HOME

TheInfoList




Scandinavia;
Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sami Bay, east of Sami, Ceph ...

Sami
: ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a
subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth an ...

subregion
in
Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern region of Europe. Narrower definitions may describe Northern Europe as being roughly north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, which is about 54th parallel north, 54°N, or may be based on other geographic ...
, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In English usage, ''Scandinavia'' can refer to
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
,
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
, and
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's fo ...

Sweden
, sometimes more narrowly to the
Scandinavian Peninsula The Scandinavian Peninsula ( sv, Skandinaviska halvön; no, Den skandinaviske halvøy (Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language, alongside Nynorsk. Bokmål is the preferred writ ...
, or more broadly to include
Åland Åland (; fi, Ahvenanmaa: ; ; ) is an Federacy, autonomous and Demilitarized zone, demilitarised region of Finland since 1920 by a decision of the League of Nations. It is the smallest region of Finland, constituting 0.51% of its land area an ...
, the
Faroe Islands The Faroe Islands ( ), or simply the Faroes or Faeroes ( fo, Føroyar ; da, Færøerne ), are a North Atlantic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of is ...

Faroe Islands
,
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
, and
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscandia and the List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean#No ...

Iceland
. The broader definition is similar to what are locally called the
Nordic countries The Nordic countries (also known as the Nordics or ''Norden''; lit. 'the North') are a geographical and cultural region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science de ...

Nordic countries
, which also include the remote Norwegian islands of
Svalbard Svalbard ( , ), previously known as Spitsbergen, or Spitzbergen, is a Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic ...

Svalbard
and
Jan Mayen Jan Mayen () is a Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic group native to Norway *Demographics of Norway *The Norw ...

Jan Mayen
, and
Greenland Greenland ( kl, Kalaallit Nunaat, ; da, Grønland, ) is an autonomous territory An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administra ...

Greenland
, a constituent country within the
Kingdom of Denmark The Danish Realm ( da, Danmarks Rige; fo, Danmarkar Ríki; kl, Danmarkip Naalagaaffik), officially the Kingdom of Denmark (; ; ), is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized governmen ...

Kingdom of Denmark
.


Geography

The geography of Scandinavia is extremely varied. Notable are the Norwegian fjords, the
Scandinavian Mountains#REDIRECT Scandinavian Mountains The Scandinavian Mountains or the Scandes is a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Scandinavian Mountains are often erroneously thought to be equivalent to the Scandinavian Caledonide ...
covering much of Norway and parts of Sweden, the flat, low areas in Denmark and the
archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as ...

archipelago
s of Finland, Norway and Sweden. Finland and Sweden have many lakes and
moraine A moraine is any accumulation of unconsolidated debris (regolith and Rock (geology), rock), sometimes referred to as glacial till, that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions, and that has been previously carried along by a glac ...

moraine
s, legacies of the
ice age An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and ...
, which ended about ten millennia ago. The southern regions of Scandinavia, which are also the most populous regions, have a
temperate climate In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populati ...
. Scandinavia extends north of the
Arctic Circle The Arctic Circle is one of the two s and the most northerly of the five major as shown on maps of . It marks the northernmost point at which the center of the sun is just visible on the and the southernmost point at which the center of the ...

Arctic Circle
, but has relatively mild weather for its latitude due to the
Gulf Stream The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift The North Atlantic Current (NAC), also known as North Atlantic Drift and North Atlantic Sea Movement, is a powerful warm western boundary current Boundary current ...
. Many of the Scandinavian mountains have an
alpine tundra Alpine tundra is a type of natural region A natural region (landscape unit) is a basic geographic unit. Usually, it is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

alpine tundra
climate. The climate varies from north to south and from west to east: a marine west coast climate ( Cfb) typical of
western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical r ...

western Europe
dominates in Denmark, southernmost part of Sweden and along the west coast of Norway reaching north to 65°N, with
orographic lift cloud pattern—analogous to a ship wake Image:Kelvin Wake Fr=2.png, 280px, Kelvin wake simulation plot. In fluid dynamics, a wake may either be: * the region of recirculating flow immediately behind a moving or stationary blunt body, caused by ...
giving more mm/year
precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw mod ...
(<5000 mm) in some areas in western Norway. The central part – from
Oslo Oslo ( , , or ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and small ...

Oslo
to
Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Stockholm
– has a
humid continental climate A humid continental climate is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by four distinct seasons and large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold ( ...
(Dfb), which gradually gives way to
subarctic climate The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, or boreal climate) is a climate Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological vari ...
(Dfc) further north and cool marine west coast climate (Cfc) along the northwestern coast. A small area along the northern coast east of the North Cape has tundra climate (Et) as a result of a lack of summer warmth. The Scandinavian Mountains block the mild and moist air coming from the southwest, thus northern Sweden and the
Finnmarksvidda Finnmarksvidda ( sme, Finnmárkkoduottar; en, Finnmark plateau/highland) is Norway Norway ( nb, ; nn, ; se, Norga; smj, Vuodna; sma, Nöörje), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Eu ...
plateau in Norway receive little precipitation and have cold winters. Large areas in the Scandinavian mountains have
alpine tundra Alpine tundra is a type of natural region A natural region (landscape unit) is a basic geographic unit. Usually, it is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

alpine tundra
climate. The warmest temperature ever recorded in Scandinavia is 38.0 °C in
Målilla
Målilla
(Sweden). The coldest temperature ever recorded is −52.6 °C in Vuoggatjålme,
Arjeplog Arjeplog (; Pite Sami: ) is a locality and the seat of Arjeplog Municipality in Norrbotten County Norrbotten County ( sv, Norrbottens län; se, Norrbottena leatna, fi, Norrbottenin lääni) is the northernmost county A county is a geogra ...
(Sweden).Lägsta uppmätta temperatur i Sverige
The coldest month was February 1985 in Vittangi (Sweden) with a mean of −27.2 °C. Southwesterly winds further warmed by
foehn wind A föhn, also spelled foehn (, ), is a type of dry, warm, down-slope wind that occurs in the lee (downwind side) of a mountain range. It is a rain shadow A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the win ...
can give warm temperatures in narrow Norwegian fjords in winter. Tafjord has recorded 17.9 °C in January and
Sunndal is a List of municipalities of Norway, municipality in the Nordmøre Districts of Norway, region located in the northeast part of Møre og Romsdal counties of Norway, county, Norway. The administrative center of the municipality is the village o ...

