The Science Citation Index (SCI) is a
citation index A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index, an index of citation A citation is a reference to a source. More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an en ...
originally produced by the
Institute for Scientific Information The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) was an academic publishing service, founded by Eugene Garfield in Philadelphia in 1956. ISI offered scientometric and bibliographic database services. Its specialty was citation indexing and analysis, ...
(ISI) and created by
Eugene Garfield Eugene Eli Garfield (September 16, 1925 – February 26, 2017) was an American linguist and businessman, one of the founders of bibliometrics and scientometrics. He helped to create ''Current Contents'', ''Science Citation Index'' (SCI), ''Journa ...
. It was officially launched in 1964 and is now owned by
Clarivate Analytics Clarivate is a company formed in 2016, following the acquisition of Thomson Reuters' Intellectual Property and Science Business by Onex Corporation and Baring Private Equity Asia. On May 13, 2019, Clarivate merged with Churchill Capital Corp an ...
(previously the Intellectual Property and Science business of
Thomson Reuters Thomson Reuters Corporation () is a Canada-based multinational media conglomerate. The company was founded in Toronto, Ontario Toronto is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. Wi ...
). The larger version (Science Citation Index Expanded) covers more than 9,200 notable and significant journals, across 178 disciplines, from 1900 to the present. These are alternatively described as the world's leading journals of
science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the u ...

technology Technology ("science of craft", from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the sum of Art techniques and materials, techniques, skills, Scientific method, methods, and Business proc ...

, because of a rigorous selection process.


The index is made available online through different platforms, such as the
Web of Science Web of Science (previously known as Web of Knowledge) is a website that provides subscription-based access to multiple databases that provide comprehensive citation data for many different academic disciplines. It was originally produced by the In ...
and SciSearch. (There are also CD and printed editions, covering a smaller number of journals). The database allows a researcher to identify which later articles have cited any particular earlier article, or have cited the articles of any particular author, or have been cited most frequently. Thomson Reuters also markets several subsets of this database, termed "Specialty Citation Indexes", such as the Neuroscience Citation Index and the Chemistry Citation Index.

Chemistry Citation Index

The Chemistry Citation Index was first introduced by Eugene Garfield, a chemist by training. His original "search examples were based on
experience as a chemist". In 1992, an electronic and print form of the index was derived from a core of 330 chemistry journals, within which all areas were covered. Additional information was provided from articles selected from 4,000 other journals. All chemistry subdisciplines were covered: organic, inorganic, analytical, physical chemistry, polymer, computational, organometallic, materials chemistry, and electrochemistry. By 2002, the core journal coverage increased to 500 and related article coverage increased to 8,000 other journals. One 1980 study reported the overall citation indexing benefits for chemistry, examining the use of citations as a tool for the study of the sociology of chemistry and illustrating the use of citation data to "observe" chemistry subfields over time.

See also

Arts and Humanities Citation Index The ''Arts & Humanities Citation Index'' (A&HCI), also known as ''Arts & Humanities Search'', is a citation index, with abstracting and indexing for more than 1,700 arts and humanities journals, and coverage of disciplines that includes social and ...
, which covers 1,130 journals, beginning with 1975. *
Impact factor The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal is a scientometric index calculated by Clarivate that reflects the yearly average number of citations of articles published in the last two years in a given journal. It ...
List of academic databases and search engines This article contains a representative list of notable databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in academic journals, institutional repository, institutional repositories, archives, or other colle ...
Google Scholar Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata Metadata is " data" that provides information about other data". In other words, it is "data about data". Many distinct types of metadata exist, inc ...
Social Sciences Citation Index The Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) is a commercial citation index A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index, an index of citation A citation is a reference to a source. More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric ...
, which covers 1,700 journals, beginning with 1956. *
Emerging Sources Citation Index The Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI) is a citation index produced since 2015 by Thomson Reuters, and now by Clarivate Analytics. According to the publisher, the index includes "peer-reviewed publications of regional importance and in emerging ...


Further reading

* * * * *{{cite book , last=Garfield , first=E. , year=1979 , title=Citation Indexing: Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology, and Humanities , series=Information Sciences Series , publisher=
Wiley-Interscience John Wiley & Sons, Inc., commonly known as Wiley (), is an American multinational publishing company founded in 1807 that focuses on academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing Publishing is the activity of maki ...
, location=New York , isbn=9780894950247

External links

Introduction to SCI

Master journal list

Chemical Information Sources/ Author and Citation Searches
on WikiBooks.

Thomson Reuters.
Chemistry Citation Index
Citation Indexing and Indexes. In ISKO Encyclopedia of Knowledge Organization
Citation indices Online databases Clarivate Analytics