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Scottish Americans or Scots Americans (
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
: ''Ameireaganaich Albannach''; sco, Scots-American) are
Americans Americans are the citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recogn ...
whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
.
Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Scotland *Scottish English *Scottish national identity, the Scottish iden ...
Americans are closely related to
Scotch-Irish Americans Scotch-Irish (or Scots-Irish) Americans are American descendants of Ulster Protestants who immigrated from northern Ireland to America during the 18th and 19th centuries, whose ancestors had originally migrated mainly from the Scottish Lowlands ...
, descendants of Ulster Scots, and communities emphasize and celebrate a common heritage.Celeste Ray, 'Introduction', p. 6, id., 'Scottish Immigration and Ethnic Organization in the United States', pp. 48-9, 62, 81, in id. (ed.), ''The Transatlantic Scots'' (Tuscaloosa, AL:
University of Alabama Press The University of Alabama Press is a university press founded in 1945 and is the scholarly publishing arm of the University of Alabama The University of Alabama (informally known as Alabama, UA, or Bama) is a Public university, public Resear ...
, 2005).
The majority of Scotch-Irish Americans originally came from Lowland Scotland and Northern England before migrating to the province of
Ulster Ulster (; ga, Ulaidh or ''Cúige Uladh'' ; sco, label=Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster Scots, Ulstèr or ''Ulster'') is one of the four traditional Irish provinces of Ireland, provinces, in the north of Ireland. It is made up of nine Counties ...

Ulster
in
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
(see ''
Plantation of Ulster The Plantation of Ulster ( gle, Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster-Scots: ''Ul ...

Plantation of Ulster
'') and thence, beginning about five
generation A generation is "all of the people born and living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms ** extant taxon, Living species, one that is not ex ...

generation
s later, to North America in large numbers during the eighteenth century. Today, the number of Scottish Americans is believed to be around 25 million, and celebrations of ‘ Scottishness’ can be seen through major
Tartan Day Tartan Day is a North American celebration of Scottish heritage on 6 April, the date on which the Declaration of Arbroath The Declaration of Arbroath ( la, Declaratio Arbroathis; sco, Declaration o Aiberbrothock; gd, Tiomnadh Bhruis) is ...
parades and
Burns Night A Burns supper is a celebration of the life and poetry of the poet Robert Burns The name Robert is an ancient Germanic given name, from Proto-Germanic "fame" and "bright" (Hrōþiberhtaz). Compare Old Dutch ''Robrecht'' and Old High G ...

Burns Night
celebrations. Significant emigration from Scotland to America began in the 1700s, accelerating after the
Jacobite rising of 1745 The Jacobite rising of 1745, also known as the Forty-five Rebellion or simply the '45 ( gd, Bliadhna Theàrlaich, , ), was an attempt by Charles Edward Stuart Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart (20 Decembe ...
, the steady degradation of clan structures, and the
Highland Clearances The Highland Clearances ( gd, Fuadaichean nan Gàidheal , the "eviction of the Gaels The Gaels ( ; ga, Na Gaeil ; gd, Na Gàidheil ; gv, Ny Gaeil ) are an ethnolinguistic group An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is ...
. Even higher rates of emigration occurred after these times of social upheaval. In the 1920s, Scotland experienced a reduction in total population of 0.8%, totally absorbing the natural population increase of 7.2%: the USA and Canada were the most common destinations of these emigrants.


Number of Scottish Americans

The table shows the ethnic Scottish population in the British colonies from 1700 to 1775. In 1700 the total population of the colonies was 250,888, of whom 223,071 (89%) were white and 3.0% were ethnically Scottish.Colonial America To 1763
By Thomas L. Purvis].


Census

The number of Americans of Scottish descent today is estimated to be 20 to 25 million (up to 8.3% of the total US population), and Scotch-Irish 27 to 30 million (up to 10% of the total US population), the subgroups overlapping and not always distinguishable because of their shared ancestral
surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, history, and use of proper names. An ''wikt ...
s and heritage. The majority of Scotch-Irish Americans originally came from Lowland Scotland and Northern England before migrating to the province of
Ulster Ulster (; ga, Ulaidh or ''Cúige Uladh'' ; sco, label=Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster Scots, Ulstèr or ''Ulster'') is one of the four traditional Irish provinces of Ireland, provinces, in the north of Ireland. It is made up of nine Counties ...

Ulster
in
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
(see ''
Plantation of Ulster The Plantation of Ulster ( gle, Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster-Scots: ''Ul ...

Plantation of Ulster
'') and thence, beginning about five
generation A generation is "all of the people born and living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms ** extant taxon, Living species, one that is not ex ...

generation
s later, to North America in large numbers during the eighteenth century. In the 2000 census, 4.8 million Americans self-reported Scottish ancestry, 1.7% of the total US population. Over 4.3 million self-reported Scotch-Irish ancestry, for a total of 9.2 million Americans self-reporting some kind of Scottish descent. Self-reported numbers are regarded by demographers as massive under-counts, because Scottish ancestry is known to be disproportionately under-reported among the majority of mixed ancestry,Mary C. Walters, ''Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America'' (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), pp. 31-6. and because areas where people reported "American" ancestry were the places where, historically, Scottish and Scotch-Irish
Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholic Church, errors in the Catholic Church. Protestants originating in the Ref ...
settled in
America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and a ...

America
(that is: along the North American coast,
Appalachia Appalachia () is a cultural region 's map of native American cultural areas within the territory of the United States (1948) as defined by Melville J. Herskovits influence , homelands of the Celtic languages The Celtic languages ( ...
, and the Southeastern
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
). Scottish Americans descended from nineteenth-century Scottish emigrants tend to be concentrated in the West, while many in
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
are the descendants of emigrants, often Gaelic-speaking, from the
Maritime Provinces The Maritimes, also called the Maritime provinces, is a region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, in ...
of
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
, from the 1880s onward. Americans of Scottish descent outnumber the population of Scotland, where 4,459,071 or 88.09% of people identified as ethnic Scottish in the 2001 Census.


Scottish origins by state

The states with the largest
Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Scotland *Scottish English *Scottish national identity, the Scottish iden ...
populations: *
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
- 519,955 (1.4% of state population) *
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...

Texas
- 369,161 (1.5%) *
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
- 296,667 (1.6%) *
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...

North Carolina
- 245,021 (2.6%) *
Michigan Michigan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Michigan
- 227,372 (2.3%) *
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
- 215,898 (1.1%) *
Ohio Ohio () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Ohio
- 214,649 (1.9%) *
Washington Washington commonly refers to: * Washington (state), United States * Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States ** Federal government of the United States (metonym) ** Washington metropolitan area, the metropolitan area centered on Washingt ...
- 200,085 (3.0%) The states with the top percentages of Scottish residents: *
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
(5.5% of state population) *
Utah Utah ( , ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. Utah is a landlocked U.S. state bordered to its east by Colorado, to its northeast by Wyoming, to its north by Idaho, to its so ...

Utah
(4.6%) *
New Hampshire New Hampshire ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Gulf of Maine to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the nor ...

New Hampshire
(4.4%) *
Vermont Vermont () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Vermont
(4.3%) *
Wyoming Wyoming () is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. The List of U.S. states and territories by area, 10th largest state by area, it is also the List of U.S. states and territories b ...
(3.7%) *
Idaho Idaho () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Idaho
(3.3%) *
Oregon Oregon () is a U.S. state, state in the Pacific Northwest region of the Western United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington (state), Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of it ...

Oregon
,
Montana Montana () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Montana
(3.1% each) *
Washington Washington commonly refers to: * Washington (state), United States * Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States ** Federal government of the United States (metonym) ** Washington metropolitan area, the metropolitan area centered on Washingt ...
(3.0%)


Historical contributions


Explorers

The first Scots in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
came with the
Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Pro ...

Viking
s. A Christian
bard In Celtic cultures, a bard was a professional story teller, verse-maker, music composer, oral historian Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using a ...

bard
from the
Hebrides The Hebrides (; gd, Innse Gall, ; non, Suðreyjar, "southern isles") are a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language ...
accompanied Bjarni Herjolfsson on his voyage around
Greenland Greenland ( kl, Kalaallit Nunaat, ; da, Grønland, ) is an autonomous territory An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administra ...