Sunndal
18.9 °C in February.


Etymology

The term ''Scandinavia'' in local usage covers the three kingdoms of
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
,
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
, and
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's fo ...

Sweden
. The majority national languages of these three belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, and are
mutually intelligible In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include p ...
North Germanic languages The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. The language group is also r ...

North Germanic languages
. The words ''Scandinavia'' and ''
Scania Scania, also known by its native name of Skåne (, ), is the southernmost of the historical (''landskap'') of . The former province is roughly conterminous with , created in 1997. Like the other former provinces of Sweden, Scania still feature ...

Scania
'' (''Skåne'', the southernmost province of Sweden) are both thought to go back to the
Proto-Germanic Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; also called Common Germanic) is the reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new ...
compound Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the above fortified with defensive structu ...
*''Skaðin-awjō'' (the ''ð'' represented in Latin by ''t'' or ''d''), which appears later in
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
as ''Scedenig'' and in
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skades ...
as ''Skáney''. The earliest identified source for the name ''Scandinavia'' is
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
's ''
Natural History Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, and plants, in their natural environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. A person who studies natural history ...
'', dated to the first century AD. Various references to the region can also be found in
Pytheas Pytheas of Massalia (; Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης ''Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs''; Latin: ''Pytheas Massiliensis''; born 350 BC, 320–306 BC) was a Greeks, Greek List of Graeco-Roman geographers, geographer, explore ...
,
Pomponius Mela Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer. He was born in Tingentera (now Algeciras) and died  AD 45. His short work (''De situ orbis libri III.'') remained in use nearly to the year 1500. It occupies less th ...
,
Tacitus Publius Cornelius Tacitus ( , ; – ) was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historians by modern scholars. He lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature Classi ...

Tacitus
,
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, , ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes ...
,
Procopius Procopius of Caesarea ( grc-gre, Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς ''Prokópios ho Kaisareús''; la, Procopius Caesariensis; – after 565) was a prominent late antique Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, fr ...
and
Jordanes Jordanes (), also written as Jordanis or Jornandes, was a 6th-century bureaucrat widely believed to be of who became a historian later in life. Late in life he wrote two works, one on Roman history and the other on the Goths. The latter, alon ...
, usually in the form of ''
Scandza Scandza was described as a "great island" by the Gothic-Byzantine historian Jordanes 200px, The Mediterranean area 550 AD as Jordanes wrote his ''Getica''. The Eastern Roman Empire, capital Constantinople, is shown in pink. Conquests of Justinia ...

Scandza
''. It is believed that the name used by Pliny may be of
West Germanic The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic languages, Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic languages, North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages, East Germani ...
origin, originally denoting Scania. According to some scholars, the Germanic stem can be reconstructed as *''skaðan-'' and meaning "danger" or "damage". The second segment of the name has been reconstructed as *''awjō'', meaning "land on the water" or "island". The name ''Scandinavia'' would then mean "dangerous island", which is considered to refer to the treacherous sandbanks surrounding Scania.
Skanör Skanör is a town in Vellinge Municipality Vellinge Municipality (''Vellinge kommun'') is a municipalities of Sweden, municipality in Skåne County in southern Sweden. Its seat is located in Vellinge. The present municipality is a result of the ...
in Scania, with its long Falsterbo reef, has the same stem (''skan'') combined with -''ör'', which means "sandbanks". Alternatively, ''Sca(n)dinavia'' and ''Skáney'', along with the
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skades ...
goddess name ''
Skaði In Norse mythology, Skaði (; Old Norse: ; sometimes anglicized as Skadi, Skade, or Skathi) is a jötunn and Æsir, goddess associated with bowhunting, skiing, winter, and mountains. Skaði is attested in the ''Poetic Edda'', compiled in the 13th ...
'', may be related to Proto-Germanic ''*skaðwa-'' (meaning "shadow"). John McKinnell comments that this etymology suggests that the goddess Skaði may have once been a personification of the geographical region of Scandinavia or associated with the underworld. Another possibility is that all or part of the segments of the name came from the pre-Germanic
Mesolithic The Mesolithic (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

Mesolithic
people inhabiting the region. In modernity, Scandinavia is a peninsula, but between approximately 10,300 and 9,500 years ago the southern part of Scandinavia was an island separated from the northern peninsula, with water exiting the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that a ...

Baltic Sea
through the area where
Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Stockholm
is now located.


Appearance in medieval Germanic languages

The Latin names in Pliny's text gave rise to different forms in medieval Germanic texts. In Jordanes' history of the
Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between West ...
(AD 551), the form ''
Scandza Scandza was described as a "great island" by the Gothic-Byzantine historian Jordanes 200px, The Mediterranean area 550 AD as Jordanes wrote his ''Getica''. The Eastern Roman Empire, capital Constantinople, is shown in pink. Conquests of Justinia ...

Scandza
'' is the name used for their original home, separated by sea from the land of Europe (chapter 1, 4). Where Jordanes meant to locate this quasi-legendary island is still a hotly debated issue, both in scholarly discussions and in the
nationalistic Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared territo ...
discourse of various European countries. The form ''Scadinavia'' as the original home of the
Langobards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on ...
appears in
Paulus DiaconusPaulus is the original Latin language, Latin form of the English name Paul (disambiguation), Paul. It may refer to: Ancient Roman * Paul (jurist) or Julius Paulus (fl. 222–235 AD), Roman jurist * Paulus (consul 496), politician of the Eastern R ...

