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Sargon of Akkad (; akk, 𒊬𒊒𒄀 ''Šar-ru-gi''), also known as Sargon the Great, was the first ruler of the
Akkadian Empire The Akkadian Empire () was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia after the long-lived civilization of Sumer. It was centered in the city of Akkad (city), Akkad and its surrounding region. The empire united Akkadian language, Akkadian (Assyri ...
, known for his conquests of the
Sumer Sumer ()The name is from '; ''kig̃ir'', written and ,approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land". means "native, local", ifrom ''The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary''). Literally, "land of the native (local, noble) lor ...

Sumer
ian
city-state A city-state is an independent sovereignty, sovereign city which serves as the center of political, economic, and cultural life over its contiguous territory. They have existed in many parts of the world since the dawn of history, including c ...
s in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC.The date of the reign of Sargon is highly uncertain, depending entirely on the (conflicting) regnal years given in the various copies of the
Sumerian King List#Redirect Sumerian King List {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{Redirect from other capitalisation {{Redirect from move ...
, specifically the uncertain duration of the
Gutian dynasty The Gutian dynasty, also Kuti or Kutians (Sumerian language, Sumerian: , gu-ti-umKI) was a dynasty that came to power in Mesopotamia ''c.'' 2199—2119 BC (middle chronology, middle), or possibly ''c.'' 2135—2055 BC (short chronology, short), afte ...
. The added regnal years of the Sargonic and the Gutian dynasties have to be subtracted from the accession of
Ur-Nammu Ur-Nammu (or Ur-Namma, Ur-Engur, Ur-Gur, Sumerian language, Sumerian: , ruled c. 2112 BC – 2094 BC middle chronology, or possibly c. 2048–2030 BC short chronology) founded the Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur, in southern Mesopotamia, following s ...
of the
Third Dynasty of Ur The Third Dynasty of Ur, also called the Neo-Sumerian Empire, refers to a 22nd to 21st century BC ( middle chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state which some historians consider to h ...
, which is variously dated to either 2047 BC (
Short Chronology The short chronology is one of the chronologies of the Near Eastern Bronze and Early Iron Age, which fixes the reign of Hammurabi to 1728–1686 BC and the sack of Babylon to 1531 BC. The absolute 2nd millennium BC dates resulting from these re ...
) or 2112 BC (
Middle Chronology The chronology of the ancient Near East is a chronology, framework of dates for various events, rulers and dynasties. Historical inscriptions and texts customarily record events in terms of a succession of officials or rulers: "in the year X of ki ...
). An accession date of Sargon of 2334 BC assumes: (1) a Sargonic dynasty of 180 years (fall of Akkad 2154 BC), (2) a Gutian interregnum of 42 years and (3) the Middle Chronology accession year of Ur-Nammu (2112 BC).
He is sometimes identified as the first person in
recorded history Recorded history or written history is a historical narrative History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the History of writing ...
to rule over an
empire An empire is a "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries". Narrowly defined, an empire is a sovereign state called an empire and w ...

empire
. He was the founder of the "Sargonic" or "Old Akkadian" dynasty, which ruled for about a century after his death until the Gutian conquest of Sumer. The
Sumerian king list#Redirect Sumerian King List {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{Redirect from other capitalisation {{Redirect from move ...
makes him the
cup-bearer A cup-bearer was historically an officer of high rank in Court (royal), royal courts, whose duty was to pour and serve the drinks at the royal table. On account of the constant fear of plots and intrigues (such as poisoning), a person must have been ...
to king
Ur-Zababa Ur-Zababa is listed on the ''Sumerian King List'' as the second king of the 4th Dynasty of Kish (Sumer), Kish. This text also records that Ur-Zababa had appointed Sargon of Akkad as his cup-bearer. Sargon was later the ruler of the Akkadian Empir ...
of Kish. His empire is thought to have included most of
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the ...