Greenland
in 985/6 which sighted the mainland to the west.Michael Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'' (New York: Thomas Dunne, 2005), p. 7. The first Scots recorded as having set foot in the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: " 6c: from ...
were a man named Haki and a woman named Hekja, slaves owned by Leif Eiriksson. The Scottish couple were runners who scouted for Thorfinn Karlsefni's expedition in c. 1010, gathering wheat and the grapes for which Vinland was named.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', pp. 8-9. The controversial Zeno brothers, Zeno letters have been cited in support of a claim that Henry I Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, Henry Sinclair, earl of Orkney, visited
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
in 1398.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', p. 10. In the early years of
Spanish colonization of the Americas The Spanish colonization of the Americas began under the Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some deca ...

Spanish colonization of the Americas
, a Scot named Tam Blake spent 20 years in
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by conv ...

Colombia
and
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
. He took part in the conquest of New Granada in 1532 with Alonso de Heredia. He arrived in Mexico in 1534–5, and joined Coronado's 1540 expedition to the
American Southwest The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣona ...
.Jim Hewitson, ''Tam Blake & Co.: The Story of the Scots in America'' (Edinburgh: Orion, 1993), pp. 12-13.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', p. 11. Scottish-American naturalist
John Muir John Muir ( ; April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914), also known as "John of the Mountains" and "Father of the National Parks#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, crea ...

John Muir
is perhaps best known for his exploration of California's Sierra Nevada mountains during the 19th century.


Traders

After the
Union of the Crowns The Union of the Crowns ( gd, Aonadh nan Crùintean; sco, Union o the Crouns) was the accession Accession refers to the general idea of joining or adding to. It may also refer to: *Accession (property law) * Accession, the act of joining a t ...
of
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
and
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
in 1603,
King James VI James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and King of Ireland, Ireland as James I from the Union of the Crowns, union of the Scottish and En ...

King James VI
, a Scot, promoted joint expeditions overseas, and became the founder of
British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, terri ...

British America
.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', p. 12. The first permanent English settlement in the Americas, Jamestown, was thus named for a Scot. The earliest Scottish communities in America were formed by traders and
planters Planters Nut & Chocolate Company is an American snack food company now owned by Hormel, Hormel Foods. Planters is best known for its processed Nut (fruit), nuts and for the Mr. Peanut icon that symbolizes them. Mr. Peanut was created by grade sch ...
rather than farmer settlers.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', p. 19. The hub of Scottish commercial activity in the colonial period was
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

Virginia
. Regular contacts began with the
transportation Transport (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and ...
of
indentured servants Indentured servitude is a form of labor in which a person is contracted to work without salary for a specific number of years. The contract, called an "indenture", may be entered voluntarily for eventual compensation or debt repayment, or it may b ...
to the colony from Scotland, including prisoners taken in the
Wars of the Three Kingdoms The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place between 1639 and 1653 in the kingdoms of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country tha ...
.Alex Murdoch, "USA", Michael Lynch (ed), ''The Oxford Companion to Scottish History'' (Oxford University Press, 2001), pp. 629-633. By the 1670s
Glasgow Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesga; gd, Glaschu) is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia'' ...

Glasgow
was the main outlet for Virginian
tobacco Tobacco is the common name of several plants in the genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defini ...

tobacco
, in open defiance of English restrictions on colonial trade; in return the colony received Scottish manufactured goods, emigrants and ideas.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', pp. 18, 19. In the 1670s and 1680s
Presbyterian Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of ...
Dissenter A dissenter (from the Latin ''dissentire'', "to disagree") is one who dissent Sticker art arguing that dissent is necessary for democracy.">democracy.html" ;"title="Sticker art arguing that dissent is necessary for democracy">Sticker art arguin ...
s fled persecution by the
Royalist A royalist supports a particular monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. ...

Royalist
privy council A privy council is a body that advises the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's per ...
in
Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is ...

Edinburgh
to settle in
South Carolina South Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspap ...

South Carolina
and
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
, where they maintained their distinctive religious culture. Trade between Scotland and the American colonies was finally regularized by the parliamentary
Act of UnionAct of Union may refer to: In Great Britain and Ireland * Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, passed during the reign of King Henry VIII to make Wales a part of the Kingdom of England (These laws are often referred to in the plural as the "Acts of Un ...
of Scotland and England in 1707.
Population growth Population growth is the increase in the number of people in a population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governments typically quantify the size ...
and the commercialization of agriculture in Scotland encouraged mass emigration to America after the
French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Great Britain ...

French and Indian War
,Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', p. 20. a conflict which had also seen the first use of Scottish Highland regiments as Indian fighters. More than 50,000 Scots, principally from the west coast, settled in the
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
between 1763 and 1776, the majority of these in their own communities in the
South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germa ...
, especially
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...

North Carolina
, although Scottish individuals and families also began to appear as professionals and artisans in every American town. Scots arriving in
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
and the
Gulf Coast The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or as a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean T ...
traded extensively with
Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', p. 41.


Settlers

Scottish settlement in colonial America has often been divided by historians into three separate streams—Lowlanders, Highlanders, and Ulster Scots. Lowland Scots began to migrate to North America in the eighteenth century after the union of England and Scotland. They tended to settle in low-lying coastal areas and cities such as New York and New Jersey. As they were usually well-educated, lowland Scots found work easily, frequently as doctors, schoolmasters, or private tutors for the children of wealthy colonial citizens. Many others were merchants, particularly in the South. Because they were active participants in the British empire (to the point of considering themselves to be "North British" rather than "Scottish"), lowland Scots tended to stay loyal in the Revolution. Highland Scots started arriving in North America in the 1730s. Unlike their lowland and Ulster counterparts, the Highlanders tended to cluster together in self-contained communities, where they maintained their distinctive cultural features such as the
Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages are spoken in Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man. Whe ...
language and
piobaireachd Pibroch, or is an art music genre associated primarily with the Scottish Highlands that is characterised by extended compositions with a melodic theme and elaborate formal variations. Strictly meaning "piping" in Scottish Gaelic, has for some f ...
music. Groups of Highlanders existed in coastal Georgia (mainly immigrants from Inverness-shire) and the Mohawk Valley in New York (from the West Highlands). By far the largest Highland community was centered on the
Cape Fear River The Cape Fear River is a long blackwater river in east central North Carolina. It flows into the Atlantic Ocean near Cape Fear (headland), Cape Fear, from which it takes its name. The river also has several pollutants, ranging from suspended soli ...
, which saw a stream of immigrants from Argyllshire, and, later, other regions such as the
Isle of Skye The Isle of Skye, or simply Skye (; gd, An t-Eilean Sgitheanach or ; sco, Isle o Skye), is the largest and northernmost of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides The Inner Hebrides (; Scottish Gaelic: ''Na h-Eileanan a-staigh'', "the ...

Isle of Skye
. Highland Scots were overwhelmingly loyalist in the Revolution. Distinctly Highland cultural traits persisted in the region until the 19th century, at which point they were assimilated into Anglo-American culture. The Ulster Scots, known as the Scots-Irish (or Scotch-Irish) in North America, were descended from people originally from the Scottish lowlands, as well as the north of England and other regions, who colonized the province of Ulster in Ireland in the seventeenth century. After several generations, their descendants left for America, and struck out for the frontier, in particular the Appalachian mountains, providing an effective "buffer" for attacks from Native Americans. In the colonial era, they were usually simply referred to as "Irish," with the "Scots-" or "Scotch-" prefixes becoming popular when the descendants of the Ulster emigrants wanted to differentiate themselves from the Catholic Irish who were flocking to many American cities in the nineteenth century. Unlike the Highlanders and Lowlanders, the Scots-Irish were usually patriots in the Revolution. They have been noted for their tenacity and their cultural contributions to the United States.


