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Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (german: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha), or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (), was an
ErnestineErnestine is a feminine given name. Ernest is the male counterpart of this name. Notable people with the name include: * Ernestine Anderson (1928–2016), American jazz and blues singer * Ernestine Bayer (1909–2006), American athlete * Ernestine B ...
, Thuringian duchy ruled by a branch of the
House of Wettin The House of Wettin () is a dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press of th ...
, consisting of territories in the present-day states of
Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smallest of the sixteen German States (including City States). It ...
and
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Bavaria
in Germany. It lasted from 1826 to 1918. In November 1918,
Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Leopold Charles Edward George Albert, german: Leopold Carl Eduard Georg Albert; 19 July 1884 – 6 March 1954) was the last sovereign duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from 30 July 1900 until 1918. A mal ...
, was forced to abdicate. In 1920, the northern part of the duchy (since 1918 the Free State of Gotha; culturally and linguistically
Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smallest of the sixteen German States (including City States). It ...
n) was merged with six other Thuringian free states to form the state of
Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smallest of the sixteen German States (including City States). It ...
:
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (german: Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was a historical German state, created as a duchy A duchy, also called a dukedom, is a , territory, , or domain ruled by a or , a high-ranking nobleman hierarchically second to the or ...
(until 1918 a grand duchy),
Saxe-Altenburg Saxe-Altenburg (german: Sachsen-Altenburg, links=no) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine duchies, Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in present-day Thuringia. It was one of the smallest of the German states with an area of 132 ...
and
Saxe-Meiningen Saxe-Meiningen (; ) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin dynasty, located in the southwest of the present-day German state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuring ...
(until 1918 duchies),
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small historic state in present-day Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State ...
and
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small principality in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with its capital at Sondershausen. History Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a Graf, county until 1697. In that year, it became a principality, whi ...
(until 1918 principalities), as well as the
People's State of Reuss The People's State of Reuss (german: Volksstaat Reuß) was a short-lived country in what is now Thuringia. The state was formed on 4 April 1919 after the reigning princes of the two Reuss (state), Reuss principalities abdicated and elections were ...
(until 1918 the principalities of Reuss-Gera and Reuss-Greiz). The southern part of the duchy (since 1918 the
Free State of Coburg The Free State of Coburg (German: ''Freistaat Coburg'') emerged from the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha at the end of the First World War. It existed from November 1918 until its union with the Free State of Bavaria on 1 July 1920. History With th ...
; culturally and linguistically
Franconia Franconia (german: Franken, ; Franconian dialect: ''Franggn'' ; bar, Frankn) is a region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study ...

Franconia
n), as southernmost of the Thuringian states, was the only one which, after a referendum, became part of
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Bavaria
. The name Saxe-Coburg-Gotha also refers to the family of the ruling
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (; german: Haus Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) is a German dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press ...

House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
, which played many varied roles in the dynastic and political history of Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries. In the early part of the 20th century, before the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
, it was the family of the sovereigns of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...
,
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on cont ...

Belgium
,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...
,
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...
, and Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. In 1910, the Portuguese king was deposed, and the same thing occurred in Saxe-Coburg-Gotha in 1918 and in Bulgaria in 1946. , branches of the family still reign in Belgium, the United Kingdom, and the other
Commonwealth realms A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that has Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. Each realm functions as an independent state, equal with the other realms. In 1952, Elizabeth II was the monarch and head of state of seven in ...

Commonwealth realms
. The former
Tsar Tsar ( or ), also spelled ''czar'', ''tzar'', or ''csar'', is a Royal and noble ranks, title used to designate Orthodox Slavs, East and South Slavic monarchs. In this last capacity it lends its name to a system of government, tsarist autocra ...

Tsar
of Bulgaria, Simeon II (reigned 1943–46), kept his surname while serving as the Prime Minister of Bulgaria from 2001 to 2005.


