Paris
.A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages Vol. III by Henry Charles Lea, NY: Hamper & Bros, Franklin Sq. 1888, p. 325. Not in copyright. After the
burning at the stake Death by burning (also known as immolation) is an execution method involving combustion Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxyg ...
of
Joan of Arc Joan of Arc (french: link=no, Jeanne d’Arc, translit= an daʁk; 1412 – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (french: link=no, La Pucelle d'Orléans) or "Maid of Lorraine prophecies, Maid of Lorraine" (french: link=no, ...

Joan of Arc
in 1431, her ashes were thrown into the Seine from the medieval stone Mathilde Bridge at
Rouen Rouen (, ; or ) is a city on the River Seine in northern France. It is the prefecture of the Regions of France, region of Normandy (administrative region), Normandy and the Departments of France, department of Seine-Maritime. Formerly one of ...

Rouen
, though unserious counter-claims persist. According to his will,
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
, who died in 1821, wished to be buried on the banks of the Seine. His request was not granted. At the
1900 Summer Olympics The 1900 Summer Olympics (french: Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1900), today officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, ...
, the river hosted the
rowing Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oars in the water by displacing water to propel the boat forward. Rowing and paddling are similar. However, rowing requires oars to have a mechanical connection with the boat, while p ...
,
swimming Swimming is the self-propulsion of a person through water, or other liquid, usually for recreation, sport, exercise, or survival. Locomotion is achieved through coordinated movement of the limbs and the body to achieve hydrodynamic thrust whic ...
, and
water polo Water polo is a competitive sport, competitive team sport played in water between two teams of seven players each. The game consists of four quarters in which the two teams attempt to score goals by throwing the water polo ball, ball into the ...
events. Twenty-four years later, it hosted the
rowing Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oars in the water by displacing water to propel the boat forward. Rowing and paddling are similar. However, rowing requires oars to have a mechanical connection with the boat, while p ...
events again at Bassin d'Argenteuil, along the Seine north of Paris. Until the 1930s, a towing system using a chain on the bed of the river existed to facilitate movement of barges upriver. Listed in ''World Canals'' by Charles Hadfield,
David & Charles David & Charles Ltd is an English publishing company. It is the owner of the David & Charles imprint, which specialises in craft and lifestyle publishing. David and Charles Ltd acts as distributor for all David and Charles Ltd books and cont ...
1986. The Seine was one of the original objectives of
Operation Overlord Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allies of World War II, Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Front (World War II), Western Europe during World War II. The operat ...
in 1944. The Allies' intention was to reach the Seine by 90 days after
D-Day The Normandy landings were the landing operation Allied invasion of Sicily, 1943 A landing operation is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended fo ...

D-Day
. That objective was met. An anticipated assault crossing of the river never materialized as German resistance in France crumbled by early September 1944. However, the
First Canadian Army The First Canadian Army (french: 1reArmée canadienne) was a field army The unit flag of the Sixth United States Army. The distinguishing flag of a United States army is bicolored, white over red, with gold fringe. In the center is a render ...
did encounter resistance immediately west of the Seine and fighting occurred in the Forêt de la Londe as Allied
troops A troop is a military sub-subunit Sub-subunit or sub-sub-unit is a subordinated element below platoon level of company-sized units or sub-units which normally might not be separately identified in authorization documents by name, number, o ...
attempted to cut off the escape across the river of parts of the German 7th Army in the closing phases of the Battle of Normandy. Some of the Algerian victims of the
Paris massacre of 1961 --> The Paris massacre of 1961 occurred on 17 October 1961, during the Algerian War (1954–62). Under orders from the Prefecture of Police, head of the Parisian police, Maurice Papon, the French National Police attacked a demonstration (people) ...
drowned in the Seine after being thrown by French policemen from the
Pont Saint-Michel Pont Saint-Michel is a bridge linking the Place Saint-Michel on the left bank The Rive Gauche (, ''Left Bank'') is the southern bank of the river Seine in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with ...

