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Scandinavia,
Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sami Bay, east of Sami, Ceph ...
: ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl'' ( ) is a
subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region or continent and is usually based on location. Cardinal directions, such as south or southern, are commonly used to define a subregion. United Nations subregions The Statistics Division of the United N ...
in
Northern Europe Northern Europe is a loosely defined geographical and cultural region in Europe. Narrower definitions may describe Northern Europe as being roughly north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, which is about 54°N, or may be based on other geo ...
, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In English usage, ''Scandinavia'' can refer to
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ), officially the Kingdom of Denmark, da, Kongeriget Danmark, . See also: The unity of the Realm is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. Denmark proper, which is the southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, consists o ...
,
Norway Norway ( nb, ; nn, ; se, Norga; smj, Vuodna; sma, Nöörje), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose mainland territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. T ...
and
Sweden Sweden (; sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's formal name is the Kingd ...
, sometimes more narrowly to the
Scandinavian Peninsula The Scandinavian Peninsula ( sv, Skandinaviska halvön; no, Den skandinaviske halvøy (Bokmål) or nn, Den skandinaviske halvøya; fi, Skandinavian niemimaa; russian: Скандинавский полуостров, ''Skandinavsky poluostrov'') ...
, or more broadly to include the
Åland Islands The Åland Islands, or simply Åland (, also , , ; fi, Ahvenanmaa ) is an archipelago at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland. It is an autonomous and demilitarised region of Finland since 1920 by a decisio ...
, the
Faroe Islands The Faroe Islands, or simply Faroes (also written ''Faeroes''; ; fo, Føroyar, ; da, Færøerne), are a North Atlantic archipelago located north-northwest of Scotland, and about halfway between Norway and Iceland. Like Greenland, it is an au ...
,
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland , ), officially the Republic of Finland (, ), is a Nordic country located in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gul ...
and
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, with a population of 356,991 and an area of , making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Reykjavík. Reykjavík and t ...
. The broader definition is similar to what are locally called the
Nordic countries The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as ''Norden'' (literally "the North"). The region includes the sovereign states of Denm ...
, which also include the remote Norwegian islands of
Svalbard Svalbard ( , ), previously known as Spitsbergen, or Spitzbergen, is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. Situated north of mainland Europe, it is about midway between the northern coast of Norway and the North Pole. The islands of the ...

Svalbard
and
Jan Mayen Jan Mayen () is a Norwegian volcanic island in the Arctic Ocean, with no permanent population. It is long (southwest-northeast) and in area, partly covered by glaciers (an area of around the Beerenberg volcano). It has two parts: larger northea ...
and
Greenland Greenland ( kl, Kalaallit Nunaat, ; da, Grønland, ) is the world's largest island, located between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Greenland is an autonomous territory* * * within the Kingdom of Denmar ...
, a constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark.


Geography

The geography of Scandinavia is extremely varied. Notable are the Norwegian fjords, the
Scandinavian Mountains The Scandinavian Mountains or the Scandes is a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Scandinavian Mountains are often erroneously thought to be equivalent to the Scandinavian Caledonides, an ancient mountain range and or ...
, the flat, low areas in Denmark and the
archipelagos An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands. Indonesian Archipelago, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the G ...
of Sweden and Norway. Sweden has many lakes and
moraine A moraine is any accumulation of unconsolidated debris (regolith and rock), sometimes referred to as glacial till, that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions, and that has been previously carried along by a glacier or ice shee ...
s, legacies of the
ice age#REDIRECT Ice age {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from ambiguous term {{R from other capitalisation {{R unprintworthy ...
, which ended about ten millennia ago. The southern regions of Scandinavia, which are also the most populous regions, have a
temperate climate In geography, the temperate climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes (40° to 60° N/S of Equator), which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth. These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout the yea ...
. Scandinavia extends north of the
Arctic Circle The Arctic Circle is one of the two polar circles and the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth. It marks the northernmost point at which the center of the noon sun is just visible on the December solstic ...

Arctic Circle
, but has relatively mild weather for its latitude due to the
Gulf Stream The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the Unit ...
. Many of the Scandinavian mountains have an
alpine tundra Alpine tundra is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high elevation. As the latitude of a location approaches the poles, the threshold elevation for alpine tundra gets lower until it reaches sea level, a ...
climate. The climate varies from north to south and from west to east: a marine west coast climate ( Cfb) typical of western Europe dominates in Denmark, southernmost part of Sweden and along the west coast of Norway reaching north to 65°N, with
orographic lift cloud pattern—analogous to a ship wake—in the downwind zone behind the Île Amsterdam, in the far southern Indian Ocean. The island generates wave motion in the wind passing over it, creating regularly spaced orographic clouds. The wave crests r ...
giving more mm/year
precipitation In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravitational pull from clouds. The main forms of precipitation include drizzling, rain, sleet, snow, ice pellets, graupel and hail. ...
(<5000 mm) in some areas in western Norway. The central part – from
Oslo Oslo ( , also , , rarely ) is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality. As of 23 November 2020, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 697,549, while the population of the city's gre ...