Mesopotamia
, parts of the
Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region of . In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the , which included present-day , , , , and most of southwest of the middle . In its widest historical sense, the Levant ...

Levant
, besides incursions into
Hurri The Hurrians (; Cuneiform script, cuneiform: ; transliteration: ''Ḫu-ur-ri''; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Ancient Near East, Near East. They spoke a Hurro-Urartian language cal ...
te and
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronz ...

Elam
ite territory, ruling from his (archaeologically as yet unidentified) capital, Akkad (also ''Agade''). Sargon appears as a legendary figure in
Neo-Assyrian The Neo-Assyrian Empire (Assyrian cuneiform: ''mat Aš-šur KI'', "Country of the Assur, city of Ashur (god), god Aššur"; also phonetically ''mat Aš-šur'') was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and becam ...

Neo-Assyrian
literature of the 8th to 7th centuries BC. Tablets with fragments of a ''Sargon Birth Legend'' were found in the
Library of Ashurbanipal The Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, named after Ashurbanipal, the last great monarch, king of the Assyrian Empire, is a collection of more than 30,000 clay tablets and fragments containing texts of all kinds from the 7th century BC, including text ...

Library of Ashurbanipal
.


Name

The
AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages' ...

Akkadian
name is normalized as either ''Šarru-ukīn'' or ''Šarru-kēn''. The name's cuneiform spelling is variously
LUGAL Lugal ( Sumerian: ) is the Sumerian term for "king, ruler". Literally, the term means "big man." In Sumerian, ''lu'' "𒇽" is "man" and ''gal'' "𒃲 GAL (Borger 2003 nr. 553; U+120F2 𒃲) is the Sumerian cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram ...
-''ú-kin'', ''šar-ru-gen''6, ''šar-ru-ki-in'', ''šar-ru-um-ki-in''. In
Old Babylonian Old Babylonian may refer to: *the period of the First Babylonian dynasty (20th to 16th centuries BC) *the historical stage of the Akkadian language of that time See also

*Old Assyrian (disambiguation) {{disambig ...
tablets relating the legends of Sargon, his name is transcribed as (''Šar-ru-um-ki-in''). In Late Assyrian references, the name is mostly spelled as LUGAL-GI.NA or LUGAL-GIN, i.e. identical to the name of the Neo-Assyrian king
Sargon II Sargon II (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbreviation_of_logotype,_from__el.html" ;"title="Chiswick_Press_.ht ...
.Eckart Frahm
"Observations on the Name and Age of Sargon II and on Some Patterns of Assyrian Royal Onomastics"
''NABU'' 2005.2, 46–50.
The spelling ''Sargon'' is derived from the single mention of the name (in reference to
Sargon II Sargon II (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbreviation_of_logotype,_from__el.html" ;"title="Chiswick_Press_.ht ...
) in the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah, the Nevi'im, and the Ketuvim. These texts are almost exclusively in Biblical Hebrew, with a f ...

Hebrew Bible
, as , in Isaiah 20:1. The first element in the name is '' šarru'', the Akkadian (East Semitic) for "king" (c.f. Hebrew ''sár'' ). The second element is derived from the verb ''kīnum'' "to confirm, establish" (related to Hebrew ''kūn'' ). A possible interpretation of the reading ''Šarru-ukīn'' is "the king has established (stability)" or "he
he god He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Modern English Modern English (sometimes New English or NE (ME) as opposed to Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the N ...
has established the king". Such a name would however be unusual; other names in ''-ukīn'' always include both a subject and an object, as in ''Šamaš-šuma-ukīn'' "
Shamash Utu, later worshipped by the East Semitic Akkadian language, Akkadian-speaking Babylonians as Shamash, ''šmš'', syc, ܫܡܫܐ ''šemša'', he, שֶׁמֶשׁ ''šemeš'', ar, شمس ''šams'', Ashurian Aramaic: 𐣴𐣬𐣴 ''š'meš(ā)'' ...