Pont Saint-Michel
and other locations in Paris.
Dredging Dredging is the excavation of material from a water environment. Possible reasons for dredging include improving existing water features; reshaping land and water features to alter drainage Drainage is the natural or artificial remova ...
in the 1960s mostly eliminated
tidal bore Tidal is the adjectival form of tide Tides are the rise and fall of sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloquial, ordinary language, an average is a single number taken as representative of ...

tidal bore
s on the lower river, known in French as ''"le mascaret."'' In 1991
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
added the banks of the Seine in Paris—the ''Rive Gauche'' and ''Rive Droite''—to its
list of World Heritage Sites in Europe This is a list of the lists of World Heritage Sites. A World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultur ...
. Since 2002 Paris-Plages has been held every summer on the Paris banks of the Seine: a transformation of the paved banks into a beach with sand and facilities for sunbathing and entertainment. In 2007, 55 bodies were retrieved from its waters; in February 2008, the body of supermodel-turned-activist Katoucha Niane was found there.Supermodel Katoucha Niane found dead
from ''
The Daily Telegraph ''The Daily Telegraph'', known online and elsewhere as ''The Telegraph'' (), is a national British daily broadsheet A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages, typically of . Other common ne ...

The Daily Telegraph
''


In fiction

The Seine was the river that
Javert Javert () is a fictional character and the main antagonist An antagonist is a character in a story who is presented as the chief foe of the protagonist. Etymology The English word antagonist comes from the Greek ἀνταγωνιστής – ...

Javert
, the primary
antagonist An antagonist is a character in a story who is presented as the chief foe of the protagonist 200px, Shakespeare's ''Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.'' William Morris Hunt, oil on canvas, c. 1864 A protagonist (from grc, πρωταγωνιστής, ...
of
Victor Hugo Victor-Marie Hugo (; 26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, essayist, playwright, and dramatist of the Romantic movement Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellect ...

Victor Hugo
's 1862 novel ''
Les Misérables ''Les Misérables'' (, ) is a 19th-century French literature, French historical fiction, historical novel by Victor Hugo, first published in 1862, that is considered one of the greatest novels of the 19th century. In the English-speaking world ...

Les Misérables
'', drowned himself in. It was also the river that an angry mob pushed Erik, the Phantom, main antagonist of
Gaston Leroux Gaston Louis Alfred Leroux (6 May 186815 April 1927) was a French journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worthy form and disseminates it to ...

Gaston Leroux
’s
The Phantom of the Opera ''The Phantom of the Opera'' (French: ''Le Fantôme de l'Opéra''), is a novel by French author Gaston Leroux. It was first published as a serial in ''Le Gaulois'' from 23 September 1909 to 8 January 1910, and was released in volume form in late ...

The Phantom of the Opera
(1910) into, and he, too, drowns. In
Ludwig Bemelmans Ludwig Bemelmans (April 27, 1898 – October 1, 1962) was an Austrian-born American writer and illustrator of children's books and adult novels. He is known best for the '' Madeline'' picture books. Six were published, the first in 1939. Early l ...
' 1953 children's book ''
Madeline's Rescue ''Madeline's Rescue'' is a children's picture book by Ludwig Bemelmans, the second in the ''Madeline'' series. Released by Viking Press, it was the recipient of the Caldecott Medal for illustration in 1954.American Library AssociationCaldecott Meda ...
'' and the 1998 live-action adaptation of Madeline, Madeline accidentally falls into the Seine after standing on the ledge of a bridge. The notable difference between the two is that in the book, Madeline fell over after playing on the ledge, whereas in the film, she fell over trying to justify her actions towards Pepito that got all the girls in trouble. In the 2016 film ''
La La Land ''La La Land'' is a 2016 American musical Musical is the adjective of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspects of all ...
'', Mia, the female protagonist, sang about her aunt who jumped into the Seine without looking and how it is similar to all the dreamers in the world who keeps on dreaming, in her final audition "Audition (The Fools Who Dream)”. The song was nominated for Best Original Song in the 89th Academy Awards.