Oslo
to
Stockholm Stockholm is the capital of Sweden. It has the most populous urban area in Sweden as well as in Scandinavia. 1 million people live in the municipality, approximately 1.6 million in the urban area, and 2.4 million in the metropolit ...
– has a
humid continental climate A humid continental climate is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by four distinct seasons and large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (som ...
(Dfb), which gradually gives way to
subarctic climate#REDIRECT Subarctic climate#REDIRECT Subarctic climate {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
(Dfc) further north and cool marine west coast climate (Cfc) along the northwestern coast. A small area along the northern coast east of the North Cape has tundra climate (Et) as a result of a lack of summer warmth. The Scandinavian Mountains block the mild and moist air coming from the southwest, thus northern Sweden and the
Finnmarksvidda Finnmarksvidda ( sme, Finnmárkkoduottar; en, Finnmark plateau/highland) is Norway's largest plateau, with an area greater than . The plateau lies about above sea level. Approximately 36% of Finnmark lies on the Finnmarksvidda. Geography From A ...
plateau in Norway receive little precipitation and have cold winters. Large areas in the Scandinavian mountains have
alpine tundra Alpine tundra is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high elevation. As the latitude of a location approaches the poles, the threshold elevation for alpine tundra gets lower until it reaches sea level, a ...
climate. The warmest temperature ever recorded in Scandinavia is 38.0 °C in
Målilla Målilla () is a locality situated in Hultsfred Municipality, Kalmar County, Sweden with 1,524 inhabitants in 2010. It is more commonly known as the temperature capital of Sweden due to the frequent records, both high and low, being set there. A S ...
(Sweden). The coldest temperature ever recorded is −52.6 °C in Vuoggatjålme,
Arjeplog Arjeplog (; Pite Sami: ) is a locality and the seat of Arjeplog Municipality in Norrbotten County, province of Lapland, Sweden with 1,977 inhabitants in 2010. It is a popular winter test site for the Asian and European car industries and featured o ...
(Sweden).Lägsta uppmätta temperatur i Sverige
The coldest month was February 1985 in Vittangi (Sweden) with a mean of −27.2 °C. Southwesterly winds further warmed by
foehn wind A föhn, also spelled foehn (, ) is a type of dry, warm, down-slope wind that occurs in the lee (downwind side) of a mountain range. It is a rain shadow wind that results from the subsequent adiabatic warming of air that has dropped most of its m ...
can give warm temperatures in narrow Norwegian fjords in winter.
Tafjord Tafjord is a village in Fjord Municipality in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway. The village is in a valley located at the end of the Tafjorden, about southeast of the municipal centre of Sylte, and just west of the borders of Reinheimen National Pa ...
has recorded 17.9 °C in January and
Sunndal is a municipality in the Nordmøre region located in the northeast part of Møre og Romsdal county, Norway. The administrative center of the municipality is the village of Sunndalsøra. Other villages include Gjøra, Grøa, Hoelsand, Jordalsgre ...
18.9 °C in February.


Etymology

The term ''Scandinavia'' in local usage covers the three
kingdoms Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts an ...
of
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ), officially the Kingdom of Denmark, da, Kongeriget Danmark, . See also: The unity of the Realm is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. Denmark proper, which is the southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, consists o ...
,
Norway Norway ( nb, ; nn, ; se, Norga; smj, Vuodna; sma, Nöörje), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose mainland territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. T ...
, and
Sweden Sweden (; sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's formal name is the Kingd ...
. The majority national languages of these three belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, and are
mutually intelligible In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort. It is sometimes used as an im ...
North Germanic languages The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. The language group is also re ...
. The words ''Scandinavia'' and ''
Scania Scania ( sv, Skåne ()), is the southernmost of the historical provinces (''landskap'') of Sweden. The former province is roughly conterminous with Skåne County, created in 1997. Like the other former provinces of Sweden, Scania still features ...
'' (''Skåne'', the southernmost province of Sweden) are both thought to go back to the
Proto-Germanic Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; also called Common Germanic) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages. Proto-Germanic eventually developed from pre-Proto-Germanic into three Germanic branches ...
compound *''Skaðin-awjō'' (the ''ð'' represented in Latin by ''t'' or ''d''), which appears later in
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th centur ...
as ''Scedenig'' and in
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements from about the 7th to the 15th centuries. The Proto-Norse language developed into Old Norse ...
as ''Skáney''. The earliest identified source for the name ''Scandinavia'' is
Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and a friend of emperor Vespasian. He wrote the encyclopedic ''Natural ...

Pliny the Elder
's ''
Natural History Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungi, and plants, in their natural environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. A person who studies natural history is calle ...
'', dated to the first century AD. Various references to the region can also be found in
Pytheas Pytheas of Massalia (; Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης ''Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs''; Latin: ''Pytheas Massiliensis''; fl. 310–306 BC) was a Greek geographer, explorer and astronomer from the Greek colony of Massalia (mode ...
,
Pomponius Mela Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer. He was born in Tingentera (now Algeciras) and died  AD 45. His short work (''De situ orbis libri III.'') remained in use nearly to the year 1500. It occupies less tha ...
,
Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus ( , ; – ) was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historians by modern scholars. He lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature, a ...
,
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, ''Klaúdios Ptolemaîos'' ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, geographer and astrologer who wrote several scientific treatise ...
,
Procopius Procopius of Caesarea ( grc-gre, Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς ''Prokópios ho Kaisareús''; la, Procopius Caesariensis; –after 565) was a prominent late antique Byzantine scholar from Palaestina Prima. Accompanying the Byzantine ...
and
Jordanes 200px, The Mediterranean area 550 AD as Jordanes wrote his ''Getica''. The Eastern Roman Empire, capital Constantinople, is shown in pink. Conquests of Justinian I shown in green. Jordanes (), also written as Jordanis or Jornandes, was a 6th-c ...
, usually in the form of ''
Scandza Scandza was described as a "great island" by the Gothic-Byzantine historian Jordanes in his work ''Getica''. The island was located in the Arctic regions of the sea that surrounded the world. The ''Getica'', written in 551 AD, gives a history of ...