Paulus Diaconus
' ''Historia Langobardorum'', but in other versions of ''Historia Langobardorum'' appear the forms ''Scadan'', ''Scandanan'', ''Scadanan'' and ''Scatenauge''. Frankish sources used ''Sconaowe'' and Aethelweard, an Anglo-Saxon historian, used ''Scani''. In ''
Beowulf ''Beowulf'' (; ang, Bēowulf ) is an Old English epic poem An epic poem is a lengthy narrative poem Narrative poetry is a form of poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literat ...

Beowulf
'', the forms ''Scedenige'' and ''Scedeland'' are used while the translation of
Orosius Paulus Orosius (; born 375/385 – 420 AD), less often Paul Orosius in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England ...
and Wulfstan's travel accounts used the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
''Sconeg''.


Possible influence on Sami

The earliest
Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sami Bay, east of Sami, Ceph ...

Sami
yoik A joik or yoik (anglicised, where the latter spelling in English conforms with the pronunciation; also named , , , or in the Sámi languages Sámi languages (), in English also rendered as Sami and Saami, are a group of Uralic languages spoken ...
texts written down refer to the world as ''Skadesi-suolo'' (north Sami) and ''Skađsuâl'' (east Sami), meaning "
Skaði In Norse mythology, Skaði (; Old Norse: ; sometimes anglicized as Skadi, Skade, or Skathi) is a jötunn and Æsir, goddess associated with bowhunting, skiing, winter, and mountains. Skaði is attested in the ''Poetic Edda'', compiled in the 13th ...
's island". Svennung considers the Sami name to have been introduced as a
loan word A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguis ...
from the
North Germanic languages The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. The language group is also r ...

North Germanic languages
;Svennung, J. (1963). ''Scandinavia und Scandia.'' Lateinisch-nordische Namenstudien. Almqvist & Wiksell/Harrassowitz, 1963, pp. 54–56. "
Skaði In Norse mythology, Skaði (; Old Norse: ; sometimes anglicized as Skadi, Skade, or Skathi) is a jötunn and Æsir, goddess associated with bowhunting, skiing, winter, and mountains. Skaði is attested in the ''Poetic Edda'', compiled in the 13th ...
" is the
giant In folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that so ...
stepmother of
Freyr Freyr (: 'Lord'), sometimes anglicized as Frey, is a widely attested god in , associated with , fertility, peace, prosperity, and virility, with sunshine and fair weather, and with good harvest. Freyr, sometimes referred to as -Freyr, was espec ...

Freyr
and
Freyja In Norse mythology Norse or Scandinavian mythology is the body of myths Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that cultur ...
in
Norse mythology Norse or Scandinavian mythology is the body of myths Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. ...
. It has been suggested that Skaði to some extent is modeled on a Sami woman. The name for Skade's father Thjazi is known in Sami as ''Čáhci'', "the waterman"; and her son with Odin, Saeming, can be interpreted as a descendant of ''Saam'' the Sami population.Mundel, E. (2000).
''Coexistence of Saami and Norse culture – reflected in and interpreted by Old Norse myths''
''Coexistence of Saami and Norse culture – reflected in and interpreted by Old Norse myths'' University of Bergen, 11th Saga Conference Sydney 2000
Older joik texts give evidence of the old Sami belief about living on an island and state that the wolf is known as ''suolu gievra'', meaning "the strong one on the island". The Sami
place name Place may refer to: Geography * Place (United States Census Bureau), defined as any concentration of population ** Census-designated place, a populated area lacking its own municipal government * "Place", a type of street or road name ** Often ...
''Sulliidčielbma'' means "the island's threshold" and '' Suoločielgi'' means "the island's back". In recent
substrate Substrate may refer to: Physical layers *Substrate (biology), the natural environment in which an organism lives, or the surface or medium on which an organism grows or is attached **Substrate (locomotion), the surface over which an organism loco ...
studies, Sami linguists have examined the initial cluster ''sk''- in words used in Sami and concluded that ''sk''- is a phonotactic structure of alien origin.Aikio, A. (2004).
An essay on substrate studies and the origin of Saami
. In ''Etymologie, Entlehnungen und Entwicklungen: Festschrift für Jorma Koivulehto zum 70. Geburtstag. Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki 63'', Eds. Irma Hyvärinen / Petri Kallio / Jarmo Korhonen, Helsinki, pp. 5–34 (p. 14: "On the basis of Scandinavian loanwords it can be inferred that both and were adopted in the west during the early separate development of the Saami languages, but never spread to Kola Saami. These areal features thus emerged in a phase when Proto-Saami began to diverge into dialects anticipating the modern Saami languages.")


Reintroduction of the term ''Scandinavia'' in the eighteenth century

Although the term ''Scandinavia'' used by Pliny the Elder probably originated in the ancient Germanic languages, the modern form ''Scandinavia'' does not descend directly from the ancient Germanic term. Rather the word was brought into use in Europe by scholars borrowing the term from ancient sources like Pliny, and was used vaguely for Scania and the southern region of the peninsula.Østergård, Uffe (1997). "The Geopolitics of Nordic Identity – From Composite States to Nation States". ''The Cultural Construction of Norden''. Øystein Sørensen and Bo Stråth (eds.), Oslo: Scandinavian University Press 1997, 25–71. Also published online a
Danish Institute for International Studies
. For the history of cultural Scandinavism, see Oresundstid's article

an

. Retrieved 19 January 2007.
The term was popularised by the linguistic and cultural Scandinavist movement, which asserted the common heritage and cultural unity of the Scandinavian countries and rose to prominence in the 1830s. The popular usage of the term in Sweden, Denmark and Norway as a unifying concept became established in the nineteenth century through poems such as
Hans Christian Andersen Hans Christian Andersen (, ; 2 April 1805 – 4 August 1875) was a Danish author. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues, novels, and poems, he is best remembered for his literary fairy tales A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder ...