History

The Duchy was born when the arbitration of the King of Saxony, Frederick Augustus, produced the Treaty of Hildburghausen on 12 November 1826 for the ''Gothaische Teilung'' (Gothan Division), the extensive rearrangement of the
Ernestine duchies The Ernestine duchies (), also known as the Saxon duchies (''Sächsische Herzogtümer'', although the Albertine appanage An appanage, or apanage (; french: apanage ), is the grant of an estate, title, office or other thing of value to a youn ...
. After the extinction of the
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg () was a duchy ruled by the Ernestine duchies, Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in today's Thuringia, Germany. The extinction of the line in 1825 led to a major re-organisation of the Thuringian states. History In 1640 ...
line, the Duke of
Saxe-Hildburghausen Saxe-Hildburghausen () was an Ernestine duchies, Ernestine duchy in the southern side of the present State of Thuringia in Germany. It existed from 1680 to 1826 but its name and borders are currently used by the Hildburghausen (district), District ...
exchanged his Duchy for that of
Saxe-Altenburg Saxe-Altenburg (german: Sachsen-Altenburg, links=no) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine duchies, Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in present-day Thuringia. It was one of the smallest of the German states with an area of 132 ...
. The
Saxe-Meiningen Saxe-Meiningen (; ) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin dynasty, located in the southwest of the present-day German state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuring ...
line became Saxe-Hildburghausen and got from
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld () was one of the Saxon Duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin Dynasty. Established in 1699, the Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield line lasted until the reshuffle of the Ernestine territories that occurred following the extinc ...
the Saalfelder territories as well as the District of
Themar Themar () is a town in the Hildburghausen (district), district of Hildburghausen, in Thuringia, Germany. It is situated on the river Werra, 11 km northwest of Hildburghausen, and 14 km southwest of Suhl. Main sights * St. Bartholomew ...
and the places of Mupperg, Mogger, Liebau and Oerlsdorf. The Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld received for that the Duchy of
Saxe-Coburg Saxe-Coburg (german: Sachsen-Coburg) was a duchy A duchy is a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of ...
, Districts of
Königsberg Königsberg (, , ) was the name for the historic Prussian city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia. Königsberg was founded in 1255 on the site of the ancient Old Prussian settlement ''Twangste'' by the Teutonic Knights during the Northern Crusade ...
and
Sonnefeld Sonnefeld is a Municipalities of Germany, municipality in the Districts of Germany, district of Coburg (district), Coburg in States of Germany, Bavaria in Germany. Geographical Location Sonnefeld lies on Bundesstraße 303 between Coburg and Krona ...
from Saxe-Hildburghausen, and the properties of
Callenberg
Callenberg
and Gauerstadt from Saxe-Meiningen. By then, the Principality of Lichtenberg, on the
Nahe River The Nahe is a river in Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western states of Germany, state of Germany. It covers and has about 4.05 million residents. It is the ninth largest and sixth most populous of ...
, had already been a part of the Duchy of Coburg for ten years. Ernest III, the sovereign of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, had received it in 1816 from the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) w ...

Congress of Vienna
for providing assistance to the Allies in their war against France. But, because of the great distance from Coburg and of the unrest caused by the
Hambach Festival The Hambacher Festival was a German Confederation, German national democratic festival celebrated from 27 May to 30 May 1832 at Hambach Castle, near Neustadt an der Weinstraße, in present-day Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The event was disguised a ...
, the Duke sold the Principality in 1834 to
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
. The newly created Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was initially a double duchy, ruled by Ernest III as Duke Ernest I in a
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
, Erdmann, ''Coburg, Bayern und das Reich 1918–1923'', p. 2–3 but with only one vote in the '' Bundesrat''. The opportunity to unify the two duchies in 1826 was missed. After the ''Staatsgrundgesetz'' (
House law House law or House laws (''Hausgesetze'') are rules that govern a royal family A royal family is the immediate family of /, , /, or / and sometimes their extended family. The term imperial family appropriately describes the family of an or ...
s) of 1852, the duchies were bound in a political and
real union Real union is a union of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), ...

real union
. They were then a quasi-federal unitary state. Later attempts to merge the duchies failed in 1867 because the ''
Landtag A Landtag (State Diet Diet may refer to: Food * Diet (nutrition) In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for #Health, health or #Weigh ...