Folk and gospel music

American bluegrass and
country music Country (also called country and western) is a genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed b ...

country music
styles have some of their roots in the Appalachian ballad culture of Scotch-Irish Americans (predominantly originating from the "Border Ballad" tradition of southern Scotland and northern England). Fiddle tunes from the Scottish repertoire, as they developed in the eighteenth century, spread rapidly into British colonies. However, in many cases, this occurred through the medium of print rather than aurally, explaining the presence of Highland-origin tunes in regions like Appalachia where there was essentially no Highland settlement. Outside of Gaelic-speaking communities, however, characteristic Highland musical idioms, such as the “Scotch-snap,” were flattened out and assimilated into anglophone musical styles. Some African American communities were influenced musically by the Scottish American communities in which they were embedded. Psalm-singing and gospel music have become central musical experiences for African American churchgoers and it has been posited that some elements of these styles were introduced, in these communities, by Scots. Psalm-singing, or " precenting the line" as it is technically known, in which the psalms are called out and the congregation sings a response, was a form of musical worship initially developed for non-literate congregations and Africans in America were exposed to this by Scottish Gaelic settlers as well as immigrants of other origins. However, the theory that the African-American practice was influenced mainly by the Gaels has been criticized by ethnomusicologist Terry Miller, who notes that the practice of "
lining out Lining out or hymn lining, called precenting the line in Scotland, is a form of a cappella A cappella (, also , ; ) music is group or solo performance without instrumental An instrumental is a recording normally without any vocals, although ...
" hymns and psalms was common all over Protestant Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and that it is far more likely that Gospel music originated with English psalm singing. The first foreign tongue spoken by some slaves in America was
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
picked up from Gaelic-speaking immigrants from the Scottish Highlands and Western Isles. There are accounts of African Americans singing Gaelic songs and playing Scottish Gaelic music on bagpipes and fiddle.


Patriots and Loyalists

The civic tradition of the
Scottish Enlightenment The Scottish Enlightenment ( sco, Scots Enlichtenment, gd, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th- and early-19th-century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments. By the eighteenth century ...
contributed to the intellectual ferment of the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
. In 1740, the Glasgow philosopher Francis Hutcheson argued for a right of colonial resistance to tyranny.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', pp. 28-29. Scotland's leading thinkers of the revolutionary age,
David Hume David Hume (; born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) Cranston, Maurice, and Thomas Edmund Jessop. 2020 999999 or triple nine most often refers to: * 999 (emergency telephone number) 250px, A sign on a beach ...

David Hume
and
Adam Smith Adam Smith ( 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher as well as a moral philosopher Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and ...

Adam Smith
, opposed the use of force against the rebellious colonies.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', pp. 29-32. According to the historian Arthur L. Herman: "Americans built their world around the principles of Adam Smith and
Thomas Reid Thomas Reid (; 7 May (Julian calendar, O.S. 26 April) 1710 – 7 October 1796) was a religiously trained Scottish philosopher. He was the founder of the Scottish School of Common Sense and played an integral role in the Scottish Enlightenment ...

Thomas Reid
, of individual interest governed by common sense and a limited need for government."Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', p. 154. While
John Witherspoon John Witherspoon (February 5, 1723 – November 15, 1794) was a Scottish Americans, Scottish American Presbyterian minister, educator, farmer, slaveholder, and a Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father of the United States. Withe ...

John Witherspoon
was the only Scot to sign the Declaration of Independence, several other signers had ancestors there. Other
founding fathers The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing their nation. National founders are typically those who played an influential role in setting up the systems of governance, ...
like
James Madison James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751June 28, 1836) was an American statesman, diplomat, expansionist, philosopher, and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited wi ...

James Madison
had no ancestral connection but were imbued with ideas drawn from Scottish moral philosophy.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', pp. 38-40. Scottish Americans who made major contributions to the revolutionary war included Commodore
John Paul Jones John Paul Jones (born John Paul; July 6, 1747 July 18, 1792) was a Scottish-American naval captain who was the United States' first well-known naval commander in the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–17 ...

John Paul Jones
, the "Father of the American Navy", and Generals
Henry Knox Henry Knox (July 25, 1750 – October 25, 1806) was an American military officer who was a senior general of the Continental Army The Continental Army was the army of the Thirteen Colonies and the Revolutionary-era United States. It was ...

Henry Knox
and William Alexander. Another person of note was a personal friend of George Washington, General
Hugh Mercer Hugh Mercer (16 January 1726 – 12 January 1777) was a Scottish soldier and physician who participated in the Seven Years' War and American Revolution. He initially served with the Jacobitism, Jacobite forces of Bonnie Prince Charlie, and with ...

Hugh Mercer
, who fought for
Charles Edward Stuart Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart (20 December 1720 – 30 January 1788) was the elder son of James Francis Edward Stuart James Francis Edward Stuart (10 June 16881 January 1766), nicknamed the ...

Charles Edward Stuart
at the
Battle of Culloden The Battle of Culloden (; gd, Blàr Chùil Lodair) was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745 The Jacobite rising of 1745, also known as the Forty-five Rebellion or simply the '45 ( gd, Bliadhna Theàrlaich, , ), was an a ...

Battle of Culloden
. The Scotch-Irish, who had already begun to settle beyond the
Proclamation Line The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued by George III of the United Kingdom, King George III on 7 October 1763. It followed the Treaty of Paris (1763), which formally ended the Seven Years' War and transferred New France, French territory i ...
in the
Ohio Ohio () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...
and
Tennessee Valley The Tennessee Valley is the drainage basin of the Tennessee River and is largely within the U.S. state of Tennessee. It stretches from southwest Kentucky to north Alabama and from northeast Mississippi to the mountains of Virginia and North Caro ...
s, were drawn into rebellion as war spread to the frontier.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', pp. 13, 23. Tobacco plantations and independent farms in the backcountry of Virginia,
Maryland Maryland ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware ...

Maryland
and the
Carolinas The Carolinas are the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North ...

Carolinas
had been financed with Scottish credit, and indebtedness was an additional incentive for separation. Most Scottish Americans had commercial ties with the old country or
clan A clan is a group of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of ...
allegiances and stayed true to
the Crown The Crown is the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

the Crown
.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', pp. 13, 24-26. The Scottish Highland communities of
upstate New York Upstate New York is a geographic region consisting of the portion of New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
and the Cape Fear valley of North Carolina were centers of
Loyalist Loyalism, in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdo ...
resistance. A small force of Loyalist fell at the
Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge The Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge was a minor conflict of the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates ...
in 1776. Scotch-Irish Patriots defeated Scottish American Loyalists in the
Battle of Kings Mountain The Battle of Kings Mountain was a military engagement between Patriot (American Revolution), Patriot and Loyalist (American Revolution), Loyalist militias in South Carolina during the Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War, Southern ...

Battle of Kings Mountain
in 1780.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', p. 28. Many Scottish American Loyalists, particularly Highlanders, emigrated to Canada after the war.


Uncle Sam

Uncle Sam Uncle Sam (which has the same initials as ''United States'') is a common national personification of the federal government of the United States or the country in general that, according to legend, came into use during the War of 1812 and was ...

Uncle Sam
is the
national personification A national personification is an anthropomorphic Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairle ...
of the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, and sometimes more specifically of the
American government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the national government of the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or U ...
, with the first usage of the term dating from the
War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It ...
. The American icon Uncle Sam, who is known for embodying the American spirit, was based on a businessman from
Troy, New York Troy is a City (New York), city in the U.S. state of New York (state), New York and the county seat, seat of Rensselaer County, New York, Rensselaer County. The city is located on the western edge of Rensselaer County and on the eastern bank of th ...
,
Samuel Wilson Samuel Wilson (September 13, 1766 – July 31, 1854) was a meat packer who lived in Troy, New York, whose name is purportedly the source of the personification of the United States of America, United States known as "Uncle Sam". Biography Wilson ...
, whose parents sailed to America from
Greenock Greenock (; sco, Greenock; gd, Grianaig, ) is a town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use ...
,
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
, has been officially recognized as the original Uncle Sam. He provided the army with beef and pork in barrels during the War of 1812. The barrels were prominently labeled "U.S." for the United States, but it was jokingly said that the letters stood for "Uncle Sam." Soon, Uncle Sam was used as shorthand for the federal government.