Hans Christian Andersen
's "I am a Scandinavian" of 1839. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism. In a letter describing the poem to a friend, he wrote: "All at once I understood how related the Swedes, the Danes and the Norwegians are, and with this feeling I wrote the poem immediately after my return: 'We are one people, we are called Scandinavians!'". The influence of
Scandinavism Scandinavism, also called Scandinavianism or pan-Scandinavianism,"Pan-Scandinavianism"
as a Scandinavist political movement peaked in the middle of the nineteenth century, between the
First Schleswig War The First Schleswig War (german: Schleswig-Holsteinischer Krieg) or Three Years' War ( da, Treårskrigen) was the first round of military conflict in southern Denmark and northern Germany rooted in the Schleswig-Holstein Question, contesting ...
(1848–1850) and the
Second Schleswig War The Second Schleswig War ( da, Krigen i 1864; german: Deutsch-Dänischer Krieg) also sometimes known as the Dano-Prussian War or Prusso-Danish War was the second military conflict over the Schleswig-Holstein Question File:Herzogtümer.png, Schl ...
(1864). The Swedish king also proposed a unification of Denmark, Norway and Sweden into a single united kingdom. The background for the proposal was the tumultuous events during the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
in the beginning of the century. This war resulted in Finland (formerly the eastern third of Sweden) becoming the Russian
Grand Duchy of Finland The Grand Duchy of Finland ( fi, Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta; sv, Storfurstendömet Finland; russian: Великое княжество Финляндское, , alternatively Grand prince, Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of ...

Grand Duchy of Finland
in 1809 and
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
(''de jure'' in union with Denmark since 1387, although ''de facto'' treated as a province) becoming independent in 1814, but thereafter swiftly forced to accept a
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
with Sweden. The dependent territories Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland, historically part of Norway, remained with Denmark in accordance with the
Treaty of Kiel The Treaty of Kiel ( da, Kieltraktaten) or Peace of Kiel (Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland ...
. Sweden and Norway were thus united under the Swedish monarch, but Finland's inclusion in the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
excluded any possibility for a political union between Finland and any of the other Nordic countries. The end of the Scandinavian political movement came when Denmark was denied the military support promised from Sweden and Norway to annex the (Danish)
Duchy A duchy, also called a dukedom, is a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affair ...
of
Schleswig The Duchy of Schleswig ( da, Hertugdømmet Slesvig; german: Herzogtum Schleswig; nds, Hartogdom Sleswig; frr, Härtochduum Slaswik) was a duchy in Southern Jutland () covering the area between about 60 km (35 miles) north and 70 km ( ...
, which together with the (German) Duchy of
Holstein Holstein (; nds, label=Northern Low Saxon, Holsteen; da, Holsten; Latin and historical en, Holsatia, italic=yes) is the region between the rivers Elbe and Eider (river), Eider. It is the southern half of Schleswig-Holstein, the northernmost S ...
had been in
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
with Denmark. The Second war of Schleswig followed in 1864, a brief but disastrous war between Denmark and
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
(supported by Austria).
Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein () is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany The Federal Republic of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , la ...

Schleswig-Holstein
was conquered by Prussia and after Prussia's success in the
Franco-Prussian War The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War,, german: Deutsch-Französischer Krieg often referred to in France as the War of 1870, was a conflict between the Second French Empire The Second French Empire (; officially the French Empire ...
a Prussian-led
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
was created and a new power-balance of the Baltic sea countries was established. The Scandinavian Monetary Union, established in 1873, lasted until World War I.


Use of ''Nordic countries'' vs. ''Scandinavia''

The term ''Scandinavia'' (sometimes specified in English as ''Continental Scandinavia'' or ''mainland Scandinavia'') is ordinarily used locally for Denmark, Norway and Sweden as a subset of the Nordic countries (known in Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish as ''Norden''; fi, Pohjoismaat, is, Norðurlöndin, fo, Norðurlond). However, in English usage, the term ''Scandinavia'' is sometimes used as a synonym or near-synonym for what are known locally as ''Nordic countries''.Scandinavia, proper noun
, ''Lexico: Powered by Oxford''.
Knut Helle,
Introduction
, in ''The Cambridge History of Scandinavia, Volume I: Prehistory to 1520'', ed. by Knut Helle, E. I. Kouri, and Jens E. Oleson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 1-14 (pp. 1-4).
Usage in English is different from usage in the Scandinavian languages themselves (which use ''Scandinavia'' in the narrow meaning), and by the fact that the question of whether a country belongs to Scandinavia is politicised, people from the Nordic world beyond Norway, Denmark and Sweden may be offended at being either included in or excluded from the category of "Scandinavia".Olwig, Kenneth R. "Introduction: The Nature of Cultural Heritage, and the Culture of Natural Heritage—Northern Perspectives on a Contested Patrimony". ''International Journal of Heritage Studies'', Vol. 11, No. 1, March 2005, pp. 3–7. ''Nordic countries'' is used unambiguously for Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland, including their associated territories Greenland, the Faroe Islands and the Åland Islands). A large part of modern-day
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
was part of
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's fo ...