Landtag
'' of Gotha did not want to assume the higher state debts of Coburg and in 1872 because of the questions about the administration of the whole union. The Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha received on 3 May 1852 a national constitution, which had taken substantial parts of the fundamental rights from the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
of the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media L ...
in Frankfurt. It also joined the German
Zollverein The ''Zollverein'' (), or German Customs Union, was a coalition of German states formed to manage tariff A tariff is a tax imposed by a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, gen ...

Zollverein
in 1834, the
North German Confederation The North German Confederation (german: Norddeutscher Bund) was the German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of ...
in 1866 and the
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
in 1871. At the '' Bundesrat'' in
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
, where it had a seat, it kept its agents but, since 1913, like most of the other
Thuringian states The Thuringian states (german: Thüringische Staaten) refers to the following German federal states within the German Reich: *The Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, officially the Grand Duchy of Saxony (''Großherzogtum Sachsen'') from 1903 *The ...
, it had to defer to the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen for the representation. Ernest I died in 1844. His elder son and successor, Ernest II, ruled until his own death in 1893. Because he had died childless, the throne of the two duchies would have passed to his late brother
Prince Albert Prince Albert most commonly refers to: *Albert, Prince Consort german: link=no, Franz Albert August Karl Emanuel , house = , father = Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha , mother = Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenbu ...

Prince Albert
's male descendants. But Prince Albert was the husband of
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
of the United Kingdom and his eldest son, , was already her
heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals entitled to hold a high office when it becomes vacated such as head of state A head of state ...
. Besides, he was prohibited by the Constitutions of both duchies from inheriting the throne if there were other eligible male heirs. But he had already renounced his claim in favour of his next brother, , Duke of Edinburgh. So Alfred became the next Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Alfred's only son, also named
Alfred Alfred may refer to: Arts and entertainment *''Alfred J. Kwak'', Dutch-German-Japanese anime television series *Alfred (Arne opera), ''Alfred'' (Arne opera), a 1740 masque by Thomas Arne *Alfred (Dvořák opera), ''Alfred'' (Dvořák opera), an ...
, died in 1899, so when Duke Alfred died in 1900 he was succeeded by his nephew the
Duke of Albany Duke of Albany was a peerage A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary title Hereditary titles, in a general sense, are nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, ...
, the 16-year-old son of Queen Victoria's youngest son, Leopold, as Duke Alfred's next brother
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (Arthur William Patrick Albert; 1 May 185016 January 1942), was the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of ...

Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
and his son
Prince Arthur of Connaught Prince Arthur of Connaught (Arthur Frederick Patrick Albert; 13 January 1883 – 12 September 1938) was a British military officer and a grandson of Queen Victoria. He served as Governor-General of the Union of South Africa from 20 November 1920 ...
had renounced their own claims to the succession. Reigning as Duke Carl Eduard, Charles Edward, because of his age, began under the Regency of until he came of age in 1905. The new Duke also continued to use his British title, the Duke of Albany. But, because he chose to side with the Germans against the British in the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
, he was stripped of his British titles in 1919. After the November Revolution ended the monarchy in 1918, the two duchies became two different and independent states, the
Free State of Coburg The Free State of Coburg (German: ''Freistaat Coburg'') emerged from the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha at the end of the First World War. It existed from November 1918 until its union with the Free State of Bavaria on 1 July 1920. History With th ...
and the Republic (later Free State) of Gotha. But their leaders believed that their new countries were not economically feasible so they began to search for possible mergers. Eventually, a referendum was held on 30 November 1919 and the decision was made. On 1 May 1920 the Free State of Gotha merged with the new State of
Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smallest of the sixteen German States (including City States). It ...
and the Free State of Coburg followed two months later, on 1 July 1920, by uniting with the Free State of
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Bavaria
.


Politics

In the German Empire, the Duchy had only one vote in the ''Bundestag'' and two votes (for the two Duchies of Coburg and Gotha) in the ''
Reichstag is a German word generally meaning parliament, more directly translated as ''Diet (assembly), Diet of the Realm'' or ''National diet'', or more loosely as ''Imperial Diet''. It may refer to: Buildings and places is the god specific German word ...
''. Each Duchy had its own ''
Landtag A Landtag (State Diet Diet may refer to: Food * Diet (nutrition) In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for #Health, health or #Weigh ...