Shamash
has established an heir". There is some debate over whether the name was an adopted regnal name or a birth name. The reading ''Šarru-kēn'' has been interpreted adjectivally, as "the king is established; legitimate", expanded as a phrase ''šarrum ki(e)num''. The terms "Pre-Sargonic" and "Post-Sargonic" were used in Assyriology based on the chronologies of Nabonidus before the historical existence of Sargon of Akkad was confirmed. The form ''Šarru-ukīn'' was known from the Assyrian Sargon Legend discovered in 1867 in Ashurbanipal's library at Nineveh. A contemporary reference to Sargon thought to have been found on the cylinder seal of Ibni-sharru, a high-ranking official serving under Sargon. Joachim Menant published a description of this seal in 1877, reading the king's name as ''Shegani-shar-lukh'', and did not yet identify it with "Sargon the Elder" (who was identified with the Old Assyrian king
Sargon I Sargon I (also transcribed as Šarru-kīn I and Sharru-ken I) was the king King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort ...

Sargon I
). In 1883, the British Museum acquired the "mace-head of Shar-Gani-sharri", a votive gift deposited at the temple of Shamash in Sippar. This "Shar-Gani" was identified with the Sargon of Agade of Assyrian legend. The identification of "Shar-Gani-sharri" with Sargon was recognised as mistaken in the 1910s. Shar-Gani-sharri (
Shar-Kali-Sharri Shar-Kali-Sharri (𒀭𒊬𒂵𒉌 𒈗𒌷, '' DShar-ka-li-Sharri''; reigned c. 2217–2193 BC middle chronology, c. 2153–2129 BC short chronology The short chronology is one of the chronologies of the Near Eastern Bronze and Early Iron Age, ...
) is, in fact, Sargon's great-grandson, the successor of Naram-Sin. It is not entirely clear whether the Neo-Assyrian king
Sargon II Sargon II (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbreviation_of_logotype,_from__el.html" ;"title="Chiswick_Press_.ht ...
was directly named for Sargon of Akkad, as there is some uncertainty whether his name should be rendered ''Šarru-ukīn'' or as ''Šarru-kēn(u)''.