Scandza
''. It is believed that the name used by Pliny may be of
West Germanic#REDIRECT West Germanic languages#REDIRECT West Germanic languages#REDIRECT West Germanic languages {{R from other capitalisation ... {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
origin, originally denoting Scania. According to some scholars, the Germanic stem can be reconstructed as *''skaðan-'' and meaning "danger" or "damage". The second segment of the name has been reconstructed as *''awjō'', meaning "land on the water" or "island". The name ''Scandinavia'' would then mean "dangerous island", which is considered to refer to the treacherous sandbanks surrounding Scania.
Skanör300px, The romanesque church in Skanör Skanör is a town in Vellinge Municipality and part of the conurbation Skanör med Falsterbo in southwestern Scania, Sweden. City facilities include hotels, restaurants, a harbour, a medieval church and an el ...
in Scania, with its long Falsterbo reef, has the same stem (''skan'') combined with -''ör'', which means "sandbanks". Alternatively, ''Sca(n)dinavia'' and ''Skáney'', along with the
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements from about the 7th to the 15th centuries. The Proto-Norse language developed into Old Norse ...
goddess name ''
Skaði In Norse mythology, Skaði (, sometimes anglicized as Skadi, Skade, or Skathi) is a jötunn and goddess associated with bowhunting, skiing, winter, and mountains. Skaði is attested in the ''Poetic Edda'', compiled in the 13th century from earlier ...
'', may be related to Proto-Germanic ''*skaðwa-'' (meaning "shadow"). John McKinnell comments that this etymology suggests that the goddess Skaði may have once been a personification of the geographical region of Scandinavia or associated with the underworld. Another possibility is that all or part of the segments of the name came from the pre-Germanic
Mesolithic The Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, ''mesos'' "middle"; λίθος, ''lithos'' "stone") is the Old World archaeological period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic. The term Epipaleolithic is often used synonymously, especially for ou ...
people inhabiting the region. In modernity, Scandinavia is a peninsula, but between approximately 10,300 and 9,500 years ago the southern part of Scandinavia was an island separated from the northern peninsula, with water exiting the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, northeast Germany, Poland, Russia and the North and Central European Plain. The sea stretches from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from ...
through the area where
Stockholm Stockholm is the capital of Sweden. It has the most populous urban area in Sweden as well as in Scandinavia. 1 million people live in the municipality, approximately 1.6 million in the urban area, and 2.4 million in the metropolit ...
is now located. Correspondingly, some
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques, an ethnic group of Spain and France * Basque language, their language Places * Basque Country (greater region), the homeland of the Basque people with parts in both Spain and France * Basque Country (autonomous comm ...
scholars have presented the idea that the segment ''sk'' that appears in ''*Skaðinawjō'' is connected to the name for the Euzko peoples, akin to Basques, that populated
Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age, is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers  99% of the period of human technological prehistory. It ...
Europe. According to one scholar, Scandinavian people share particular
genetic marker A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species. It can be described as a variation (which may arise due to mutation or alteration in the genomic loci) that can be ...
s with the
Basque people The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a common culture and shared genetic ancestry to the ancient Vascones and Aquitanians. Basques are ind ...
.


Appearance in medieval Germanic languages

The Latin names in Pliny's text gave rise to different forms in medieval Germanic texts. In Jordanes' history of the
Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi) were a Germanic people who played a major role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of Medieval Europe. In his book ''Getica'' (c. 551), the ...
(AD 551), the form ''
Scandza Scandza was described as a "great island" by the Gothic-Byzantine historian Jordanes in his work ''Getica''. The island was located in the Arctic regions of the sea that surrounded the world. The ''Getica'', written in 551 AD, gives a history of ...

Scandza
'' is the name used for their original home, separated by sea from the land of Europe (chapter 1, 4). Where Jordanes meant to locate this quasi-legendary island is still a hotly debated issue, both in scholarly discussions and in the
nationalistic Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a group of people),Smith, Anthony. ''Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History''. Polity, 2010. pp. 9, 25–30; especially with the aim of gaining and ...
discourse of various European countries. The form ''Scadinavia'' as the original home of the
Langobards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774. The medieval Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the ''History of the Lombards'' (written between 787 and 79 ...
appears in
Paulus DiaconusPaulus is the original Latin form of the English name Paul. It may refer to: Ancient Roman * Paul (jurist) or Julius Paulus (fl. 222–235 AD), Roman jurist * Paulus (consul 496), politician of the Eastern Roman Empire * Paulus (consul 512), Roman ...
' ''Historia Langobardorum'', but in other versions of ''Historia Langobardorum'' appear the forms ''Scadan'', ''Scandanan'', ''Scadanan'' and ''Scatenauge''. Frankish sources used ''Sconaowe'' and Aethelweard, an Anglo-Saxon historian, used ''Scani''. In ''
Beowulf ''Beowulf'' (; ang, Bēowulf ) is an Old English epic poem in the tradition of Germanic heroic legend consisting of 3,182 alliterative lines. It is one of the most important and most often translated works of Old English literature. The date ...

Beowulf
'', the forms ''Scedenige'' and ''Scedeland'' are used while the translation of
Orosius Paulus Orosius (; born 375/385 – 420 AD), less often Paul Orosius in English, was a Roman priest, historian and theologian, and a student of Augustine of Hippo. It is possible that he was born in ''Bracara Augusta'' (now Braga, Portugal), the ...
and Wulfstan's travel accounts used the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th centur ...
''Sconeg''.