Landtag
'', elected every four years by male taxpayers over 25 years of age. Only males 30 years or older were eligible to stand for the elections. The Coburger assembly had 11 members and its twin in Gotha had 19. The assemblies met every year but, every two years, they would combine, alternatively in Gotha and Coburg, for the matters and questions that involve both Duchies. For both duchies, however, there was a Ministry of State in Gotha but Coburg and Gotha had their own subordinate and almost independent ministries. The Minister of State directed Gotha's Ducal ministry but, for both Duchies, he was responsible for the state affairs, the economical and commercials policies, the judiciary and the conduct of Imperial laws. In Coburg, for state matters as such as community services, police duties, support of the state church, and education, as well as management of assets and finances, and also, until 1891, court matters, the local authorities could not interfere with the decisions from Gotha. The finances of both Duchies remained basically disconnected. But, in their management, a distinction was always made between the Crown revenue from the domains and the State revenue from taxes and duties. Every four years, a common budget, especially in the financial dealings with the
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
, was made, even if it interfered with the local and national operations of the two Duchies. Grants from the state budgets of both Duchies were made in the ratio of 7 to 3 between Gotha and Coburg. Because of its size and finances, the Duchy did not have ambassadors but it did have trade consuls. They were for trade with
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exe ...

Austria-Hungary
, Belgium,
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
,
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...

Chile
,
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
,
Ecuador Ecuador ( ; ; Quechua Quechua may refer to: *Quechua people, several indigenous ethnic groups in South America, especially in Peru *Quechuan languages, a Native South American language family spoken primarily in the Andes, derived from a ...

Ecuador
, France, Great Britain, Italy,
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
,
Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = Seal (device), National seal , national_mott ...

Peru
,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
, Prussia, Russia, Spain,
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
, and
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
.Robinson, Janet and Joe Robinson, ''Handbook of Imperial Germany'' (
Bloomington, Indiana Bloomington is a city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Town ...
: AuthorHouse, 2009)
page 87
/ref> The United States had its own consul in Coburg from 1897 to 1918. During the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
, Ernst Raven was assigned to the position of consul in the state of Texas. He applied to the Confederate Government for a diplomatic
exequatur An exequatur is a legal document issued by a sovereign authority that permits the exercise or enforcement of a right within the jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages ...

exequatur
on 30 July 1861 and was accepted.


Military

Before 1867, the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha had its own Army. But, on 26 June 1867, because of a treaty signed in 1866 with Prussia, its Army was added, for defending and recruiting purposes, to the 6th Thuringian Infantry Regiment No. 95 of the
22nd Division22nd Division or 22nd Infantry Division may refer to: Infantry divisions * 22nd Division (People's Republic of China) * 22nd Division (United Kingdom) * 22nd Infantry Division (France) * 22nd Division (German Empire) * 22nd Reserve Division (Germ ...
of the XIth Army Corps. Three battalions of the 6th Thuringian were assigned to Gotha (No. 1),
Hildburghausen Hildburghausen is a town in Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smallest of the sixteen Germa ...
(No. 2) and Coburg (No. 3) but the Corps headquarters was in
Kassel Kassel (; in Germany, spelled Cassel until 1926) is a city on the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany. It is the administrative seat of the Regierungsbezirk Kassel (region), Kassel and the Districts of Germany, district Kassel (district), of th ...

Kassel
. Unlike Prussia, where military service was mandatory, Saxe-Coburg and Gotha filled its quota in the Imperial Army with the draft.


Miscellaneous

The capitals of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha were
Coburg Coburg () is a Town#Germany, town located on the Itz (river), Itz river in the Upper Franconia region of Bavaria, Germany. Long part of one of the Thuringian states of the Ernestine duchies, Wettin line, it joined Bavaria by popular vote only ...

Coburg
and
Gotha Gotha () is the fifth-largest city in Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazi ...