Sweden
for more than four centuries (see: Finland under Swedish rule), thus to much of the world associating Finland with Scandinavia. But the creation of a Finnish identity is unique in the region in that it was formed in relation to two different imperial models, the Swedish and the Russian."Introduction: Reflections on Political Thought in Finland."
Editorial. ''Redescriptions, Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History'', 1997, Volume 1, University of Jyväskylä, pp. 6–7: "[T]he populist opposition both to Sweden as a former imperial country and especially to Swedish as the language of the narrow Finnish establishment has also been strong, especially in the inter-war years. [...] Finland as a unitary and homogeneous nation-state was constructed [...] in opposition to the imperial models of Sweden and Russia."
There is also the geology, geological term ''Fennoscandia'' (sometimes ''Fennoscandinavia''), which in technical use refers to the Fennoscandian Shield (or ''Baltic Shield''), that is the Scandinavian peninsula (Norway and Sweden), Finland and Karelia (excluding Denmark and other parts of the wider Nordic world). The terms ''Fennoscandia'' and ''Fennoscandinavia'' are sometimes used in a broader, political sense to refer to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland.


Scandinavian as an ethnic term and as a demonym

The term ''Scandinavian'' may be used with two principal meanings, in an ethnic or cultural sense and as a modern and more inclusive demonym. ;As an ethnic or cultural term In the ethnic or cultural sense the term "Scandinavian" traditionally refers to North Germanic peoples, speakers of Scandinavian languages, who are mainly descendants of the peoples historically known as Norsemen, but also to some extent of immigrants and others who have been assimilated into that culture and language. In this sense the term refers primarily to native Danes, Norwegians and Swedes as well as descendants of Scandinavian settlers such as the Icelanders and the Faroe Islanders, Faroese. The term is also used in this ethnic sense, to refer to the modern descendants of the Norse, in studies of linguistics and culture.; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . ;As a demonym Additionally the term Scandinavian is used demonymically to refer to all modern inhabitants or citizens of Scandinavian countries. Within Scandinavia the demonymic term primarily refers to inhabitants or citizens of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. In English usage inhabitants or citizens of Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Finland are sometimes included as well. English general dictionaries often define the noun ''Scandinavian'' demonymically as meaning any inhabitant of Scandinavia (which might be narrowly conceived or broadly conceived).Scandinavian, noun
, ''Lexico: Powered By Oxford''.
There is a certain ambiguity and political contestation as to which peoples should be referred to as Scandinavian in this broader sense. Sámi people who live in Norway and Sweden are generally included as Scandinavians in the demonymic sense; the Sámi of Finland may be included in English usage, but usually not in local usage; the Sámi of Russia are not included. However, the use of the term "Scandinavian" with reference to the Sámi is complicated by the historical attempts by Scandinavian majority peoples and governments in Norway and Sweden to assimilate the Sámi people into the Scandinavian culture and languages, making the inclusion of the Sámi as "Scandinavians" controversial among many Sámi. Modern Sámi politicians and organizations often stress the status of the Sámi as a people separate from and equal to the Scandinavians, with their own language and culture, and are apprehensive about being included as "Scandinavians" in light of earlier Scandinavian assimilation policies.


Languages in Scandinavia

Two language groups have coexisted on the Scandinavian peninsula since prehistory—the
North Germanic languages The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. The language group is also r ...

North Germanic languages
(Scandinavian languages) and the Sami languages. The majority of the population of Scandinavia (including Iceland and the Faroe Islands) today derive their language from several North Germanic tribes who once inhabited the southern part of Scandinavia and spoke a Germanic languages, Germanic language that evolved into
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skades ...
and from Old Norse into Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Faroese, and Icelandic. The Danish language, Danish, Norwegian language, Norwegian and Swedish languages form a dialect continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered
mutually intelligible In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include p ...
with one another. Faroese language, Faroese and Icelandic language, Icelandic, sometimes referred to as insular Scandinavian languages, are intelligible in continental Scandinavian languages only to a limited extent. A small minority of Scandinavians are Sami people, concentrated in the extreme north of Scandinavia. Finland is mainly populated by speakers of Finnish language, Finnish, with a minority of approximately 5% of Swedish-speaking population of Finland, Swedish speakers. However, Finnish is also spoken as a recognized minority language in Sweden, including in distinctive varieties sometimes known as Meänkieli. Finnish is distantly related to the Sami languages, but these are entirely different in origin to the Scandinavian languages. German language, German (in Denmark), Yiddish and Romani language, Romani are recognized minority languages in parts of Scandinavia. More recent migrations has added even more languages. Apart from Sami and the languages of minority groups speaking a variant of the majority language of a neighboring state, the following minority languages in Scandinavia are protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: Yiddish, Romani language, Romani Chib/Romanes and Scandoromani, Romani.


North Germanic languages

The North Germanic languages of Scandinavia are traditionally divided into an East Scandinavian branch (Danish language, Danish and Swedish language, Swedish) and a West Scandinavian branch (Norwegian language, Norwegian, Icelandic language, Icelandic and Faroese language, Faroese), but because of changes appearing in the languages since 1600 the East Scandinavian and West Scandinavian branches are now usually reconfigured into Insular Scandinavian (''ö-nordisk''/''øy-nordisk'') featuring Icelandic language, Icelandic and Faroese language, Faroese and Continental Scandinavian (''Skandinavisk''), comprising Danish, Norwegian and Swedish. The modern division is based on the degree of mutual comprehensibility between the languages in the two branches. The populations of the Scandinavian countries, with common Scandinavian roots in language, can—at least with some training—understand each other's standard languages as they appear in print and are heard on radio and television. The reason Danish, Swedish and the two official written versions of Norwegian (''Nynorsk'' and ''Bokmål'') are traditionally viewed as different languages, rather than dialects of one common language, is that each is a well-established standard language in its respective country. Danish, Swedish and Norwegian have since medieval times been influenced to varying degrees by Middle Low German and standard German. That influence was due not only to proximity, but also to the rule of Denmark—and later Denmark-Norway—over the German-speaking region of Holstein, and to Sweden's close trade with the Hanseatic League. Norwegians are accustomed to variation and may perceive Danish and Swedish only as slightly more distant dialects. This is because they have two official written standards, in addition to the habit of strongly holding on to local dialects. The people of
Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Stockholm
, Sweden and Copenhagen, Denmark have the greatest difficulty in understanding other Scandinavian languages. In the Faroe Islands and Iceland, learning Danish language, Danish is mandatory. This causes Faroese people as well as Icelandic people to become bilingual in two very distinct North Germanic languages, making it relatively easy for them to understand the other two Mainland Scandinavian languages. Although Iceland was under the political control of Denmark until a much later date (1918), very little influence and borrowing from Danish has occurred in the Icelandic language. Icelandic remained the preferred language among the ruling classes in Iceland. Danish was not used for official communications, most of the royal officials were of Icelandic descent and the language of the church and law courts remained Icelandic.