Possible influence on Sami

The earliest
Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sami Bay, east of Sami, Ceph ...
yoik A joik or yoik (anglicised, where the latter spelling in English conforms with the pronunciation; also named luohti, vuolle, vuelie, or juoiggus in the Sámi languages) is a traditional form of song in Sámi music performed by the Sámi people of Sa ...
texts written down refer to the world as ''Skadesi-suolo'' (north Sami) and ''Skađsuâl'' (east Sami), meaning "
Skaði In Norse mythology, Skaði (, sometimes anglicized as Skadi, Skade, or Skathi) is a jötunn and goddess associated with bowhunting, skiing, winter, and mountains. Skaði is attested in the ''Poetic Edda'', compiled in the 13th century from earlier ...
's island". Svennung considers the Sami name to have been introduced as a
loan word A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word as adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation. This is in contrast to cognates, which are words in two or more languages that are simi ...
from the
North Germanic languages The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. The language group is also re ...
;Svennung, J. (1963). ''Scandinavia und Scandia.'' Lateinisch-nordische Namenstudien. Almqvist & Wiksell/Harrassowitz, 1963, pp. 54–56. "
Skaði In Norse mythology, Skaði (, sometimes anglicized as Skadi, Skade, or Skathi) is a jötunn and goddess associated with bowhunting, skiing, winter, and mountains. Skaði is attested in the ''Poetic Edda'', compiled in the 13th century from earlier ...
" is the
giant In folklore, giants (from Ancient Greek: ''gigas'', cognate giga-) are beings of human-like appearance, but are at times prodigious in size and strength or bear an otherwise notable appearance. The word ''giant'', first attested in 1297, was der ...
stepmother of
Freyr Freyr (Old Norse: Lord?), sometimes anglicized as Frey, is a widely attested god in Norse mythology, associated with sacral kingship, virility, peace and prosperity, with sunshine and fair weather, and with good harvest. Freyr, sometimes referre ...
and
Freyja In Norse mythology, Freyja (; Old Norse for "(the) Lady") is a goddess associated with love, beauty, fertility, sex, war, gold, and seiðr. Freyja is the owner of the necklace Brísingamen, rides a chariot pulled by two cats, is accompanied by t ...
in
Norse mythology Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic peoples, stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia, and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period. The northernmost extension of Ger ...
. It has been suggested that Skaði to some extent is modeled on a Sami woman. The name for Skade's father Thjazi is known in Sami as ''Čáhci'', "the waterman"; and her son with Odin, Saeming, can be interpreted as a descendant of ''Saam'' the Sami population.Mundel, E. (2000).
''Coexistence of Saami and Norse culture – reflected in and interpreted by Old Norse myths''
''Coexistence of Saami and Norse culture – reflected in and interpreted by Old Norse myths'' University of Bergen, 11th Saga Conference Sydney 2000
Older joik texts give evidence of the old Sami belief about living on an island and state that the wolf is known as ''suolu gievra'', meaning "the strong one on the island". The Sami
place name Place may refer to: Geography * Place (United States Census Bureau), defined as any concentration of population ** Census-designated place, a populated area lacking its own municipal government * "Place", a type of street or road name ** Often ...
''Sulliidčielbma'' means "the island's threshold" and '' Suoločielgi'' means "the island's back". In recent substratum, substrate studies, Sami linguists have examined the initial cluster ''sk''- in words used in Sami and concluded that ''sk''- is a phonotactic structure of alien origin.Aikio, A. (2004).
An essay on substrate studies and the origin of Saami
. In ''Etymologie, Entlehnungen und Entwicklungen: Festschrift für Jorma Koivulehto zum 70. Geburtstag. Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki 63'', Eds. Irma Hyvärinen / Petri Kallio / Jarmo Korhonen, Helsinki, pp. 5–34 (p. 14: "On the basis of Scandinavian loanwords it can be inferred that both and were adopted in the west during the early separate development of the Saami languages, but never spread to Kola Saami. These areal features thus emerged in a phase when Proto-Saami began to diverge into dialects anticipating the modern Saami languages.")


Reintroduction of the term ''Scandinavia'' in the eighteenth century

Although the term ''Scandinavia'' used by Pliny the Elder probably originated in the ancient Germanic languages, the modern form ''Scandinavia'' does not descend directly from the ancient Germanic term. Rather the word was brought into use in Europe by scholars borrowing the term from ancient sources like Pliny, and was used vaguely for Scania and the southern region of the peninsula.Østergård, Uffe (1997). "The Geopolitics of Nordic Identity – From Composite States to Nation States". ''The Cultural Construction of Norden''. Øystein Sørensen and Bo Stråth (eds.), Oslo: Scandinavian University Press 1997, 25–71. Also published online a
Danish Institute for International Studies
. For the history of cultural Scandinavism, see Oresundstid's article

an

Retrieved 19 January 2007.
The term was popularised by the linguistic and cultural Scandinavism, Scandinavist movement, which asserted the common heritage and cultural unity of the Scandinavian countries and rose to prominence in the 1830s. The popular usage of the term in Sweden, Denmark and Norway as a unifying concept became established in the nineteenth century through poems such as Hans Christian Andersen's "I am a Scandinavian" of 1839. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism. In a letter describing the poem to a friend, he wrote: "All at once I understood how related the Swedes, the Danes and the Norwegians are, and with this feeling I wrote the poem immediately after my return: 'We are one people, we are called Scandinavians!'". The influence of Scandinavism as a Scandinavist political movement peaked in the middle of the nineteenth century, between the First Schleswig War (1848–1850) and the Second Schleswig War (1864). The Swedish king also proposed a unification of Denmark, Norway and Sweden into a single united kingdom. The background for the proposal was the tumultuous events during the Napoleonic Wars in the beginning of the century. This war resulted in Finland (formerly the eastern third of Sweden) becoming the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809 and
Norway Norway ( nb, ; nn, ; se, Norga; smj, Vuodna; sma, Nöörje), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose mainland territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. T ...
(''de jure'' in union with Denmark since 1387, although ''de facto'' treated as a province) becoming independent in 1814, but thereafter swiftly forced to accept a personal union with Sweden. The dependent territories Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland, historically part of Norway, remained with Denmark in accordance with the Treaty of Kiel. Sweden and Norway were thus united under the Swedish monarch, but Finland's inclusion in the Russian Empire excluded any possibility for a political union between Finland and any of the other Nordic countries. The end of the Scandinavian political movement came when Denmark was denied the military support promised from Sweden and Norway to annex the (Danish) Duchy of Schleswig, which together with the (German) Duchy of Holstein had been in personal union with Denmark. The Second war of Schleswig followed in 1864, a brief but disastrous war between Denmark and Prussia (supported by Austria). Schleswig-Holstein was conquered by Prussia and after Prussia's success in the Franco-Prussian War a Prussian-led German Empire was created and a new Power (international), power-balance of the Baltic sea countries was established. The Scandinavian Monetary Union, established in 1873, lasted until World War I.