Gotha
. By 1914 the area and populations of the two duchies were: Sander, Harold, “I.11 ''Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha''”, ''Das Haus von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha 1826 bis 2001'', page 27 There are two residences in Gotha and Coburg. Therefore, the whole ducal court, including the Court Theater, had to move twice a year: from Gotha to Coburg for the summer, from Coburg to Gotha for the winter. For the Court Theater, two almost identical buildings had to be built in 1840 in Gotha (destroyed in the Second World War) and Coburg (now the ) and thereafter maintained at the same time. In addition to the residential castles, '' Friedenstein'' in Gotha and '' Ehrenburg'' in Coburg, the Ducal family also used the ''Schloss''
Reinhardsbrunn Reinhardsbrunn in Friedrichroda near Gotha, in the German state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , bein ...
in Gotha as well as the Rosenau and Callenberg castles in Coburg and the hunting lodge Greinburg Castle,
Grein, Austria Grein is a municipality in the district Perg Perg is a city in the Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine co ...
(the latter two still today owned by the ducal branch of the
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (; german: Haus Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) is a German dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press ...

House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
). File:Coburg-Veste4.jpg,
Veste Coburg The Veste Coburg (Coburg Fortress) is one of the most well-preserved medieval fortresses of Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It is the in Europe after , and the most populous ...

Veste Coburg
File:Coburg-Ehrenburg1.jpg,
Ehrenburg Palace Ehrenburg Palace (German: ''Schloss Ehrenburg'') is a palace in Coburg, Franconia, Germany. It served as the main Coburg residence for the ruling princes from the 1540s until 1918. The palace's exterior today mostly reflects Gothic Revival style. ...
, Coburg File:Gotha Schloss 1900.jpg,
Friedenstein Palace Friedenstein Palace (german: Schloss Friedenstein) is an early Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a Style (visual arts), style of Baroque architecture, architecture, Baroque music, music, Baroque dance, dance, Baroque painting, painting, Baroque scul ...
, Gotha File:Reinhardsbrunn Schloss Winter.JPG,
Reinhardsbrunn Reinhardsbrunn in Friedrichroda near Gotha, in the German state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , bein ...
Castle, Gotha File:Schloss Callenberg Luftbild.jpg,
Callenberg Castle Callenberg Castle (''Schloss Callenberg'') is a castle on a wooded hill in Beiersdorf (Coburg), Beiersdorf, an ''Ortsteil'' of Coburg, from the town centre. It was a hunting lodge and summer residence and has long been the principal residence of t ...
, Coburg File:CO Schloss Rosenau1.jpg, Rosenau Castle, Coburg
Only the Duchy of Gotha, along with nearby Duchies of Saxe-Meiningen and Saxe-Altenburg and especially the Grand Duchy of
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (german: Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was a historical German state, created as a duchy A duchy, also called a dukedom, is a , territory, , or domain ruled by a or , a high-ranking nobleman hierarchically second to the or ...
– was able to be one of the sponsoring states of the
University of Jena The University of Jena, officially the Friedrich Schiller University Jena (german: Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, abbreviated FSU, shortened form ''Uni Jena''), is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the prac ...
. Coburg did not have its own university. It did not have its court of law, either. Gotha had its own court of law while Coburg had to go to
Meiningen Meiningen () is a town in the southern part of the state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in the region of Franconia and has a population of around 25,000 (2020). Meiningen is the capital and the largest town of the Schmalkalden-Meiningen d ...
for the legal administration.


Ruler


Titles and styles of the Sovereign of the House

According to the ''Staatsgrundgesetz'' (
House law House law or House laws (''Hausgesetze'') are rules that govern a royal family A royal family is the immediate family of /, , /, or / and sometimes their extended family. The term imperial family appropriately describes the family of an or ...
s) of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the full title of the Duke was: Velde, François, "House Laws of the Saxe-Coburg and Gotha", posted 17 June 2008, ''Heraldica: Topics: Royalty'', http://www.heraldica.org/topics/royalty/HGSachsen-CG.htm, retrieved 10 December 2013. The original source was: Paul Posener, ''Die staatsverfassungen des Erdballs; unter Mitwirkung von Gelehrten und Staatsmännern'' 'The State Constitutions of the World, With Participation of Scholars and Statesmen'' (
Charlottenburg Charlottenburg () is a locality Locality may refer to: * Locality (association), an association of community regeneration organizations in England * Locality (linguistics) * Locality (settlement) * Suburbs and localities (Australia), in which ...

