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''Science'', also widely referred to as ''Science magazine'', is the
peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field Field may r ...
academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of w ...
of the
American Association for the Advancement of Science The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution ...
(AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals. It was first published in 1880, is currently circulated weekly and has a subscriber base of around 130,000. Because institutional subscriptions and online access serve a larger audience, its estimated readership is over 400,000 people. The major focus of the journal is publishing important original scientific research and research reviews, but ''Science'' also publishes science-related news, opinions on
science policy Science policy is concerned with the allocation of resources for the conduct of science towards the goal of best serving the public interest. Topics include the funding of science, the careers of scientist A scientist is a person who conducts ...
and other matters of interest to scientists and others who are concerned with the wide implications of science and technology. Unlike most
scientific journals In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Content Articles in scientific journals are mostly written by active scientists such as st ...
, which focus on a specific field, ''Science'' and its rival ''
Nature Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter an ...
'' cover the full range of scientific disciplines. According to the ''
Journal Citation Reports ''Journal Citation Reports'' (''JCR'') is an annual publicationby Clarivate Analytics (previously the intellectual property of Thomson Reuters). It has been integrated with the Web of Science and is accessed from the Web of Science-Core Collectio ...
'', ''Science''s 2019
impact factor #REDIRECT Impact factor #REDIRECT Impact factor#REDIRECT Impact factor The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal is a scientometric index calculated by Clarivate that reflects the yearly average number of citat ...
was 41.845. Although it is the journal of the AAAS, membership in the AAAS is not required to publish in ''Science''. Papers are accepted from authors around the world. Competition to publish in ''Science'' is very intense, as an article published in such a highly cited journal can lead to attention and career advancement for the authors. Fewer than 7% of articles submitted are accepted for publication. ''Science'' is based in Washington, D.C., United States, with a second office in
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...

Cambridge
, UK.


History

''Science'' was founded by New York journalist John Michels in 1880 with financial support from
Thomas Edison Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices in fields such as electric power generation Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from s ...

Thomas Edison
and later from
Alexander Graham Bell Alexander Graham Bell (; March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born inventor, scientist, and engineer who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone. He also co-founded the (AT&T) in 1885. , grandf ...

Alexander Graham Bell
. (Edison received favorable editorial treatment in return, without disclosure of the financial relationship, at a time when his reputation was suffering due to delays producing the promised commercially viable light bulb.) However, the journal never gained enough subscribers to succeed and ended publication in March 1882. Alexander Graham Bell and Gardiner Greene Hubbard bought the magazine rights and hired young entomologist Samuel H. Scudder to resurrect the journal one year later. They had some success while covering the meetings of prominent American scientific societies, including the AAAS. However, by 1894, ''Science'' was again in financial difficulty and was sold to psychologist
James McKeen Cattell James McKeen Cattell (May 25, 1860 – January 20, 1944), United States, American psychology, psychologist, was the first professor of psychology in the United States, teaching at the University of Pennsylvania, and long-time editor and publisher o ...

James McKeen Cattell
for . In an agreement worked out by Cattell and AAAS secretary Leland O. Howard, ''Science'' became the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1900. During the early part of the 20th century important articles published in ''Science'' included papers on
fruit fly
fruit fly
genetics Genetics is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, ...

genetics
by
Thomas Hunt Morgan Thomas Hunt Morgan (September 25, 1866 – December 4, 1945) was an American evolutionary biologist Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes ( natural selection, common descent, speciation) th ...

Thomas Hunt Morgan
,
gravitational lens A gravitational lens is a distribution of matter (such as a cluster of galaxies) between a distant light source and an observer, that is capable of bending the light from the source as the light travels towards the observer. This effect is know ...

gravitational lens
ing by
Albert Einstein Albert Einstein ( ; ; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist, widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest physicists of all time. Einstein is known for developing the theory of relativity The theo ...

Albert Einstein
, and spiral nebulae by
Edwin Hubble Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer. He played a crucial role in establishing the fields of extragalactic astronomy and observational cosmology. Hubble proved that many objects previously ...
. After Cattell died in 1944, the ownership of the journal was transferred to the AAAS. After Cattell's death in 1944, the journal lacked a consistent editorial presence until Graham DuShane became editor in 1956. In 1958, under DuShane's leadership, ''Science'' absorbed ''
The Scientific Monthly ''The Scientific Monthly'' was a science magazine published from 1915 to 1957. Psychologist James McKeen Cattell James McKeen Cattell (May 25, 1860 – January 20, 1944), American psychologist A psychologist is a person who studies normal and ...
'', thus increasing the journal's circulation by over from 38,000 to more than 61,000. Physicist
Philip Abelson Philip Hauge Abelson (April 27, 1913 – August 1, 2004) was an American physicist, editor-in-chief, scientific editor and science writer. Trained as a nuclear physicist, he co-discovered the element neptunium, worked on isotope separation in the ...
, a co-discoverer of
neptunium Neptunium is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elemen ...

neptunium
, served as editor from 1962 to 1984. Under Abelson the efficiency of the review process was improved and the publication practices were brought up to date. During this time, papers on the
Apollo program The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which succeeded in Moon landing, landing the first humans ...