Finnish

The Scandinavian languages are (as a language family) unrelated to Finnish language, Finnish, Estonian language, Estonian and Sami languages, which as Uralic languages are distantly related to Hungarian language, Hungarian. Owing to the close proximity, there is still a great deal of borrowing from the Swedish and Norwegian languages in the Finnish and Sami languages. The long history of linguistic influence of Swedish on Finnish is also due to the fact that Finnish, the language of the majority in Finland, was treated as a minority language while Finland was part of Sweden. Finnish-speakers had to learn Swedish in order to advance to higher positions. Swedish spoken in today's Finland includes a lot of words that are borrowed from Finnish, whereas the written language remains closer to that of Sweden. Finland is officially bilingual, with Finnish and Swedish having mostly the same status at national level. Finland's majority population are Finns, whose mother tongue is either Finnish (approximately 95%), Swedish or both. The Swedish-speakers live mainly on the coastline starting from approximately the city of Porvoo (Sw: Borgå) (in the Gulf of Finland) up to the city of Kokkola (Sw: Karleby) (in the Bay of Bothnia). The Swedish-speaking population is spread out in pockets in this coastal stretch. The coastal province of Ostrobothnia (region), Ostrobothnia has a Swedish-speaking majority, whereas plenty of areas on this coastline are nearly unilingually Finnish, like the region of Satakunta. Åland, an autonomous province of Finland situated in the Baltic Sea between Finland and Sweden, are entirely Swedish-speaking. Children are taught the other official language at school: for Swedish-speakers this is Finnish (usually from the 3rd grade), while for Finnish-speakers it is Swedish (usually from the 3rd, 5th or 7th grade). Finnish speakers constitute a European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, language minority in Sweden and Norway. Meänkieli and Kven language, Kven are Finnish dialects spoken in Lapland (Sweden), Swedish Lapland and Finnmark, Norwegian Lapland.


Sami languages

The Sami languages are indigenous minority languages in Scandinavia. They belong to Sami languages, their own branch of the Uralic languages, Uralic language family and are unrelated to the
North Germanic languages The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. The language group is also r ...

North Germanic languages
other than by limited grammatical (particularly lexical) characteristics resulting from prolonged contact.Inez Svonni Fjällström (2006)
"A language with deep roots"
.''Sápmi: Language history'', 14 November 2006. Samiskt Informationscentrum Sametinget: "The Scandinavian languages are Northern Germanic languages. [...] Sami belongs to the Finno-Ugric language family. Finnish, Estonian, Livonian and Hungarian belong to the same language family and are consequently related to each other."
Sami is divided into several languages or dialects. Consonant gradation is a feature in both Finnish and northern Sami dialects, but it is not present in south Sami, which is considered to have a different language history. According to the Sami Information Centre of the Sami Parliament in Sweden, southern Sami may have originated in an earlier migration from the south into the Scandinavian peninsula.


History


Ancient descriptions

A key ancient description of Scandinavia was provided by
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
, though his mentions of ''Scatinavia'' and surrounding areas are not always easy to decipher. Writing in the capacity of a Roman admiral, he introduces the northern region by declaring to his Roman readers that there are 23 islands "Romanis armis cognitae" ("known to Roman arms") in this area. According to Pliny, the "clarissima" ("most famous") of the region's islands is ''Scatinavia'', of unknown size. There live the ''Hilleviones''. The belief that Scandinavia was an island became widespread among classical authors during the first century and dominated descriptions of Scandinavia in classical texts during the centuries that followed. Pliny begins his description of the route to ''Scatinavia'' by referring to the mountain of Saevo ("mons Saevo ibi"), the Codanus Bay ("Codanus sinus") and the Cimbrian promontory. The geographical features have been identified in various ways. By some scholars, ''Saevo'' is thought to be the mountainous Norway, Norwegian coast at the entrance to Skagerrak and the Cimbrian peninsula is thought to be Skagen, the north tip of Jutland, Denmark. As described, Saevo and Scatinavia can also be the same place. Pliny mentions Scandinavia one more time: in Book VIII he says that the animal called ''achlis'' (given in the accusative, ''achlin'', which is not Latin) was born on the island of Scandinavia. The animal grazes, has a big upper lip and some mythical attributes. The name ''Scandia'', later used as a synonym for ''Scandinavia'', also appears in Pliny's ''Natural History (Pliny), Naturalis Historia'' (''Natural History''), but is used for a group of Northern European islands which he locates north of Britannia. ''Scandia'' thus does not appear to be denoting the island Scadinavia in Pliny's text. The idea that ''Scadinavia'' may have been one of the ''Scandiae'' islands was instead introduced by
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, , ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes ...
(c. 90 – c. 168 AD), a mathematician, geographer and astrologer of Roman Egypt. He used the name ''Skandia'' for the biggest, most easterly of the three ''Scandiai'' islands, which according to him were all located east of Jutland.