Use of ''Nordic countries'' vs. ''Scandinavia''

The term ''Scandinavia'' (sometimes specified in English as ''Continental Scandinavia'' or ''mainland Scandinavia'') is commonly used strictly for Denmark, Norway and Sweden as a subset of the Nordic countries (known in Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish as ''Norden''; fi, Pohjoismaat, is, Norðurlöndin, fo, Norðurlond). However, in English usage, the term ''Scandinavia'' is sometimes used as a synonym or near-synonym for ''Nordic countries''.Scandinavia, proper noun
, ''Lexico: Powered by Oxford''.
Knut Helle,
Introduction
, in ''The Cambridge History of Scandinavia, Volume I: Prehistory to 1520'', ed. by Knut Helle, E. I. Kouri, and Jens E. Oleson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 1-14 (pp. 1-4).
Debate about which meaning is more appropriate is complicated by the fact that usage in English is different from usage in the Scandinavian languages themselves (which use ''Scandinavia'' in the narrow meaning), and by the fact that the question of whether a country belongs to Scandinavia is politicised: people from the Nordic world beyond Norway, Denmark and Sweden may be offended at being either included in or excluded from the category of "Scandinavia".Olwig, Kenneth R. "Introduction: The Nature of Cultural Heritage, and the Culture of Natural Heritage—Northern Perspectives on a Contested Patrimony". ''International Journal of Heritage Studies'', Vol. 11, No. 1, March 2005, pp. 3–7. ''Nordic countries'' is used unambiguously for Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland, including their associated territories (Svalbard, Greenland, the Faroe Islands and the Åland Islands). The clearest example of the use of the term ''Scandinavia'' as a political and societal construct is the unique position of
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland , ), officially the Republic of Finland (, ), is a Nordic country located in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gul ...
, based largely on the fact that most of modern-day Finland was part of
Sweden Sweden (; sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's formal name is the Kingd ...
for more than six centuries (see: Finland under Swedish rule), thus to much of the world associating Finland with all of Scandinavia. But the creation of a Finnish identity is unique in the region in that it was formed in relation to two different imperial models, the Swedish and the Russian."Introduction: Reflections on Political Thought in Finland."
Editorial. ''Redescriptions, Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History'', 1997, Volume 1, University of Jyväskylä, pp. 6–7: "[T]he populist opposition both to Sweden as a former imperial country and especially to Swedish as the language of the narrow Finnish establishment has also been strong, especially in the inter-war years. [...] Finland as a unitary and homogeneous nation-state was constructed [...] in opposition to the imperial models of Sweden and Russia."
There is also the geology, geological term ''Fennoscandia'' (sometimes ''Fennoscandinavia''), which in technical use refers to the Fennoscandian Shield (or ''Baltic Shield''), that is the Scandinavian peninsula (Norway and Sweden), Finland and Karelia (excluding Denmark and other parts of the wider Nordic world). The terms ''Fennoscandia'' and ''Fennoscandinavia'' are sometimes used in a broader, political sense to refer to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland.


Scandinavian as an ethnic term and as a demonym

The term ''Scandinavian'' may be used with two principal meanings, in an ethnic or cultural sense and as a modern and more inclusive demonym. ;As an ethnic or cultural term In the ethnic or cultural sense the term "Scandinavian" traditionally refers to North Germanic peoples, speakers of Scandinavian languages, who are mainly descendants of the peoples historically known as Norsemen, but also to some extent of immigrants and others who have been assimilated into that culture and language. In this sense the term refers primarily to native Danes, Norwegians and Swedes as well as descendants of Scandinavian settlers such as the Icelanders and the Faroe Islanders, Faroese. The term is frequently used in this ethnic sense, as synonymous with the modern descendants of the Norse, in studies of linguistics and culture.; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . ;As a demonym Additionally the term Scandinavian is used demonymically to refer to all modern inhabitants or citizens of Scandinavian countries. Within Scandinavia the demonymic term primarily refers to inhabitants or citizens of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. In English usage inhabitants or citizens of Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Finland are sometimes included as well. English general dictionaries often define the noun ''Scandinavian'' demonymically as meaning any inhabitant of Scandinavia (which might be narrowly conceived or broadly conceived).Scandinavian, noun
, ''Lexico: Powered By Oxford''.
There is a certain ambiguity and political contestation as to which peoples should be referred to as Scandinavian in this broader sense. Sámi people who live in Norway and Sweden are generally included as Scandinavians in the demonymic sense; the Sámi of Finland may be included in English usage, but usually not in local usage; the Sámi of Russia are not included. However, the use of the term "Scandinavian" with reference to the Sámi is complicated by the historical attempts by Scandinavian majority peoples and governments in Norway and Sweden to assimilate the Sámi people into the Scandinavian culture and languages, making the inclusion of the Sámi as "Scandinavians" controversial among many Sámi. Modern Sámi politicians and organizations often stress the status of the Sámi as a people separate from and equal to the Scandinavians, with their own language and culture, and are apprehensive about being included as "Scandinavians" in light of earlier Scandinavian assimilation policies.


Languages in Scandinavia

Two language groups have coexisted on the Scandinavian peninsula since prehistory—the
North Germanic languages The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. The language group is also re ...
(Scandinavian languages) and the Sami languages. The majority of the population of Scandinavia (including Iceland and the Faroe Islands) today derive their language from several North Germanic tribes who once inhabited the southern part of Scandinavia and spoke a Germanic languages, Germanic language that evolved into
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements from about the 7th to the 15th centuries. The Proto-Norse language developed into Old Norse ...
and from Old Norse into Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Faroese, and Icelandic. The Danish language, Danish, Norwegian language, Norwegian and Swedish languages form a dialect continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered
mutually intelligible In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort. It is sometimes used as an im ...
with one another. Faroese language, Faroese and Icelandic language, Icelandic, sometimes referred to as insular Scandinavian languages, are intelligible in continental Scandinavian languages only to a limited extent. A small minority of Scandinavians are Sami people, concentrated in the extreme north of Scandinavia. Finland is mainly populated by speakers of Finnish language, Finnish, with a minority of approximately 5% of Swedish-speaking population of Finland, Swedish speakers. However, Finnish is also spoken as a recognized minority language in Sweden, including in distinctive varieties sometimes known as Meänkieli. Finnish is distantly related to the Sami languages, but these are entirely different in origin to the Scandinavian languages. German language, German (in Denmark), Yiddish and Romani language, Romani are recognized minority languages in parts of Scandinavia. More recent migrations has added even more languages. Apart from Sami and the languages of minority groups speaking a variant of the majority language of a neighboring state, the following minority languages in Scandinavia are protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: Yiddish, Romani language, Romani Chib/Romanes and Scandoromani, Romani.