In art

During the 19th and the 20th centuries in particular the Seine inspired many artists, including: *
Frédéric Bazille Jean Frédéric Bazille (December 6, 1841 – November 28, 1870) was a French Impressionist Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate ...
*
Maurice Boitel Maurice Boitel (July 31, 1919 – August 11, 2007) was a French painter Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a th ...
*
Richard Parkes Bonington Richard Parkes Bonington (25 October 1802 – 23 September 1828) was an English Romantic landscape A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface o ...
*
Eugène Boudin Eugène Louis Boudin (; 12 July 18248 August 1898) was one of the first French landscape painter (German, 1842–1921), ''View of Lærdalsøyri, on the Sognefjord'', 1901 Landscape painting, also known as landscape art, is the depiction of ...
*
Camille Corot Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot ( , , ; July 16, 1796 – February 22, 1875) was a French landscape and portrait painter as well as a printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''S ...
*
Charles-François Daubigny Charles-François Daubigny ( , , ; 15 February 181719 February 1878) was one of the Painting, painters of the Barbizon school, and is considered an important precursor of impressionism. He was also a prolific printmaker, mostly in etching but als ...
*
Guy Debord Guy Louis Debord (; ; 28 December 1931 – 30 November 1994) was a French Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and ...
*
Raoul Dufy Raoul Dufy (; 3 June 1877 – 23 March 1953) was a French Fauvist painter, brother of Jean Dufy. He developed a colorful, decorative style that became fashionable for designs of ceramic art, ceramics and textiles, as well as decorative schemes f ...
*
Othon Friesz Achille-Émile Othon Friesz (6 February 1879 – 10 January 1949), who later called himself Othon Friesz, a native of Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French Communes of France, commune and city in the Seine-Maritime Departme ...
* * Eugène Isabey * Johan Barthold Jongkind * Raimond Lecourt * Albert Marquet * Henri Matisse * Claude Monet * Luis F. Pinzón * Camille Pissarro * Emilio Grau Sala * Gaston Sébire * Georges Seurat * Alfred Sisley * Constant Troyon * J. M. W. Turner * Félix Vallotton * Édouard Vuillard * Pierre Auguste Renoir A song 'La Seine' by Flavien Monod and Guy Lafarge was written in 1948. Josephine Baker recorded a song 'La Seine' A song 'La seine' by Vanessa Paradis feat. Matthieu Chedid was originally written as a soundtrack for the movie 'A Monster in Paris' File:A Sunday on La Grande Jatte, Georges Seurat, 1884.png, Georges Seurat's ''Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte'' (1884–1886) is set on an island in the Seine. File:French River Landscape, Bois-le-Roi (Carl Fredrik Hill) - Gothenburg Museum of Art - GKM 0522.tif, Carl Fredrik Hill, ''French River Landscape, Bois-le-Roi'' (1877). File:Alfred Sisley - The Terrace at Saint-Germain, Spring - Walters 37992.jpg, Alfred Sisley, ''The Terrace at Saint-Germain, Spring'' (1875) in the Walters Art Museum gives a panoramic view of the Seine river valley. File:TKM 1082M, Pesumajad Seine'il, Andrus Johani.jpg, ''Washhouses on Seine'' (1937) by Andrus Johani


See also

* The department of Seine (department), Seine, abolished in 1968 * Seine River Steamers * List of crossings of the Seine


References


External links


Website on the Great Flood of 1910

Lower Seine (Seine aval)
with maps and information on places, ports and moorings on the river from Honfleur to Paris, by the author of ''Inland Waterways of France'', Imray
Upper Seine (Haute Seine and Petite Seine)
with maps and information on places, ports and moorings on the river from Paris to Marcilly-sur-Seine, by the author of ''Inland Waterways of France'', Imray
Navigation details for 80 French rivers and canals
(French waterways website section) {{Authority control Venues of the 1900 Summer Olympics Venues of the 1924 Summer Olympics Venues of the 2024 Summer Olympics Olympic rowing venues Olympic swimming venues Olympic water polo venues Olympic triathlon venues River Seine, Rivers of France Seine basin, Rivers of Aube Rivers of Côte-d'Or Rivers of Eure Rivers of Hauts-de-Seine Rivers of Paris Water transport in France Rivers of Seine-et-Marne Rivers of Seine-Maritime Rivers of Val-de-Marne Rivers of Yvelines World Heritage Sites in France Rivers of Île-de-France Rivers of Normandy