The Middle Ages

During a period of Christianization and state formation in the 10th–13th centuries, numerous Germanic peoples, Germanic petty kingdoms and chiefdoms were unified into three kingdoms: * Denmark, forged from the Lands of Denmark (including Jutland, Zealand (Denmark), Zealand and Skåneland, Scania (Skåneland) on the Scandinavian Peninsula) * Sweden, forged from the Lands of Sweden on the Scandinavian Peninsula (excluding the provinces Bohuslän, Härjedalen, Jämtland and Älvdalen Municipality, Idre and Särna, Halland, Blekinge and
Scania Scania, also known by its native name of Skåne (, ), is the southernmost of the historical (''landskap'') of . The former province is roughly conterminous with , created in 1997. Like the other former provinces of Sweden, Scania still feature ...

Scania
of modern-day Sweden, but including most of modern Finland) * Norway (including Bohuslän, Härjedalen, Jämtland and Idre and Särna on the Scandinavian Peninsula and its island colonies Iceland, Greenland, Faroe Islands, Shetland, Orkney, Isle of Man and the Hebrides) According to Historian Sverre Bagge, the divisions into three Scandinavian kingdoms (Denmark, Sweden, Norway) makes sense geographically, as forests, mountains, and uninhabited land divided them from one another. Control of Norway was enabled through seapower, whereas control of the great lakes in Sweden enabled control of the kingdom, and control of Jutland was sufficient to control Denmark. The most contested area was the coastline from Oslo to Öresund, where the three kingdoms met. The three Scandinavian kingdoms joined in 1387 in the Kalmar Union under Queen Margaret I of Denmark. Sweden left the union in 1523 under King Gustav Vasa. In the aftermath of Sweden's secession from the Kalmar Union, civil war broke out in Denmark and Norway—the Protestant Reformation followed. When things had settled, the Norwegian Privy Council was abolished—it assembled for the last time in 1537. A
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
, entered into by the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway in 1536, lasted until 1814. Three sovereign successor states have subsequently emerged from this unequal union: Denmark, Norway and Iceland. The borders between the three countries got the shape they have had since in the middle of the seventeenth century: In the 1645 Second Treaty of Brömsebro (1645), Treaty of Brömsebro, Denmark–Norway ceded the Norwegian provinces of Jämtland, Härjedalen and Idre and Särna, as well as the Baltic Sea islands of Gotland and Saaremaa, Ösel (in Estonia) to Sweden. The Treaty of Roskilde, signed in 1658, forced Denmark–Norway to cede the Danish provinces Scania, Blekinge, Halland, Bornholm and the Norwegian provinces of Bohuslän, Båhuslen and Trøndelag to Sweden. The 1660 Treaty of Copenhagen (1660), Treaty of Copenhagen forced Sweden to return Bornholm and Trøndelag to Denmark–Norway, and to give up its recent claims to the island Funen. In the east, Finland was a fully incorporated part of Sweden from medieval times until the Napoleonic wars, when it was ceded to Russia. Despite many wars over the years since the formation of the three kingdoms, Scandinavia has been politically and culturally close.


Scandinavian unions

Denmark–Norway as a historiographical name refers to the former political union consisting of the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, including the Norwegian dependencies of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The corresponding adjective and demonym is Dano-Norwegian (disambiguation), Dano-Norwegian. During Danish rule, Norway kept its separate laws, coinage and army as well as some institutions such as a royal chancellor. Norway's old royal line had died out with the death of Olav IV in 1387, but Norway's remaining a Hereditary Kingdom of Norway, hereditary kingdom became an important factor for the Oldenburg dynasty of Denmark–Norway in its struggles to win elections as kings of Denmark. The
Treaty of Kiel The Treaty of Kiel ( da, Kieltraktaten) or Peace of Kiel (Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland ...
(14 January 1814) formally dissolved the Dano-Norwegian union and ceded the territory of Norway proper to the King of Sweden, but Denmark retained Norway's overseas possessions. However, widespread Norwegian resistance to the prospect of a union with Sweden induced the governor of Norway, crown prince Christian Frederick (later Christian VIII of Denmark), to call a constituent assembly at Eidsvoll in April 1814. The assembly drew up a liberal constitution and elected Christian Frederick to the throne of Norway. Following a Swedish invasion during the summer, the peace conditions of the Convention of Moss (14 August 1814) specified that king Christian Frederik had to resign, but Norway would keep its independence and its constitution within a personal union with Sweden. Christian Frederik formally abdicated on 10 August 1814 and returned to Denmark. The Norwegian parliament Storting elected king Charles XIII of Sweden as king of Norway on 4 November. The Storting Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden, dissolved the union between Sweden and Norway in 1905, after which the Norwegians elected Prince Charles of Denmark as king of Norway: he reigned as Haakon VII.


Economy

The economies of the countries of Scandinavia are amongst the strongest in Europe. There is a Nordic model, generous welfare system in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland.


Tourism

Various promotional agencies of the Nordic countries in the United States (such as The American-Scandinavian Foundation, established in 1910 by the Danish American industrialist Niels Poulsen) serve to promote market and tourism interests in the region. Today, the five Nordic heads of state act as the organization's patrons and according to the official statement by the organization its mission is "to promote the Nordic region as a whole while increasing the visibility of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in New York City and the United States". The official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, such as the Scandinavian Tourist Board. The cooperation was introduced for the Asian market in 1986, when the Swedish national tourist board joined the Danish national tourist board to coordinate intergovernmental promotion of the two countries. Norway's government entered one year later. All five Nordic governments participate in the joint promotional efforts in the United States through the Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America.The Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America
. Official Website. Retrieved 2 February 2007.


See also

* Baltic region * Baltoscandia * Fennoscandia * Kvenland * Sápmi *
Nordic countries The Nordic countries (also known as the Nordics or ''Norden''; lit. 'the North') are a geographical and cultural region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science de ...

Nordic countries
* Nordic Cross Flag * Nordic Council * Scandinavian colonialism * Scandinavian family name etymology * Scandinavian folklore *
Scandza Scandza was described as a "great island" by the Gothic-Byzantine historian Jordanes 200px, The Mediterranean area 550 AD as Jordanes wrote his ''Getica''. The Eastern Roman Empire, capital Constantinople, is shown in pink. Conquests of Justinia ...