North Germanic languages

The North Germanic languages of Scandinavia are traditionally divided into an East Scandinavian branch (Danish language, Danish and Swedish language, Swedish) and a West Scandinavian branch (Norwegian language, Norwegian, Icelandic language, Icelandic and Faroese language, Faroese), but because of changes appearing in the languages since 1600 the East Scandinavian and West Scandinavian branches are now usually reconfigured into Insular Scandinavian (''ö-nordisk''/''øy-nordisk'') featuring Icelandic language, Icelandic and Faroese language, Faroese and Continental Scandinavian (''Skandinavisk''), comprising Danish, Norwegian and Swedish. The modern division is based on the degree of mutual comprehensibility between the languages in the two branches. The populations of the Scandinavian countries, with common Scandinavian roots in language, can—at least with some training—understand each other's standard languages as they appear in print and are heard on radio and television. The reason Danish, Swedish and the two official written versions of Norwegian (''Nynorsk'' and ''Bokmål'') are traditionally viewed as different languages, rather than dialects of one common language, is that each is a well-established standard language in its respective country. Danish, Swedish and Norwegian have since medieval times been influenced to varying degrees by Middle Low German and standard German. That influence came from not just proximity but also that Denmark and later Denmark-Norway ruling over the German speaking region of Holstein, and in Sweden with its close trade with the Hanseatic League. Norwegians are accustomed to variation and may perceive Danish and Swedish only as slightly more distant dialects. This is because they have two official written standards, in addition to the habit of strongly holding on to local dialects. The people of
Stockholm Stockholm is the capital of Sweden. It has the most populous urban area in Sweden as well as in Scandinavia. 1 million people live in the municipality, approximately 1.6 million in the urban area, and 2.4 million in the metropolit ...
, Sweden and Copenhagen, Denmark have the greatest difficulty in understanding other Scandinavian languages. In the Faroe Islands and Iceland, learning Danish language, Danish is mandatory. This causes Faroese people as well as Icelandic people to become bilingual in two very distinct North Germanic languages, making it relatively easy for them to understand the other two Mainland Scandinavian languages. Although Iceland was under the political control of Denmark until a much later date (1918), very little influence and borrowing from Danish has occurred in the Icelandic language. Icelandic remained the preferred language among the ruling classes in Iceland. Danish was not used for official communications, most of the royal officials were of Icelandic descent and the language of the church and law courts remained Icelandic.


Finnish

The Scandinavian languages are (as a language family) unrelated to Finnish language, Finnish, Estonian language, Estonian and Sami languages, which as Uralic languages are distantly related to Hungarian language, Hungarian. Owing to the close proximity, there is still a great deal of borrowing from the Swedish and Norwegian languages in the Finnish and Sami languages. The long history of linguistic influence of Swedish on Finnish is also due to the fact that Finnish, the language of the majority in Finland, was treated as a minority language while Finland was part of Sweden. Finnish-speakers had to learn Swedish in order to advance to higher positions. Swedish spoken in today's Finland includes a lot of words that are borrowed from Finnish, whereas the written language remains closer to that of Sweden. Finland is officially bilingual, with Finnish and Swedish having mostly the same status at national level. Finland's majority population are Finns, whose mother tongue is either Finnish (approximately 95%), Swedish or both. The Swedish-speakers live mainly on the coastline starting from approximately the city of Porvoo (Sw: Borgå) (in the Gulf of Finland) up to the city of Kokkola (Sw: Karleby) (in the Bay of Bothnia). The Åland Islands, an autonomous province of Finland situated in the Baltic Sea between Finland and Sweden, are entirely Swedish-speaking. Children are taught the other official language at school: for Swedish-speakers this is Finnish (usually from the 3rd grade), while for Finnish-speakers it is Swedish (usually from the 3rd, 5th or 7th grade). Finnish speakers constitute a European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, language minority in Sweden and Norway. Meänkieli and Kven language, Kven are Finnish dialects spoken in Lapland (Sweden), Swedish Lapland and Finnmark, Norwegian Lapland.


Sami languages

The Sami languages are indigenous minority languages in Scandinavia. They belong to Sami languages, their own branch of the Uralic languages, Uralic language family and are unrelated to the
North Germanic languages The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. The language group is also re ...
other than by limited grammatical (particularly lexical) characteristics resulting from prolonged contact.Inez Svonni Fjällström (2006)
"A language with deep roots"
.''Sápmi: Language history'', 14 November 2006. Samiskt Informationscentrum Sametinget: "The Scandinavian languages are Northern Germanic languages. [...] Sami belongs to the Finno-Ugric language family. Finnish, Estonian, Livonian and Hungarian belong to the same language family and are consequently related to each other."
Sami is divided into several languages or dialects. Consonant gradation is a feature in both Finnish and northern Sami dialects, but it is not present in south Sami, which is considered to have a different language history. According to the Sami Information Centre of the Sami Parliament in Sweden, southern Sami may have originated in an earlier migration from the south into the Scandinavian peninsula.


History


Ancient descriptions

A key ancient description of Scandinavia was provided by
Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and a friend of emperor Vespasian. He wrote the encyclopedic ''Natural ...