Apollo program
missions and some of the earliest reports on AIDS were published. Biochemist Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. served as editor from 1985 until 1995. From 1995 until 2000, neuroscientist Floyd E. Bloom held that position. Biologist
Donald Kennedy Donald Kennedy (August 18, 1931 – April 21, 2020) was an American scientist, public administrator, and academic. He served as Commissioner of Food and Drugs, Commissioner of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (1977–1979), President ...
became the editor of ''Science'' in 2000. Biochemist
Bruce Alberts Bruce Michael Alberts (born April 14, 1938 in Chicago, Illinois (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnote ...

Bruce Alberts
took his place in March 2008. Geophysicist
Marcia McNutt Marcia Kemper McNutt (born February 19, 1952), Foreign Member of the Royal Society, ForMemRS, is an United States, American Geophysics, geophysicist and the 22nd president of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of the United States. Previously, ...

Marcia McNutt
became editor-in-chief in June 2013. During her tenure the family of journals expanded to include ''Science Robotics'' and ''Science Immunology'', and
open access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis o ...

open access
publishing with ''
Science Advances ''Science Advances'' is a peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profess ...
''. Jeremy M. Berg became editor-in-chief on July 1, 2016. In February 2001, draft results of the
human genome The human genome is a complete set of nucleic acid sequence A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of bases signified by a series of a set of five different letters that indicate the order of nucleotides Nucleotides are organic molecules c ...

human genome
were simultaneously published by ''Nature'' and ''Science'' with ''Science'' publishing the
Celera Genomics Celera is a subsidiary of Quest Diagnostics Quest Diagnostics is an American clinical laboratory A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory A laboratory (, ; colloquially lab) is a facility that provides controlled c ...
paper and ''Nature'' publishing the publicly funded
Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project (''HGP'') was an international scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th cen ...
. In 2007 ''Science ''(together with ''Nature'') received the
Prince of Asturias Award The Princess of Asturias Awards ( es, Premios Princesa de Asturias, links=no, ast, Premios Princesa d'Asturies, links=no), formerly the Prince of Asturias Awards from 1981 to 2014 ( es, Premios Príncipe de Asturias, links=no), are a series of a ...
for Communications and Humanity. In 2015 Rush D. Holt, Jr., chief executive officer of the AAAS and executive publisher of ''Science'', stated that the journal was becoming increasingly international: " ternationally co-authored papers are now the norm—they represent almost 60 percent of the papers. In 1992, it was slightly less than 20 percent." Former
Washington University in St. Louis Washington University in St. Louis (WashU, or WUSTL) is a private research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher ( ...

Washington University in St. Louis
Provost
Holden Thorp Herbert Holden Thorp (born August 16, 1964) is an American chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin ''alchemist'') is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, s ...
was named editor-in-chief on Monday, August 19, 2019.


Family of journals

The Science family of journals includes ''Science'', '' Science Translational Medicine'', ''
Science Signaling ''Science Signaling'' is a peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a professi ...
'', and ''
Science Advances ''Science Advances'' is a peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profess ...
''. In 2015, Holt announced another expansion: '' Science Robotics'' and ''Science Immunology'' would begin publication in mid-2016.


Availability

The latest editions of the journal are available online, through the main journal website, only to subscribers, AAAS members, and for delivery to
IP address An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label such as that is connected to a computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over to communi ...
es at institutions that subscribe; students, K–12 teachers, and some others can subscribe at a reduced fee. However, research articles published after 1997 are available for free (with online registration) one year after they are published i.e.
delayed open access Delayed open-access journals are traditional subscription-based scientific journal, journals that provide free online access upon the expiry of an Embargo (academic publishing), embargo period following the initial publication date. Details The e ...
. Significant public-health related articles are also available for free, sometimes immediately after publication. AAAS members may also access the pre-1997 Science archives at the ''Science'' website, where it is called "Science Classic". Institutions can opt to add Science Classic to their subscriptions for an additional fee. Some older articles can also be accessed via
JSTOR JSTOR (; short for ''Journal Storage'') is a digital library founded in 1995 in New York City. Originally containing digitized Digitization
and
ProQuest ProQuest LLC was an Ann Arbor, Michigan Ann Arbor is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County, Michigan, Washtenaw County. The 2010 United States Census, 2010 census recorded its population to be 113,934 ...
. The journal also participates in initiatives that provide free or low-cost access to readers in developing countries, including
HINARI Hinari Access to Research for Health Programme was set up by the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations ...
, OARE,
AGORA The agora (; grc, ἀγορά ''agorá'') was a central public space A public space is a place that is generally open and accessible to people. Roads (including the pavement), public square A town square (or square, plaza, public squ ...

AGORA
, and Scidev.net. Other features of the ''Science'' website include the free "ScienceNow" section with "up to the minute news from science", and "ScienceCareers", which provides free career resources for scientists and engineers. ''Science Express'' (Sciencexpress) provides advance electronic publication of selected ''Science'' papers.


See also

*
Breakthrough of the Year The Breakthrough of the Year is an annual award for the most significant development in scientific research made by the AAAS journal ''Science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a f ...
*
List of scientific journals The following is a partial list of scientific journals. There are thousands of scientific journal In academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. Most academic w ...


References


AAAS references


External links

* {{Prince of Asturias Award for Communication and Humanities 1880 establishments in the United States American Association for the Advancement of Science academic journals
English-language journals Academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which Scholarly method, scholarship relating to a particular list of academic disciplines, academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and t ...
Multidisciplinary academic journals Multidisciplinary_scientific_journals Publications established in 1880 Weekly journals