Emigrants and free traders

Trade with Scotland continued to flourish after independence. The tobacco trade was overtaken in the nineteenth century by the
cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of s ...

cotton
trade, with Glasgow factories exporting the finished textiles back to the United States on an industrial scale.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', pp. 19, 41. Emigration from Scotland peaked in the nineteenth century, when more than a million Scots left for the United States,Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', p. 193. taking advantage of the regular Atlantic steam-age shipping industry which was itself largely a Scottish creation,Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', p. 194. contributing to a revolution in transatlantic communication. Scottish emigration to the United States followed, to a lesser extent, during the twentieth century, when Scottish heavy industry declined.Evans, Nicholas J., 'The Emigration of Skilled Male Workers from Clydeside during the Interwar Period', ''International Journal of Maritime History'', Volume XVIII, Number 1 (2006), pp. 255-280. This new wave peaked in the first decade of the twentieth century, contributing to a hard life for many who remained behind. Many qualified workers emigrated overseas, a part of which, established in Canada, later went on to the United States.Everyculture:Scottish American
Posted by Mary A. Hess. Retrieved January 3, 2012, to 1:25 pm.


Writers

In the nineteenth century, American authors and educators adopted Scotland as a model for cultural independence. In the world of letters, Scottish literary icons
James Macpherson James Macpherson (Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages are spoken in Ireland, Scot ...

James Macpherson
,
Robert Burns Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796), also known familiarly as Rabbie Burns, the National Bard, Bard of Ayrshire, the Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phr ...

Robert Burns
,
Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832), was a Scottish historical novelist, poet, playwright and historian. Many of his works remain classics of European and Scottish literature Scottish literature is literatu ...

Walter Scott
, and
Thomas Carlyle Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Sco ...

Thomas Carlyle
had a mass following in the United States, and Scottish
Romanticism Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to ...
exerted a seminal influence on the development of American literature. The works of
Ralph Waldo Emerson Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803April 27, 1882), who went by his middle name Waldo, was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, abolitionist Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery. In Western E ...

Ralph Waldo Emerson
and
Nathaniel Hawthorne Nathaniel Hawthorne (July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was an American novelist, dark romantic, and short story writer. His works often focus on history, morality, and religion. He was born in 1804 in Salem, Massachusetts Salem ( ) is a historic ...

Nathaniel Hawthorne
bear its powerful impression. Among the most notable Scottish American writers of the nineteenth century were
Washington Irving Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American short-story writer, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th century. He is best known for his short stories "Rip Van Winkle ''Rip Van Winkle'' st ...

Washington Irving
,
James Fenimore Cooper James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was an American writer of the first half of the 19th century. His historical romances depicting colonist and Indigenous characters from the 17th to the 19th centuries created a ...

James Fenimore Cooper
,
Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe (; born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, poet, editor, and literary criticism, literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories, particularly his tales of mystery and ...

Edgar Allan Poe
and
Herman Melville Herman Melville (Name change, born Melvill; August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, and poet of the American Renaissance (literature), American Renaissance period. Among his best-known works are ...

Herman Melville
. Poet
James Mackintosh Kennedy James Mackintosh Kennedy (November 3, 1848 – August 14, 1922) was a Scottish-American poet, editor, and engineer.  Early life and education in Scotland James was born on Carsegownie Farm, Aberlemno, Forfarshire (now Angus, Scotland, Angus), ...
was called to Scotland to deliver the official poem for the 600th anniversary of the
Battle of Bannockburn The Battle of Bannockburn ( gd, Blàr Allt nam Bànag or ) on 23 and 24 June 1314 was a victory of the army of King of Scots Robert the Bruce over the army of King Edward II of England in the First War of Scottish Independence. Although it di ...

Battle of Bannockburn
in 1914. In the twentieth century,
Margaret Mitchell Margaret Munnerlyn Mitchell (November 8, 1900 – August 16, 1949) was an American novelist and journalist. Mitchell wrote only one novel, published during her lifetime, the American Civil War-era novel ''Gone With the Wind (novel), Gone with t ...
's ''
Gone With the Wind Gone with the Wind may refer to: * Gone with the Wind (novel), ''Gone with the Wind'' (novel), a 1936 novel by Margaret Mitchell * Gone with the Wind (film), ''Gone with the Wind'' (film), 1939 adaptation of the novel * Gone with the Wind (musical) ...
'' exemplified popular literature.
William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American writer known for his novels and short stories set in the fictional Yoknapatawpha County Yoknapatawpha County () is a List of fictional counties, fictional M ...

William Faulkner
won the
Nobel Prize for Literature ) , image = Nobel Prize.png , caption = , awarded_for = Outstanding contributions in literature , presenter = Swedish Academy The Swedish Academy ( sv, Svenska Akademien), founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Roya ...
in 1949. There have been a number of notable
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
poets active in the United States since the eighteenth century, including Aonghas MacAoidh and Domhnall Aonghas Stiùbhart. One of the few relics of Gaelic literature composed in the United States is a lullaby composed by an anonymous woman in the Carolinas during the American Revolutionary War. It remains popular to this day in Scotland.


Soldiers and statesmen

More than 160,000 Scottish emigrants migrated to the U.S. American statesmen of Scottish descent in the early Republic included
Secretary of the Treasury The United States secretary of the treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is the national treasury A treasury is either *A government department related to finance and t ...
Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was an American statesman, politician, legal scholar, military commander, lawyer, banker, and economist. He was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fa ...

Alexander Hamilton
,
Secretary of War The secretary of war was a member of the U.S. president The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foak ...
Henry Knox Henry Knox (July 25, 1750 – October 25, 1806) was an American military officer who was a senior general of the Continental Army The Continental Army was the army of the Thirteen Colonies and the Revolutionary-era United States. It was ...

Henry Knox
, and
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a chief executive officer ...

President
James Monroe James Monroe (; April 28, 1758July 4, 1831) was an American statesman, lawyer, diplomat and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing a state. ...
.
Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American lawyer, soldier, and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of ...

Andrew Jackson
and
James K. Polk James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849) was the 11th president of the United States, serving from 1845 to 1849. He previously was Speaker of the House of Representatives (1835–1839) and Governor of Tennessee (1839–1841). ...

James K. Polk
were what we now call Scotch-Irish presidents and products of the frontier in the period of
Westward expansion The United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. ...
. Among the most famous Scottish American soldier frontiersmen was
Sam Houston Samuel Houston (, ; March 2, 1793 – July 26, 1863) was an American general and statesman who played an important role in the Texas Revolution The Texas Revolution (October 2, 1835 – April 21, 1836) was a rebellion of colonists from ...

Sam Houston
, founding father of
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...

Texas
. Other Scotch-Irish presidents included
James Buchanan James Buchanan Jr. ( ; April 23, 1791June 1, 1868) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 15th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the ...

James Buchanan
,
Andrew Johnson Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 July 31, 1875) was the 17th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power of the pre ...

Andrew Johnson
,
Chester Alan Arthur Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 21st president of the United States from 1881 to 1885. Previously the 20th vice president of the United States, vice president ...

Chester Alan Arthur
,
William McKinley William McKinley (January 29, 1843September 14, 1901) was the 25th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power of ...
and
Richard M. Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president di ...
.
Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; ; April 27, 1822July 23, 1885) was an American military leader who served as the 18th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and he ...

Ulysses S. Grant
,
Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ( ; October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), often referred to as Teddy or his initials T. R., was an American politician, statesman, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president o ...

Theodore Roosevelt
(through his mother),
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of gove ...

Woodrow Wilson
,
Lyndon B. Johnson Lyndon Baines Johnson (; August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American educator and politician who served as the 36th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) ...

Lyndon B. Johnson
, and
Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of ...

Ronald Reagan
were of Scottish descent.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', p. 53. By one estimate, 75% of U.S. presidents could claim some Scottish ancestry.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', pp. 60-61. Scottish Americans fought on both sides of the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
, and a monument to their memory was erected in
Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is ...

Edinburgh
, Scotland, in 1893.
Winfield Scott Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786May 29, 1866) was an American military commander and political candidate. He served as a general in the United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare, land military branch, service bra ...

Winfield Scott
,
Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; ; April 27, 1822July 23, 1885) was an American military leader who served as the 18th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and he ...