Pliny the Elder
, though his mentions of ''Scatinavia'' and surrounding areas are not always easy to decipher. Writing in the capacity of a Roman admiral, he introduces the northern region by declaring to his Roman readers that there are 23 islands "Romanis armis cognitae" ("known to Roman arms") in this area. According to Pliny, the "clarissima" ("most famous") of the region's islands is ''Scatinavia'', of unknown size. There live the ''Hilleviones''. The belief that Scandinavia was an island became widespread among classical authors during the first century and dominated descriptions of Scandinavia in classical texts during the centuries that followed. Pliny begins his description of the route to ''Scatinavia'' by referring to the mountain of Saevo ("mons Saevo ibi"), the Codanus Bay ("Codanus sinus") and the Cimbrian promontory. The geographical features have been identified in various ways. By some scholars, ''Saevo'' is thought to be the mountainous Norway, Norwegian coast at the entrance to Skagerrak and the Cimbrian peninsula is thought to be Skagen, the north tip of Jutland, Denmark. As described, Saevo and Scatinavia can also be the same place. Pliny mentions Scandinavia one more time: in Book VIII he says that the animal called ''achlis'' (given in the accusative, ''achlin'', which is not Latin) was born on the island of Scandinavia. The animal grazes, has a big upper lip and some mythical attributes. The name ''Scandia'', later used as a synonym for ''Scandinavia'', also appears in Pliny's ''Natural History (Pliny), Naturalis Historia'' (''Natural History''), but is used for a group of Northern European islands which he locates north of Britannia. ''Scandia'' thus does not appear to be denoting the island Scadinavia in Pliny's text. The idea that ''Scadinavia'' may have been one of the ''Scandiae'' islands was instead introduced by
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, ''Klaúdios Ptolemaîos'' ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, geographer and astrologer who wrote several scientific treatise ...
(c. 90 – c. 168 AD), a mathematician, geographer and astrologer of Roman Egypt. He used the name ''Skandia'' for the biggest, most easterly of the three ''Scandiai'' islands, which according to him were all located east of Jutland. Neither Pliny's nor Ptolemy's lists of Scandinavian tribes include the Suiones mentioned by Tacitus. Some early Swedish scholars of the Swedish Hyperborean school and of the ninettenth-century romantic nationalism period proceeded to synthesize the different versions by inserting references to the Suiones, arguing that they must have been referred to in the original texts and obscured over time by spelling mistakes or various alterations.


The Middle Ages

During a period of Christianization and state formation in the 10th–13th centuries, numerous Germanic peoples, Germanic petty kingdoms and chiefdom, chiefdoms were unified into three kingdoms: * Denmark, forged from the Lands of Denmark (including Jutland, Zealand (Denmark), Zealand and Skåneland, Scania (Skåneland) on the Scandinavian Peninsula) * Sweden, forged from the Lands of Sweden on the Scandinavian Peninsula (excluding the provinces Bohuslän, Härjedalen, Jämtland and Älvdalen Municipality, Idre and Särna, Halland, Blekinge and
Scania Scania ( sv, Skåne ()), is the southernmost of the historical provinces (''landskap'') of Sweden. The former province is roughly conterminous with Skåne County, created in 1997. Like the other former provinces of Sweden, Scania still features ...
of modern-day Sweden, but including most of modern Finland) * Norway (including Bohuslän, Härjedalen, Jämtland and Idre and Särna on the Scandinavian Peninsula and its island colonies Iceland, Greenland, Faroe Islands, Shetland, Orkney, Isle of Man and the Hebrides) The three Scandinavian kingdoms joined in 1387 in the Kalmar Union under Queen Margaret I of Denmark. Sweden left the union in 1523 under King Gustav Vasa. In the aftermath of Sweden's secession from the Kalmar Union, civil war broke out in Denmark and Norway—the Protestant Reformation followed. When things had settled, the Norwegian Privy Council was abolished—it assembled for the last time in 1537. A personal union, entered into by the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway in 1536, lasted until 1814. Three sovereign successor states have subsequently emerged from this unequal union: Denmark, Norway and Iceland. The borders between the three countries got the shape they have had since in the middle of the seventeenth century: In the 1645 Second Treaty of Brömsebro (1645), Treaty of Brömsebro, Denmark–Norway ceded the Norwegian provinces of Jämtland, Härjedalen and Idre and Särna, as well as the Baltic Sea islands of Gotland and Saaremaa, Ösel (in Estonia) to Sweden. The Treaty of Roskilde, signed in 1658, forced Denmark–Norway to cede the Danish provinces Scania, Blekinge, Halland, Bornholm and the Norwegian provinces of Bohuslän, Båhuslen and Trøndelag to Sweden. The 1660 Treaty of Copenhagen (1660), Treaty of Copenhagen forced Sweden to return Bornholm and Trøndelag to Denmark–Norway, and to give up its recent claims to the island Funen. In the east, Finland was a fully incorporated part of Sweden from medieval times until the Napoleonic wars, when it was ceded to Russia. Despite many wars over the years since the formation of the three kingdoms, Scandinavia has been politically and culturally close.


Scandinavian unions

Denmark–Norway as a historiographical name refers to the former political union consisting of the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, including the Norwegian dependencies of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The corresponding adjective and demonym is Dano-Norwegian (disambiguation), Dano-Norwegian. During Danish rule, Norway kept its separate laws, coinage and army as well as some institutions such as a royal chancellor. Norway's old royal line had died out with the death of Olav IV in 1387, but Norway's remaining a Hereditary Kingdom of Norway, hereditary kingdom became an important factor for the Oldenburg dynasty of Denmark–Norway in its struggles to win elections as kings of Denmark. The Treaty of Kiel (14 January 1814) formally dissolved the Dano-Norwegian union and ceded the territory of Norway proper to the King of Sweden, but Denmark retained Norway's overseas possessions. However, widespread Norwegian resistance to the prospect of a union with Sweden induced the governor of Norway, crown prince Christian Frederick (later Christian VIII of Denmark), to call a constituent assembly at Eidsvoll in April 1814. The assembly drew up a liberal constitution and elected Christian Frederick to the throne of Norway. Following a Swedish invasion during the summer, the peace conditions of the Convention of Moss (14 August 1814) specified that king Christian Frederik had to resign, but Norway would keep its independence and its constitution within a personal union with Sweden. Christian Frederik formally abdicated on 10 August 1814 and returned to Denmark. The Norwegian parliament Storting elected king Charles XIII of Sweden as king of Norway on 4 November. The Storting Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden, dissolved the union between Sweden and Norway in 1905, after which the Norwegians elected Prince Charles of Denmark as king of Norway: he reigned as Haakon VII.