Charlottenburg
: Fichtner, 1909).
''Wir, Ernst, Herzog zu Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha, Jülich, Cleve und Berg, auch Engern und Westphalen, Landgraf in Thüringen, Markgraf zu Meißen, gefürsteter Graf zu Henneberg, Graf zu der Mark und Ravensberg, Herr zu Ravenstein und Tonna usw.'' Translation: We, Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Jülich, Cleves and Berg, also
Angria Angria or Angaria (german: Engern, ) is a historical region in the present-day German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For c ...
and
Westphalia Westphalia (; german: Westfalen ; nds, Westfalen ) is a region of northwestern Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769 ...

Westphalia
,
Landgrave Landgrave (german: Landgraf, nl, landgraaf, sv, lantgreve, french: landgrave; la, comes magnus, ', ', ', ', ') was a noble title Traditional rank amongst European royalty, peers, and nobility Nobility is a social class normall ...
in Thuringia,
Margrave Margrave was originally the medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the ...
of
Meissen Meissen (in German orthography German orthography is the orthography An orthography is a set of conventions for writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. ...

Meissen
,
Princely Count (male) or (female) is a historical title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some la ...
of Henneberg,
Count of the Mark The County of Mark (german: Grafschaft Mark, links=no, french: Comté de La Marck, links=no colloquially known as ) was a county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical charac ...
and Ravensberg, Lord of Ravenstein and Tonna, et cetera.


Titles and styles of other members of the House

The use of Ducal and Princely titles may be restricted if the marriage conflicts with the requirements of the ''Staatsgrundgesetz'' or if a member of the House renounces his claims for himself and his descendants.


Dukes of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1826–1918)

* Ernst I, Duke 1826–1844 (1784–1844) **
Ernst IIErnest II may refer to: * Ernest II, Duke of Swabia (died in 1030) * Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1745–1804) * Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1818–1893) * Ernest II, Count of Lippe-Biesterfeld (1842–1904) * Ernst II, Pri ...

Ernst II
, Duke 1844–1893 (1818–1893) ** ''
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband of Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United ...
'' (1819–1861), married Queen Victoria'' *** ''
Prince Albert Edward Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. The eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert ...

Prince Albert Edward
'' (1841–1910), Prince of Wales ***
Alfred Alfred may refer to: Arts and entertainment *''Alfred J. Kwak'', Dutch-German-Japanese anime television series *Alfred (Arne opera), ''Alfred'' (Arne opera), a 1740 masque by Thomas Arne *Alfred (Dvořák opera), ''Alfred'' (Dvořák opera), an ...

Alfred
, Duke 1893–1900 (1844–1900), 1st Duke of Edinburgh **** '' Alfred, Hereditary Prince'', (1874–1899) *** ''
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (Arthur William Patrick Albert; 1 May 185016 January 1942), was the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of ...

Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
'' (1850–1942) **** ''
Prince Arthur of Connaught Prince Arthur of Connaught (Arthur Frederick Patrick Albert; 13 January 1883 – 12 September 1938) was a British military officer and a grandson of Queen Victoria. He served as Governor-General of the Union of South Africa from 20 November 1920 ...
'' (1883–1938) *** ''
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, (Leopold George Duncan Albert; 7 April 185328 March 1884) was the eighth child and youngest son of Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United K ...

Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
'' (1853–1884) **** Carl Eduard, Duke 1900–1918 (1884–1954), abdicated 1918


Heads of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1918–present)

* Carl Eduard, Prince 1918–1954 (1884–1954), stripped of British title as 2nd Duke of Albany 1919 ** ''
Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Johann, typically a male given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a quoted in that identifies a person, potentially with a as well, and differentiates that person from the other members of a group ( ...
'' (1906–1972), surrendered rights 1932 ** ''
Hubertus Hubertus or Hubert ( 656 – 30 May 727 A.D.) was a Christian saint who became the first bishop of Liège in 708 A.D. He is the patron saint of hunters, mathematicians, opticians, and metalworkers. Known as the "Apostle of the Ardennes", he was ...
'' (1909–1943) ** Friedrich Josias, Prince 1954–1998 (1918–1998) ***
Andreas Andreas ( el, Ἀνδρέας) is a name usually given to males in Austria, Greece, Cyprus, Denmark, Armenia, Estonia, Finland, Flanders, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Italy, Romania, the Netherlands, and Indonesia. The name derives from ...
, Prince 1998–present (born 1943) **** Hubertus Michael, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (born 1975) ***** Prince Philipp of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (born 2015) **** Prince Alexander Philipp of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (born 1977)


State Ministers of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1824–1919)

* 1824–1840 Christoph Anton Ferdinand von Carlowitz * 1840–1840 Dietrich arl August''
Freiherr (; male, abbreviated as ), (; his wife, abbreviated as , literally "free lord" or "free lady") and (, his unmarried daughters and maiden aunts) are designations used as titles of nobility Traditional rank amongst European royalty, peers ...
'' von Stein, (first time) * 1840–1846 Georg Ferdinand von Lepel * 1846–1849 Dietrich arl August''Freiherr'' von Stein (second time) * 1849–1888 Camillo ''Freiherr'' von Seebach * 1888–1891 Gisbert von Bonin * 1891–1900 Office Vacant * 1900–1905 hilipp HermannOtto von Hentig * 1905–1914 Ernst riedrich Hermannvon Richter * 1914–1919 Hans Barthold von Bassewitz


See also

*
Ernestine duchies The Ernestine duchies (), also known as the Saxon duchies (''Sächsische Herzogtümer'', although the Albertine appanage An appanage, or apanage (; french: apanage ), is the grant of an estate, title, office or other thing of value to a youn ...
* Palais Coburg in Vienna


References


Bibliography

* Dressel, Carl-Christian H.
''Die Entwicklung von Verfassung und Verwaltung in Sachsen-Coburg 1800–1826 im Vergleich''
''The Development and Comparison of the Constitution and Administration of Saxe-Coburg 1880 – 1826'') (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 2007), , Subscription required. * Erdmann, Jürgen
''Coburg, Bayern und das Reich 1918–1923''
(''Coburg, Bavaria and the Empire 1918–1923''), Coburg, Druckhaus und Vesteverlag A. Rossteutscher, 1969, (''Coburger Heimatkunde und Landesgeschichte Reihe 2, 22'' (''Coburger Studies of State and Local History Series 2, Nr 22''), ZDB-ID 1151614-8) (simultaneously: University of Würzburg, Dissertation, 1969: ''Coburg in den Anfangsjahren der Weimarer Republik 1918–1923'' (''Coburg in the Beginning of the Weimar Republic Years 1918–1923'')) * Johann Homann, Homann, Johann B[aptist]., ''Die Herzogtümer Gotha, Coburg und Altenburg 1729. Historische Karte'' (''The Duchies of Gotha, Coburg and Altenburg 1729. Historical Maps''), ''Tabula Geographica Principatus Gotha, Coburg, Altenburg'' (''Geographical Maps of the Principalities of Gotha, Coburg and Altenburg 1729''), Bad Langensalza, Verlag Rockstuhl, 1999, (reprint), . * Niclas, Thomas, ''Das Haus Sachsen-Coburg – Europas späte Dynastie'' (''The House of Saxe-Coburg – Europe's Last Dynasty''), Stuttgart, Kohlhammer Verlag, 2003, . * Sandner, Harold, ''Das Haus von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha 1826 bis 2001'' (''The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 1826 to 2001''), Coburg, Neue Presse GmbH, 2004. .


External links


The Ducal House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
– the official website of the house

– article about the Duchy, written in 1910, with details about the religious issues * {{Authority control Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, States and territories disestablished in 1918 States and territories established in 1826 States of the German Empire House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, * Ernestine duchies, Coburg and Gotha Dukes of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Former states and territories of Bavaria 1826 establishments in Europe 1918 disestablishments in Germany 19th century in Germany by state Real unions States of the North German Confederation