Ulysses S. Grant
, Joseph E. Johnston,
Irvin McDowell Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was a career United States, American United States Army, army officer. He is best known for his defeat in the First Battle of Bull Run, the first large-scale battle of the American Civil War. In 1 ...
, James B. McPherson,
Jeb Stuart James Ewell Brown "Jeb" Stuart (February 6, 1833May 12, 1864) was a United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is ...

Jeb Stuart
and John B. Gordon were of Scottish descent, and
Stonewall Jackson Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson (January 21, 1824 – May 10, 1863) served as a Confederate Confederacy may refer to: A confederation, an association of sovereign states or communities. Examples include: * Battle of the Trench, Confederat ...

Stonewall Jackson
Scotch-Irish.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', pp. 53, 72.
Douglas MacArthur , birth_date = , birth_place = Little Rock, Arkansas (The Little Rock, The "Little Rock") , government_type = council-manager government, Council-manager , leader_title = List of mayors of Lit ...

Douglas MacArthur
and
George Marshall George Catlett Marshall Jr. (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American soldier and statesman. He rose through the United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is ...
upheld the martial tradition in the twentieth century.
Grace Murray Hopper Grace Brewster Murray Hopper ( December 9, 1906 – January 1, 1992) was an American computer scientist and United States Navy Rear admiral (United States), rear admiral. One of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I, Harvard Mark I com ...
, a
rear admiral Rear admiral is a senior naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for wa ...
and
computer scientist A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science, the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their application. Computer scientists typically work on the theoretical side of c ...

computer scientist
, was the oldest officer and highest-ranking woman in the U.S. armed forces on her retirement at the age of 80 in 1986.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', pp. 219-220. Isabella Cannon, the former
Mayor of Raleigh, North Carolina The mayor of Raleigh is the mayor of Raleigh, North Carolina, Raleigh, the List of state capitals in the United States, state capital of North Carolina, in the United States. Raleigh operates with council-manager government, under which the mayor ...
, served as the first female mayor of a U.S. state capital.


Automakers

The Scottish-born
Alexander Winton Alexander Winton (June 20, 1860 – June 21, 1932) was a Scottish-American bicycle, automobile and diesel engine designer and inventor. He also was an early automobile racer. Life Winton was born in Grangemouth, Scotland. His father (also Alexa ...

Alexander Winton
built one of the first American
automobiles A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicle ...
in 1896, and specialized in
motor racing Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, recreational games and play *Sporting (neighborhood), in Alexandria, Egypt Sports clubs *AC Sporting, a ...
. He broke the world speed record in 1900.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', p. 221. In 1903, he became the first man to drive across the United States.
David Dunbar Buick David Dunbar Buick (September 17, 1854 – March 5, 1929) was a Scottish-born American Detroit (strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface ...

David Dunbar Buick
, another Scottish emigrant, founded
Buick Buick () is a division of the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the U ...

Buick
in 1903. The Scottish-born William Blackie transformed the
Caterpillar Tractor Company Caterpillar Inc. (often shortened to CAT) is an American ''Fortune'' 100 corporation that designs, develops, engineers, manufactures, markets, and sells machinery A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional pro ...
into a multinational corporation.


Motorcycle manufacturer

Harley-Davidson Harley-Davidson, Inc., H-D, or Harley, is an American manufacturer founded in 1903 in , . Along with , it was one of two major American motorcycle manufacturers to survive the .
Harley-Davidson
Inc (formerly HDI), often abbreviated "H-D" or "Harley", is an American
motorcycle A motorcycle, often called a motorbike, bike, cycle, or (if three-wheeled) trike, is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle Electric bicycles parked in Yangzhou's main street, Wenchang Lu. They are a very common way of transport in this city ...

motorcycle
manufacturer. The Davidson brothers were the sons of William C Davidson (1846-1923) who was born and grew up in
Angus, Scotland Angus ( sco, Angus; gd, Aonghas) is one of the 32 Local government in Scotland, local government council areas of Scotland, a registration county and a Lieutenancy areas of Scotland, lieutenancy area. The council area borders Aberdeenshire, Du ...
, and Margaret Adams McFarlane (1843-1933) of Scottish descent from the small Scottish settlement of
Cambridge, Wisconsin Cambridge is a village in Dane County, Wisconsin, Dane (mostly) and Jefferson County, Wisconsin, Jefferson counties in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. The population was 1,457 at the 2010 census. Of this, 1,348 were in Dane County, and 109 were in Je ...
. They raised five children together: Janet May, William A.,
Walter Walter may refer to: People * Walter (name) Walter or Walther is a German masculine given name derived from Old High German ''Walthari'', composed of the elements ''walt-'' (Proto-Germanic ''*wald-'') "power", "brightness", "forest", and ''hari ...
, Arthur and Elizabeth.


Aviation

Scottish Americans have made a major contribution to the US
aircraft industry An aircraft is a vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine ...
.
Alexander Graham Bell Alexander Graham Bell (; March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born inventor, scientist, and engineer who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone. He also co-founded the (AT&T) in 1885. , grandf ...

Alexander Graham Bell
, in partnership with
Samuel Pierpont Langley Samuel Pierpont Langley (August 22, 1834 – February 27, 1906) was an American astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They ob ...

Samuel Pierpont Langley
, built the first machine capable of flight, the , in 1903.Fry, ''How the Scots Made America'', pp. 221-223.
LockheedLockheed (originally spelled Loughead) may refer to: Brands and enterprises * Lockheed Corporation, a former American aircraft manufacturer * Lockheed Martin, formed in 1995 by the merger of Lockheed Corporation and Martin Marietta ** Lockheed Mart ...
was started by two brothers, Allan and
Malcolm Loughead Malcolm Loughead (1886-1958) was an American aviation engineer who formed the Alco Hydro-Aeroplane Company The Loughead Aircraft Manufacturing Company (originally founded as the Alco Hydro-Aeroplane Company) was an American company which designed ...
, in 1926.
Douglas Douglas may refer to: People * Douglas (given name) Douglas is a Scottish masculine given name which originated from the surname ''Douglas (surname), Douglas''. Although today the name is almost exclusively given to boys, it was used as a girl' ...
was founded by
Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. Donald Wills Douglas Sr. (April 6, 1892 – February 1, 1981) was an American aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. It counters the force of gravity by using e ...
in 1921; he launched the world's first commercial passenger plane, the
DC-3 The Douglas DC-3 is a propeller . A propeller is a device with a rotating hub and radiating blades that are set at a pitch to form a helical spiral, that, when rotated, exerts linear thrust upon a working fluid, such as water or air. Prope ...

DC-3
, in 1935.
McDonnell Aircraft The McDonnell Aircraft Corporation was an American aerospace manufacturer Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ...
was founded by
James Smith McDonnell James Smith "Mac" McDonnell (April 9, 1899 – August 22, 1980) was an American aviator, engineer, and businessman. He was an aviation pioneer and founder of McDonnell Aircraft Corporation, later McDonnell Douglas, and the James S. McDonnel ...
, in 1939, and became famous for its military jets. In 1967, McDonnell and Douglas
merged In corporate finance Corporate finance is the area of finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of money ...
and jointly developed jet aircraft,
missile In military terminology, a missile is a missile guidance, guided airborne ranged weapon capable of self-propelled flight usually by a jet engine or rocket motor. Missiles are thus also called guided missiles or guided rockets (when in rocket f ...
s and
spacecraft A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. A type of artificial satellite alt=, A full-size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2 ">ERS_2.html" ;"title="Earth observation satellite ERS 2">Earth obse ...

spacecraft
.


Spaceflight

Scottish Americans were pioneers in
human spaceflight Human spaceflight (also referred to as manned spaceflight or crewed spaceflight) is spaceflight Spaceflight (or space flight) is an application of astronautics to fly spacecraft into or through outer space, either human spaceflight, with o ...

human spaceflight
. The
Mercury Mercury usually refers to: * Mercury (planet) Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System and the closest to the Sun. Its orbit around the Sun takes 87.97 Earth days, the shortest of all the Sun's planets. It is named after the Roman g ...
and
Gemini Gemini may refer to: Space * Gemini (constellation), one of the constellations of the zodiac ** Gemini in Chinese astronomy * Project Gemini, the second U.S. crewed spaceflight program * Gemini Observatory, consisting of telescopes in the Northern ...
capsules were built by McDonnell. The first American in space,
Alan Shepard Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. (November 18, 1923 – July 21, 1998) was an American astronaut An astronaut (from the Greek "astron" (ἄστρον), meaning "star", and "nautes" (ναύτης), meaning "sailor") is a person trained, equippe ...