Economy

The economies of the countries of Scandinavia are amongst the strongest in Europe. There is a generous welfare system in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland.


Tourism

Various promotional agencies of the Nordic countries in the United States (such as The American-Scandinavian Foundation, established in 1910 by the Danish American industrialist Niels Poulsen) serve to promote market and tourism interests in the region. Today, the five Nordic heads of state act as the organization's patrons and according to the official statement by the organization its mission is "to promote the Nordic region as a whole while increasing the visibility of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in New York City and the United States". The official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, such as the Scandinavian Tourist Board. The cooperation was introduced for the Asian market in 1986, when the Swedish national tourist board joined the Danish national tourist board to coordinate intergovernmental promotion of the two countries. Norway's government entered one year later. All five Nordic governments participate in the joint promotional efforts in the United States through the Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America.The Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America
Official Website. Retrieved 2 February 2007.


See also

* Baltic region * Baltoscandia * Fennoscandia * Kvenland * Sápmi *
Nordic countries The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as ''Norden'' (literally "the North"). The region includes the sovereign states of Denm ...
* Nordic Cross Flag * Nordic Council * Scandinavian colonialism * Scandinavian family name etymology *
Scandza Scandza was described as a "great island" by the Gothic-Byzantine historian Jordanes in his work ''Getica''. The island was located in the Arctic regions of the sea that surrounded the world. The ''Getica'', written in 551 AD, gives a history of ...

Scandza
* Vikings


Notes


References


Further reading


Historical

* Barton, H. Arnold. ''Scandinavia in the Revolutionary Era: 1760-1815'' (U of Minnesota Press, 1986
online review
* Derry, T. K. ''A History of Scandinavia: Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Iceland'' (George Allen & Unwin, 1979)
online review
* Helle, Knut, ed. ''The Cambridge history of Scandinavia. Volume 1, Prehistory to 1520'' (Cambridge UP, 2003). * Mikkelsen, Flemming, Knut Kjeldstadli, and Stefan Nyzell, eds. ''Popular struggle and democracy in Scandinavia: 1700-present'' (Springer, 2017). * Nissen, Henrik S. ed. ''Scandinavia during the Second World War'' (1983
online review
* Nordstrom, Byron J. ''Scandinavia since 1500'' (U of Minnesota Press, 2000). * Pulsiano, Phillip, and Paul Leonard Acker. ''Medieval Scandinavia: an encyclopedia'' (Taylor & Francis, 1993). * Salmon, Patrick. ''Scandinavia and the great powers 1890-1940'' (Cambridge UP, 2002). * Sawyer, Birgit. ''Medieval Scandinavia: From conversion to reformation, circa 800-1500'' (U of Minnesota Press, 1993). * Sawyer, Peter Hayes. ''Kings and vikings: Scandinavia and Europe AD 700–1100'' (1982) * Wilson, David Mackenzie, and P. Foote. ''The Viking achievement: the society and culture of early medieval Scandinavia'' (Sidgwick & Jackson, 1970). * Winroth, Anders. ''The Age of the Vikings'' (Princeton UP, 2016
excerpt
* Winroth, Anders. ''The Conversion of Scandinavia: Vikings, Merchants, and Missionaries in the Remaking of Northern Europe'' (Yale UP, 2012)
excerpt


Recent

* Anderson, Jorgen, and Jens Hoff, eds. ''Democracy and citizenship in Scandinavia'' (Springer, 2001). * Bendixsen, Synnøve, Mary Bente Bringslid, and Halvard Vike, eds. ''Egalitarianism in Scandinavia: Historical and contemporary perspectives'' (Springer, 2017). * Gallie, Duncan. "The quality of working life: is Scandinavia different?." ''European Sociological Review'' 19.1 (2003): 61–79. * Green, Ken, Thorsteinn Sigurjónsson, and Eivind Åsrum Skille, eds. ''Sport in Scandinavia and the Nordic countries'' (Routledge, 2018). * Hilson, Mary. ''The Nordic Model: Scandinavia since 1945'' (Reaktion books, 2008). * Ingebritsen, Christine. ''Scandinavia in world politics'' (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006). * Kröger, Teppo. "Local government in Scandinavia: autonomous or integrated into the welfare state?." in ''Social Care Services'' (Routledge, 2019) pp. 95-108. * Lappi-Seppälä, Tapio. "Penal policy in Scandinavia." ''Crime and justice'' 36.1 (2007): 217–295. * Nestingen, Andrew. ''Crime and fantasy in Scandinavia: Fiction, film and social change'' (University of Washington Press, 2011). * Rogerson, Richard. "Taxation and market work: is Scandinavia an outlier?." ''Economic theory'' 32.1 (2007): 59–85
online
* Strand, Robert, R. Edward Freeman, and Kai Hockerts. "Corporate social responsibility and sustainability in Scandinavia: An overview." ''Journal of Business Ethics'' 127.1 (2015): 1-1
online


External links

*
Nordic Council
– official site for co-operation in the Nordic region
Nordregio
– site established by the Nordic Council of Ministers
vifanord
– a digital library that provides scientific information on the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as the Baltic region as a whole
Expat Scandinavia
– Site with useful information for expats in Scandinavia. {{Authority control Scandinavia, Geography of Northern Europe Regions of Europe