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Schisandraceae is a
family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same Politic ...
of
flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...

flowering plant
s with 3 known genera and a total of 92 known species. Such a family has been recognized by most taxonomists, at least for the past several decades. Before that, the plants concerned were assigned to family
Magnoliaceae The Magnoliaceae () are a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anyth ...
and
Illiciaceae Illiciaceae Albert Charles Smith, A.C.Sm. was a family of flowering plants recognized in a number of systems of plant taxonomy. The Illiciaceae is not recognized as a distinct family by the APG III system of plant taxonomy, the most well accepte ...
. The
APG IVAPG is an abbreviation with several different meanings: * Aberdeen Proving Ground, a United States Army installation in Aberdeen, Maryland, also ** Phillips Army Airfield, the airfield of the above, from its IATA airport code * Aboriginal Provision ...
and
APG III system The APG III system of flowering plant classification is the third version of a modern, mostly molecular A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an el ...
s of taxonomy recognize this family and place it on the order
Austrobaileyales Austrobaileyales is an order of flowering plants consisting of about 100 species of woody plants growing as trees, shrubs and lianas. Perhaps the most familiar species is '' Illicium verum'', from which comes the spice star anise. The order be ...

Austrobaileyales
. The APG II system, of 2003, also recognizes such a family. It places the family in order
Austrobaileyales Austrobaileyales is an order of flowering plants consisting of about 100 species of woody plants growing as trees, shrubs and lianas. Perhaps the most familiar species is '' Illicium verum'', from which comes the spice star anise. The order be ...

Austrobaileyales
, which in turn is accepted as being among the most basic lineages in the clade
angiosperms Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...
. APG II assumes this to be a family of three genera, the Schisandraceae ''sensu lato''. This family consists of woody plants, containing
essential oil An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matte ...
s. However, APG II does allow the option of segregating the genus '' Illicium'' as the family
Illiciaceae Illiciaceae Albert Charles Smith, A.C.Sm. was a family of flowering plants recognized in a number of systems of plant taxonomy. The Illiciaceae is not recognized as a distinct family by the APG III system of plant taxonomy, the most well accepte ...
. This leaves only two genera in the family Schisandraceae ''sensu stricto'', consisting of '''' and '' Kadsura'', totalling several dozen species, which are found in tropical to temperate regions of
East East or Orient is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions , , , and , commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are (at s) to north and south, with east ...

East
and
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
and
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
. The
APG system The APG system (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system) of plant classification is the first version of a modern, mostly molecular A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. ...
, of 1998, recognized both the families Schisandraceae ''sensu stricto'' and Illiciaceae, unplaced as to order. It regarded both families as being among the most basic lineages in the clade
angiosperms Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...
. The
Cronquist system The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of land plants The Embryophyta () or land plants are the most f ...
, of 1981, treated the plants in the family (in its wider sense) as two separate families, which together constituted : the order
Illiciales Illiciales is an order of flowering plants that is not recognized by the current most widely used system of plant classification, the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group's APG III system. The order was comprised differently in various systems of plant ...
, :: in subclass Magnoliidae, ::: in class
Magnoliopsida Magnoliopsida is a valid botanical name for a class of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biology), orders, 416 Family ...
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angiosperms Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...
].


Genera


Pollination

Schisandaceae are pollinated predominantly by nocturnal Cecidomyiidae, gall midges that lay their eggs in the male and female flowers (in Schisandraceae species with unisexual flowers) or the male-stage and female-stage flowers (in species with bisexual flowers). The larvae of these midges develop in the floral tissue once it has dropped to the ground, feeding on floral exudates (not ovules or pollen).


References


External links


Schisandraceae
ensu strictoin L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards)
The families of flowering plants:
descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval''. Version: 3 May 2006. http://delta-intkey.com. * Schisandraceae ensu strictoin th
''Flora of North America''

NCBI Taxonomy Browser
chisandraceae sensu lato* * Luo, S-X., L-J. Zhang, S. Yuan, Z-H. Ma, D-X. Zhang, and S. S. Renner. 2018. The largest early-diverging angiosperm family is mostly pollinated by ovipositing insects and so are most surviving lineages of early angiosperms. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 285: 20172365; {{Taxonbar, from=Q282324 Angiosperm families