Alan Shepard
, the first American in orbit,
John Glenn John Herschel Glenn Jr. (July 18, 1921 – December 8, 2016) was a United States Marine Corps aviator, engineer, astronaut, businessman, and politician. He was the third American in space, and the first American to orbit the Earth, circ ...

John Glenn
, and the first man to fly free in space,
Bruce McCandless II Bruce McCandless II (June 8, 1937 – December 21, 2017) was a United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors ...

Bruce McCandless II
, were Scottish Americans. The first men on the moon,
Neil Armstrong Neil Alden Armstrong (August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012) was an American astronaut An astronaut (from the Greek "astron" (ἄστρον), meaning "star", and "nautes" (ναύτης), meaning "sailor") is a person trained, equipp ...

Neil Armstrong
and
Buzz Aldrin Buzz Aldrin (; born Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr., January 20, 1930) is an American former astronaut An astronaut (from the Greek "astron" (ἄστρον), meaning "star", and "nautes" (ναύτης), meaning "sailor") is a person trained, e ...

Buzz Aldrin
, were also of Scottish descent; Armstrong wore a
kilt A kilt ( gd, fèileadh ; Irish language, Irish: ''féileadh'') is a type of knee-length men’s dress skirt non-wikt:bifurcation, bifurcated with pleats at the back, originating in the traditional dress of Gaels, Gaelic men and boys in the Scot ...

kilt
in a parade through his ancestral home of
Langholm Langholm , also known colloquially as the "Muckle Toon", is a burgh in Dumfries and Galloway, southern Scotland. Langholm lies between four hills in the valley of the River Esk, Dumfriesshire, River Esk in the Southern Uplands. Location and geog ...

Langholm
in the Scottish Borders in 1972. Armstrong's ancestry can be traced back to his eighth paternal great-grandfather Adam Armstrong from the Scottish Borders. His son Adam II and grandson Adam Abraham (b. Cumberland, England) left for the colonies in the 1730s settling in Pennsylvania. Other Scottish American moonwalkers were the fourth, Alan Bean, the fifth, Alan Shepard, the seventh, David Scott (also the first to drive on the moon), and the eighth, James Irwin.


Computing

Scottish Americans have also been leaders in computing and information technology. Scottish Americans Howard Aiken and
Grace Murray Hopper Grace Brewster Murray Hopper ( December 9, 1906 – January 1, 1992) was an American computer scientist and United States Navy Rear admiral (United States), rear admiral. One of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I, Harvard Mark I com ...
created the first automatic sequence computer in 1939. Hopper was also the co-inventor of the computer language COBOL. Ross Perot, another Scottish American entrepreneur, made his fortune from Electronic Data Systems, an outsourcing company he established in 1962. Software giant Microsoft was co-founded in 1975 by Bill Gates, who owed his start in part to his mother, the Scottish American businesswoman Mary Maxwell Gates, who helped her son to get his first software contract with IBM. Glasgow-born Microsoft employee Richard Tait helped develop the ''Encarta'' encyclopedia and co-created the popular board game Cranium (board game), Cranium.


Cuisine

Scottish Americans have helped to define the modern American diet by introducing many distinctive foods. Philip Danforth Armour founded Armour and Company, Armour Meats in 1867, revolutionizing the American meatpacking industry and becoming famous for hot dogs. Campbell Soups was founded in 1869 by Joseph A. Campbell and rapidly grew into a major manufacturer of canned soups. Will Keith Kellogg, W. K. Kellogg transformed American eating habits from 1906 by popularizing breakfast cereal. Glen Bell, founder of Taco Bell in 1962, introduced Tex-Mex food to a mainstream audience. Marketing executive Arch West, born to Scottish emigrant parents, developed Doritos.


Community activities

Some of the following aspects of Scottish culture can still be found in some parts of the US. * Bagpipes, Bagpiping and pipe bands * Burns Supper * Ceilidhs * Hogmanay, the Scottish New Year * St. Andrew's Day festivities * Tartan - some places in the US have their own tartan, and Scottish dress is worn by some Americans to celebrate their ancestral heritage.


Tartan Day

Tartan Day, National Tartan Day, held each year on April 6 in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
and
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
, celebrates the historical links between Scotland and
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
and the contributions
Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Scotland *Scottish English *Scottish national identity, the Scottish iden ...
Americans and Canadians have made to US and Canadian democracy, industry and society. The date of April 6 was chosen as "the anniversary of the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320—the inspirational document, according to U.S. Senate Resolution 155, 1999, upon which the American Declaration of Independence was modeled".Edward J. Cowan, "Tartan Day in America", in Celeste Ray (ed.), ''The Transatlantic Scots'' (Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 2005), p. 318. The Annual Tartan Week celebrations come to life every April with the largest celebration taking place in New York City. Thousands descend onto the streets of the Big Apple to celebrate their heritage, culture and the impact of the Scottish people, Scottish Americans in America today. Hundreds of pipers, drummers, Highland dancers, Scottie Dogs and celebrities march down the streets drowned in their family tartans and Saltire flags whilst interacting with the thousands of onlookers. NYC is not the only large city to celebrate Tartan Day. Large events also take place in Ohio, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, California, Chicago, Arizona, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Québec, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Australia, and New Zealand. Scottish Heritage Month is also promoted by community groups around the United States and Canada.National Scots, Scots-Irish Heritage Month in the USA
ElectricScotland.com


Scottish Festivals

Scottish culture, food, and athletics are celebrated at Highland Games and Scottish festivals throughout
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
. The largest of these occurs yearly at Pleasanton, California, Grandfather Mountain,
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...

North Carolina
and Estes Park, Colorado. There are also other notable Scottish Festivals in cities like Tulsa, Oklahoma, Ventura, California at the Seaside Highland Games, Atlanta, Georgia (at Stone Mountain Park), San Antonio, Texas and St. Louis, Missouri. In addition to traditional Scottish sports such as caber toss, tossing the caber and the hammer throw, there are whisky tastings, traditional foods such as haggis, Bagpipes and Drums competitions, Celtic rock musical acts and traditional Scottish dance.


Scottish Gaelic language in the United States

Although
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
had been spoken in most of Scotland at one time or another, by the time of large-scale migrations to North America – the eighteenth century – it had only managed to survive in the Highlands and Western Isles of Scotland. Unlike other ethnic groups in Scotland, Scottish Highlanders preferred to migrate in communities, and remaining in larger, denser concentrations aided in the maintenance of their language and culture. The first communities of Scottish Gaels began migrating in the 1730s to Georgia, New York and the Carolinas. Only in the Carolinas were these settlements enduring. Although their numbers were small, the immigrants formed a beach-head for later migrations, which accelerated in the 1760s. The American Revolutionary War effectively stopped direct migration to the newly formed United States, most people going instead to British North America (now Canada). The Canadian Maritimes were a favored destination from the 1770s to the 1840s. Sizable concentrations of Gaelic communities existed in Ontario, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, with smaller clusters in Newfoundland, Quebec, and New Brunswick. Those who left these communities for opportunities in the United States, especially in New England, were usually fluent Gaelic speakers into the mid-twentieth century. Of the many communities founded by Scottish Highland immigrants, the language and culture only survives at a community level in the Canadian province of
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
. According to the 2000 census, 1,199 people speak Scottish Gaelic at home. The direct descendants of Scottish Highlanders were not the only people in the United States to speak the language, however. Gaelic was one of the languages spoken by fur traders in many parts of North America. In some parts of the Carolinas and Alabama, African-American communities spoke Scottish Gaelic, particularly (but not solely) due to the influence of Gaelic-speaking slave-owners. According to musicologist Willie Ruff, jazz musician Dizzy Gillespie spoke often of the Gaelic speaking African-Americans.


Notable people


Presidents of Scottish or Scotch-Irish descent

Several President of the United States, presidents of the United States have had some Scottish or Scotch-Irish ancestry, although the extent of this varies. For example, Donald Trump's mother was Scottish and
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of gove ...