Scandza
* Vikings


Notes


References


Further reading


Historical

* Aatsinki, Ulla, Johanna Annola, and Mervi Kaarninen, eds. ''Families, Values, and the Transfer of Knowledge in Northern Societies, 1500–2000'' (Routledge, 2019). * Barton, H. Arnold. ''Scandinavia in the Revolutionary Era: 1760-1815'' (U of Minnesota Press, 1986
online review
* Bendixsen, Synnøve, Mary Bente Bringslid, and Halvard Vike, eds. ''Egalitarianism in Scandinavia: Historical and contemporary perspectives'' (Springer, 2017). * Derry, T. K. ''A History of Scandinavia: Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Iceland'' (George Allen & Unwin, 1979)
online review
* Fulsås, Narve, and Tore Rem, eds. ''Ibsen, Scandinavia and the making of a world drama'' (Cambridge UP, 2018). * Glørstad, Zanette T., and Kjetil Loftsgarden, eds. ''Viking-Age Transformations: Trade, Craft and Resources in Western Scandinavia'' (Taylor & Francis, 2017). * Gron, Kurt J., and Lasse Sørensen. "Cultural and economic negotiation: a new perspective on the Neolithic Transition of Southern Scandinavia." ''Antiquity'' 92.364 (2018): 958–974
online
* Helle, Knut, ed. ''The Cambridge history of Scandinavia. Volume 1, Prehistory to 1520'' (Cambridge UP, 2003). * Mikkelsen, Flemming, Knut Kjeldstadli, and Stefan Nyzell, eds. ''Popular struggle and democracy in Scandinavia: 1700-present'' (Springer, 2017). * Nissen, Henrik S. ed. ''Scandinavia during the Second World War'' (1983
online review
* Nordstrom, Byron J. ''Scandinavia since 1500'' (U of Minnesota Press, 2000). * Östling, Johan, Niklas Olsen, and David Larsson Heidenblad, eds. ''Histories of Knowledge in Postwar Scandinavia: Actors, Arenas, and Aspirations'' (Routledge, 2020
excerpt
* Pulsiano, Phillip, and Paul Leonard Acker. ''Medieval Scandinavia: an encyclopedia'' (Taylor & Francis, 1993). * Raffield, Ben, Neil Price, and Mark Collard. "Religious belief and cooperation: a view from Viking-Age Scandinavia." ''Religion, Brain & Behavior'' 9.1 (2019): 2-22
online
* Rom-Jensen, Byron. "A Model of Social Security? The political usage of Scandinavia in Roosevelt's New Deal." ''Scandinavian Journal of History'' 42.4 (2017): 363-38
online
* Salmon, Patrick. ''Scandinavia and the great powers 1890-1940'' (Cambridge UP, 2002). * Sanders, Ruth H. ''The Languages of Scandinavia: Seven Sisters of the North'' (U of Chicago Press, 2017). * Sawyer, Birgit. ''Medieval Scandinavia: From conversion to reformation, circa 800-1500'' (U of Minnesota Press, 1993). * Sawyer, Peter Hayes. ''Kings and vikings: Scandinavia and Europe AD 700–1100'' (1982) * Sigurdsson, Jon Vidar. ''Scandinavia in the Age of Vikings'' (Cornell UP, 2021
excerpt
* Wilson, David Mackenzie, and P. Foote. ''The Viking achievement: the society and culture of early medieval Scandinavia'' (Sidgwick & Jackson, 1970). * Winroth, Anders. ''The Age of the Vikings'' (Princeton UP, 2016
excerpt
* Winroth, Anders. ''The Conversion of Scandinavia: Vikings, Merchants, and Missionaries in the Remaking of Northern Europe'' (Yale UP, 2012)
excerpt


Recent

* Anderson, Jorgen, and Jens Hoff, eds. ''Democracy and citizenship in Scandinavia'' (Springer, 2001). * Bendixsen, Synnøve, Mary Bente Bringslid, and Halvard Vike, eds. ''Egalitarianism in Scandinavia: Historical and contemporary perspectives'' (Springer, 2017). * Gallie, Duncan. "The quality of working life: is Scandinavia different?." ''European Sociological Review'' 19.1 (2003): 61–79. * Green, Ken, Thorsteinn Sigurjónsson, and Eivind Åsrum Skille, eds. ''Sport in Scandinavia and the Nordic countries'' (Routledge, 2018). * Hilson, Mary. ''The Nordic Model: Scandinavia since 1945'' (Reaktion books, 2008). * Ingebritsen, Christine. ''Scandinavia in world politics'' (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006). * Kröger, Teppo. "Local government in Scandinavia: autonomous or integrated into the welfare state?." in ''Social Care Services'' (Routledge, 2019) pp. 95–108. * Lappi-Seppälä, Tapio. "Penal policy in Scandinavia." ''Crime and justice'' 36.1 (2007): 217–295. * Nestingen, Andrew. ''Crime and fantasy in Scandinavia: Fiction, film and social change'' (University of Washington Press, 2011). * Rogerson, Richard. "Taxation and market work: is Scandinavia an outlier?." ''Economic theory'' 32.1 (2007): 59–85
online
* Strand, Robert, R. Edward Freeman, and Kai Hockerts. "Corporate social responsibility and sustainability in Scandinavia: An overview." ''Journal of Business Ethics'' 127.1 (2015): 1-1
online


External links

*
Nordic Council
– official site for co-operation in the Nordic region
Nordregio
– site established by the Nordic Council of Ministers
vifanord
– a digital library that provides scientific information on the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as the Baltic region as a whole
Expat Scandinavia
– Site with useful information for expats in Scandinavia. {{Authority control Scandinavia, Geography of Northern Europe Regions of Europe