Woodrow Wilson
's maternal grandparents were both Scottish.
Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of ...

Ronald Reagan
, Gerald Ford, Chester A. Arthur and
William McKinley William McKinley (January 29, 1843September 14, 1901) was the 25th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power of ...
have less direct Scottish or Scotch-Irish ancestry. ;
James Monroe James Monroe (; April 28, 1758July 4, 1831) was an American statesman, lawyer, diplomat and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing a state. ...
(Scottish and Welsh) : 5th President 1817-1825: His paternal great-great-grandfather, Andrew Monroe, emigrated to America from Ross-shire, Scotland in the mid-17th century. ;
Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American lawyer, soldier, and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of ...

Andrew Jackson
(Scotch-Irish) : 7th President 1829-1837: : He was born in the predominantly Ulster-Scots Waxhaws area of
South Carolina South Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspap ...

South Carolina
two years after his parents left Boneybefore, near Carrickfergus in County Antrim. ;James Knox Polk (Scottish and Scotch-Irish) :11th President, 1845-1849: His Scottish paternal great x 5 grandfather, Robert Pollock, emigrated to Ireland in the 17th century. The family's surname was later changed from Pollock to Polk. ;
James Buchanan James Buchanan Jr. ( ; April 23, 1791June 1, 1868) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 15th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the ...

James Buchanan
(Scottish and Scotch-Irish) :15th President, 1857-1861: His paternal great-grandmother, Katherine Blair, was born in Stirlingshire. ;
Andrew Johnson Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 July 31, 1875) was the 17th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power of the pre ...

Andrew Johnson
(Scotch-Irish and English) :17th President, 1865-1869: His grandfather left Mounthill, near Larne in County Antrim around 1750 and settled in
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...

North Carolina
. ;
Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; ; April 27, 1822July 23, 1885) was an American military leader who served as the 18th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and he ...

Ulysses S. Grant
(Scottish, Scotch-Irish and English) :18th President, 1869-1877: His maternal great-grandfather, John Simpson, was born in Dergenagh, County Tyrone. ;Rutherford Hayes (Scottish and English) :19th President, 1877-1881: His ancestor, George Hayes, emigrated from Scotland to Connecticut in 1680. ;Chester A. Arthur (Scotch-Irish, Scottish and English) :21st President, 1881-1885: His paternal great-grandmother, Jane Campbell, emigrated from Scotland to County Antrim, Ireland.Northern Ireland Tourist Board
''discovernorthernireland - explore more: Arthur Cottage''
Accessed 03/03/2010. "Arthur Cottage, situated in the heart of County Antrim, only a short walk from the village of Cullybackey is the ancestral home of Chester Alan Arthur, the 21st President of the USA."
;Grover Cleveland (Scotch-Irish and English) :22nd and 24th President, 1885-1889 and 1893-1897: Born in
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
, he was the maternal grandson of merchant Abner Neal, who emigrated from County Antrim in the 1790s. He is the only president to have served non-consecutive terms. ;Benjamin Harrison (Scottish, Scotch-Irish and English) :23rd President, 1889-1893: Through his mother, Elizabeth Irwin, his great x 5 grandfather, David Irvine, was born in Aberdeenshire, and emigrated to Ireland. ;
William McKinley William McKinley (January 29, 1843September 14, 1901) was the 25th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power of ...
(Scottish and Scotch-Irish) :25th President, 1897-1901: His Scottish paternal great-great-great-great-grandfather, James McKinley, settled in Ireland in 1690.
;
Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ( ; October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), often referred to as Teddy or his initials T. R., was an American politician, statesman, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president o ...

Theodore Roosevelt
(Scottish, Scotch-Irish, Dutch, English & French) :26th President, 1901-1909: His maternal great-great-great-grandmother, Jean Stobo, emigrated to America from Scotland with her parents in 1699. ;William Howard Taft (Scotch-Irish and English) :27th President 1909-1913 ;
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of gove ...

Woodrow Wilson
(Scottish and Scotch-Irish) :28th President, 1913-1921: His Scottish maternal grandparents from Paisley, Renfrewshire, Paisley, Rev. Dr Thomas Woodrow and Marion Williamson, emigrated to America in the 1830s. Throughout his career he reflected on the influence of his ancestral values on his constant quest for knowledge and fulfillment. ;Warren G. Harding (Scottish and English) :29th President 1921-1923: His paternal great-great grandmother, Lydia Crawford, was born in Midlothian. ;Franklin D. Roosevelt (Scottish, Dutch, English and French) :32nd President 1933-1945: His maternal great-great-great grandparents, James Murray and Barbara Bennett, were from Dumfriesshire and Roxburghshire. ;Harry S. Truman (Scottish, English and German) :33rd President 1945-1953: His paternal great-great-great-great-grandfather, Thomas Monteith, was a merchant from
Glasgow Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesga; gd, Glaschu) is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia'' ...

Glasgow
. ;
Lyndon B. Johnson Lyndon Baines Johnson (; August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American educator and politician who served as the 36th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) ...

Lyndon B. Johnson
(English, German and Scotch-Irish) :36th President, 1963-1969:: ;Richard Nixon (Scotch-Irish, Irish, English and German) :37th President, 1969-1974: The Nixon ancestors left Ulster in the mid-18th century; the Quaker Milhous family ties were with County Antrim and County Kildare. ;Gerald Ford (Scottish and English) :38th President 1974-1977: His maternal great-grandfather, Alexander Gardner, emigrated to Quebec from Kilmacolm in 1820. ;Jimmy Carter (Scottish, Scotch-Irish and English) :39th President 1977-1981: His paternal great x 6 grandfather, Adam Clinkskaill, was Scottish. ;
Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of ...

Ronald Reagan
(Irish, Scottish and English) :40th President 1981-1989: His great-grandfather, John Wilson, emigrated to North America from Paisley, Renfrewshire, Paisley in 1832. ;George H. W. Bush (Scottish, Irish and English) :41st President 1989-1993: His maternal great-great-great-grandmother, Catherine Walker (née McLelland), was Scottish. ;Bill Clinton (Scottish, Irish and English) :42nd president 1993-2001: His father and mother were Old Stock Americans with family lineage tracing back to the colonial era. ;George W. Bush (Scottish, Irish and English) :43rd President 2001-2009: His great-great-great-great-grandmother, Catherine Walker (née McLelland), was Scottish. ;Barack Obama (Scotch-Irish, English and Kenyan) :44th President 2009-2017: The ancestry of his mother's family is partially Scotch-Irish. ;Donald Trump (Scottish and German) :45th President: His mother, Mary Anne MacLeod Trump, Mary Anne MacLeod, was born in the village of Tong, Lewis, Tong, Isle of Lewis, and emigrated to the USA in 1930.


Vice Presidents of Scottish or Scotch-Irish descent

;John C. Calhoun (Scotch-Irish) :10th Vice President 1825-1832 ;George M. Dallas (Scottish) :15th Vice President 1845-1849; former Secretary of War ;Adlai Stevenson I (Scottish and Scotch-Irish) :23rd Vice President 1893-1897: The Stevensons (Stephensons) are first recorded in Roxburghshire in the 18th century. ;Charles Curtis (Scottish) :31st Vice President 1929-1933 ;Henry A. Wallace (Scotch-Irish) :33rd Vice President 1941-1945 ;Walter Mondale (Scottish) :42nd Vice President 1977-1981: His maternal great-grandparents, Walter Cowan and Agnes Phorson, were Scottish. ;Al Gore (Scotch-Irish) :45th Vice President 1993-2001 ;Dick Cheney (Scottish) :46th Vice President 2001-2009


Other American presidents of Scottish or Scotch-Irish descent

;
Sam Houston Samuel Houston (, ; March 2, 1793 – July 26, 1863) was an American general and statesman who played an important role in the Texas Revolution The Texas Revolution (October 2, 1835 – April 21, 1836) was a rebellion of colonists from ...

Sam Houston
(Scotch-Irish) :President of
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...

Texas
, 1836-38 and 1841-44 ;Jefferson Davis (Scotch-Irish) :President of Confederate States of America 1861-1865 ;Arthur St. Clair (Scottish) :President under the List of Presidents of the Congress under the Articles of Confederation, Articles of Confederation 1788


Scottish placenames

Some place names of Scottish origin (either named after Scottish places or Scottish immigrants) in the US include: *California **Albion, California, Albion **Ben Lomond, California, Ben Lomond **Bonny Doon, California, Bonny Doon **Inverness, California, Inverness **Irvine, California, Irvine, named for the historic Irvine Ranch, and Irvine Subdivision of Orange County, California *Colorado **Montrose, Colorado, Montrose *Connecticut **Scotland, Connecticut, Scotland *Delaware **Glasgow, Delaware, Glasgow **Perth, Delaware, Perth *Florida **Paisley, Florida, Paisley **Dundee, Florida, Dundee **Dunedin, Florida, Dunedin, from ''Dùn Èideann'', Scottish Gaelic for Edinburgh **Inverness, Florida, Inverness *Illinois **Dundee, Illinois, Dundee **Elgin, Illinois, Elgin **Inverness, Illinois, Inverness **Midlothian, Illinois, Midlothian **Bannockburn, Illinois, Bannockburn **Glencoe, Illinois, Glencoe *Indiana **Perth, Indiana, Perth **Edinburgh, Indiana, Edinburgh *Kentucky **Glasgow, Kentucky, Glasgow *Louisiana **Gretna, Louisiana, Gretna **Scotlandville, Louisiana, Scotlandville *Maine **Argyle, Maine, Argyle * Maryland **Aberdeen, Maryland, Aberdeen **Glencoe, Maryland, Glencoe **Glenelg, Maryland, Glenelg **Lochearn, Maryland, Lochearn **Lothian, Maryland, Lothian **Midlothian, Maryland, Midlothian **Muirkirk, Maryland, Muirkirk * Massachusetts **Melrose, Massachusetts, Melrose *Mississippi **Aberdeen, Mississippi, Aberdeen * Montana **Glasgow, Montana, Glasgow **Aberdeen, Montana **Inverness, Montana **Drummond, Montana * New Jersey **Perth Amboy, New Jersey, Perth Amboy **Scotch Plains, New Jersey, Scotch Plains *New York **Albany, New York, Albany **Argyle **Dundee, New York, Dundee **Perth, New York, Perth *North Carolina **Aberdeen, North Carolina, Aberdeen **Clyde, North Carolina, Clyde **Cumnock, North Carolina, Cumnock **Dundarrach, North Carolina, Dundarrach **Glencoe, North Carolina, Glencoe **Highlands, North Carolina, Highlands **Inverness **Roxboro, North Carolina, Roxboro - a variant spelling of Roxburgh **Scotland County, North Carolina, Scotland County *North Dakota **Perth, North Dakota, Perth **Perth Township, Walsh County, North Dakota, Perth Township *Oklahoma **Glencoe, Oklahoma, Glencoe **Guthrie, Oklahoma, Guthrie *South Carolina **Elgin, Kershaw County, South Carolina, Elgin **Lake Murray (South Carolina), Lake Murray *Texas **Argyle, Texas, Argyle - a variant spelling of Argyll **Dallas, Texas, Dallas **Edinburg, Texas, Edinburg - a variant spelling of
Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is ...

Edinburgh
**Houston, Texas, Houston - suburbs include Neartown Houston, Montrose **Midlothian, Texas, Midlothian **Scotland, Texas, Scotland *Utah **Argyle, Utah, Argyle (now a ghost town) **Ben Lomond Mountain (Utah), Ben Lomond **Logan, Utah, Logan *Virginia **Dumfries, Virginia, Dumfries **Glasgow, Virginia, Glasgow **Gretna, Virginia, Gretna **Hamilton, Loudoun County, Virginia, Hamilton **Kilmarnock, Virginia, Kilmarnock **McDowell, Virginia, McDowell **Midlothian, Virginia, Midlothian * Washington state **Aberdeen, Washington, Aberdeen **Fife, Washington, Fife * Wisconsin ** Argyle, Wisconsin, Argyle ** Dunbar, Wisconsin, Dunbar


See also

*Scottish diaspora *Americans **British American **English American **Irish American **Scotch-Irish American **Welsh American *Celtic music in the United States *Scots by country **Scots-Quebecer **Scottish Canadian


Notes


References


Further reading

* Bell, Whitfield J. “Scottish Emigration to America: A Letter of Dr. Charles Nisbet to Dr. John Witherspoon, 1784.” ''William and Mary Quarterly'' 11#2 1954, pp. 276–289
online
a primary source * Berthoff, Rowland Tappan. ''British Immigrants in Industrial America, 1790-1950.'' (Harvard University Press, 1953). * Bumsted, Jack M. "The Scottish Diaspora: Emigration to British North America, 1763–1815." in Ned C. Landsman, ed., ''Nation and Province in the First British Empire: Scotland and the Americas, 1600–1800'' (2001) pp 127–5
online
* Bueltmann, Tanja, Andrew Hinson, and Graeme Morton. ''The Scottish Diaspora.'' Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press, 2013. * Calder, Jenni. ''Lost in the Backwoods: Scots and the North American Wilderness'' Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press, 2013. * Calder, Jenni. ''Scots in the USA.'' Luath Press Ltd, 2014. * Dobson, David. ''Scottish emigration to colonial America, 1607-1785.'' Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2011. * Dziennik, Matthew P. ''The Fatal Land: War, Empire, and the Highland Soldier in British America.'' (Yale University Press, 2015). * Erickson, Charlotte. ''Invisible Immigrants: the Adaptation of English and Scottish Immigrants in 19th Century America'' (Weidenfeld and Nicolson; 1972) * Hess, Mary A. "Scottish Americans." in ''Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America,'' edited by Thomas Riggs, *3rd ed., vol. 4, Gale, 2014), pp. 101–112
Online
* Hunter, James. ''Scottish exodus: travels among a worldwide clan'' (Random House, 2011); interviews with Clan MacLeod members * Landsman, Ned C. ''Scotland and Its First American Colony, 1683-1765.'' Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2014. * McCarthy, James, and Euan Hague. "Race, nation, and nature: The cultural politics of 'Celtic' identification in the American West." ''Annals of the Association of American Geographers'' 94#2 (2004): 387–408. * McWhiney, Grady, and Forrest McDonald. "Celtic origins of southern herding practices." ''Journal of Southern History'' (1985): 165–182
in JSTOR
* Newton, Michael. ''“We’re Indians Sure Enough”: The Legacy of the Scottish Highlanders in the United States.'' Richmond: Saorsa Media, 2001. * Parker, Anthony W. ''Scottish Highlanders in Colonial Georgia: The Recruitment, Emigration, and Settlement at Darien, 1735-1748.'' Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2002. * Ray, R. Celeste. ''Highland Heritage: Scottish Americans in the American South.'' Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2001. * Szasz, Ferenc Morton. ''Scots in the North American West, 1790-1917.'' Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2000. * Thernstrom, Stephan, ed. ''Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups.'' New Haven, CT: Harvard University Press, 1980.


Historiography

* Berthoff, Rowland. "Under the kilt: Variations on the Scottish-American ground." ''Journal of American Ethnic History'' 1#2 (1982): 5-34
in JSTOR
* Berthoff, Rowland. "Celtic mist over the South." ''Journal of Southern History'' (1986) pp: 523–546
in JSTOR
Highly critical of theories of Forrest McDonald and Grady McWhiney regarding profound Celtic influences ** McDonald, Forrest, and Grady McWhiney. "Celtic Mist over the South: A Response." ''Journal of Southern History'' (1986): 547–548. * Shepperson, George. “Writings in Scottish-American History: A Brief Survey.” ''William and Mary Quarterly'' 11#2 1954, pp. 164–178
online
* Zumkhawala-Cook, Richard. "The Mark of Scottish America: Heritage Identity and the Tartan Monster." ''Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies'' 14#1 (2005) pp: 109–136.


External links




Scottish Emigration DatabaseScotlands People - Official government source for Scottish rootsUS Scots: includes extensive listing of Highland games eventsWebsite of ''An Comunn Gàidhealach Ameireaganach''
{{British diaspora American people of Scottish descent, * British-American history, Scottish European-American society Scottish-American history, Scottish