Chronology

Primary sources pertaining to Sargon are sparse; the main near-contemporary reference is that in the various versions of the ''
Sumerian King List#Redirect Sumerian King List {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{Redirect from other capitalisation {{Redirect from move ...
''. Here, Sargon is mentioned as the son of a gardener, former cup-bearer of
Ur-Zababa Ur-Zababa is listed on the ''Sumerian King List'' as the second king of the 4th Dynasty of Kish (Sumer), Kish. This text also records that Ur-Zababa had appointed Sargon of Akkad as his cup-bearer. Sargon was later the ruler of the Akkadian Empir ...
of Kish. He usurped the kingship from
Lugal-zage-si Lugal-Zage-Si ( ; frequently spelled ''Lugalzaggesi'', sometimes ''Lugalzagesi'' or "Lugal-Zaggisi") of Umma 260px, Location of the city of Umma in Sumer Umma ( sux, ; modern ''Umm al-Aqarib'', Dhi Qar Province in Iraq, formerly also ca ...
of
Uruk Uruk, also known as Warka, was an ancient city of (and later of ) situated east of the present bed of the River on the dried-up ancient channel of the Euphrates east of modern , , .Harmansah, 2007 Uruk is the for the . Uruk played a leading ...
and took it to his own city of Akkad. Various copies of the king list give the duration of his reign as either 54, 55 or 56 years. Numerous fragmentary inscriptions relating to Sargon are also known. In absolute years, his reign would correspond to c. 2334–2279 BC in the
middle chronology The chronology of the ancient Near East is a chronology, framework of dates for various events, rulers and dynasties. Historical inscriptions and texts customarily record events in terms of a succession of officials or rulers: "in the year X of ki ...
. His successors until the Gutian conquest of Sumer are also known as the "Sargonic Dynasty" and their rule as the "Sargonic Period" of Mesopotamian history. Foster (1982) argued that the reading of 55 years as the duration of Sargon's reign was, in fact, a corruption of an original interpretation of 37 years. An older version of the king list gives Sargon's reign as lasting for 40 years.
Thorkild Jacobsen Thorkild Peter Rudolph Jacobsen (; 7 June 1904 – 2 May 1993) was a renowned Danish historian specializing in Assyriology and Sumerian literature. He was one of the foremost scholars on the ancient Near East. Biography Thorkild Peter Rudolph J ...
marked the clause about Sargon's father being a gardener as a lacuna, indicating his uncertainty about its meaning. Ur-Zababa and Lugal-zage-si are both listed as kings, but separated by several additional named rulers of Kish, who seem to have been merely governors or vassals under the Akkadian Empire. The claim that Sargon was the original founder of Akkad has been called into question with the discovery of an inscription mentioning the place and dated to the first year of
Enshakushanna Enshakushanna ( sux, , ), or Enshagsagana, En-shag-kush-ana, Enukduanna, En-Shakansha-Ana, was a king of Uruk Uruk (; Sumerian language, Sumerian: Cuneiform: , ''unugki'', Akkadian language, Akkadian: ''Uruk'' (Cities of the Ancient Near East, ...
, who almost certainly preceded him. The ''Weidner Chronicle'' (
ABC ABC are the first three letters of the Latin script known as the alphabet. ABC or abc may also refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Broadcasting * American Broadcasting Company, a commercial U.S. TV broadcaster ** Disney–ABC Television ...
19:51) states that it was Sargon who "built Babylon in front of Akkad." The ''
Chronicle of Early Kings The Chronicle of Early Kings, Chronicle 20 in Grayson’s ''Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles'' and Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc, Μεσοποταμία; Syriac language, Classical Syriac: ܐ ...
'' (ABC 20:18–19) likewise states that late in his reign, Sargon "dug up the soil of the pit of Babylon, and made a counterpart of Babylon next to Agade." Van de Mieroop suggested that those two chronicles may refer to the much later Assyrian king,
Sargon II Sargon II (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbreviation_of_logotype,_from__el.html" ;"title="Chiswick_Press_.ht ...
of the
Neo-Assyrian Empire The Neo-Assyrian Empire (Assyrian cuneiform Assyrian may refer to: * Assyria, a major Mesopotamian kingdom and empire * Assyrian people, an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East * Assyrian Church (disambiguation) * Assyrian language (disam ...

Neo-Assyrian Empire
, rather than to Sargon of Akkad. Some of the regnal year names of Sargon are preserved, and throw some light in the events of his reign, particularly the conquest of the surrounding territories of
Simurrum The Simurrum Kingdom ( akk, 𒋛𒈬𒌨𒊑𒅎: ''Si-mu-ur-ri-im'') was an important city state of the Mesopotamian Mesopotamia ( ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc, Μεσοποταμία; Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ ...
,
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronz ...

Elam
and
Mari Mari may refer to: Places *Mari, Paraíba, Brazil, a city *Mari, Cyprus, a village *Mari, Greece, a village, site of ancient town of Marius (Laconia), Marius *Mari, Iran (disambiguation), places in Iran *Mari, Punjab, a village and a union counci ...
, and Uru'a, thought to be a city in
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronz ...

Elam
:


Historiography

''Šar-ru-gi lugal'' "King Sargon") appears faintly in front of his face. Clothing is comparable to those seen on the cylinder seal of Kalki, in which appears the likely brother of Sargon. Circa 2300 BC.
Louvre Museum The Louvre ( ), or the Louvre Museum ( ), is the world's list of largest art museums, largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France, and is best known for being the home of the ''Mona Lisa''. A central landmark of the city, it is ...
. Numerous other inscriptions related to Sargon are known.


Language and script used in records

Sargon appears to have promoted the use of in inscriptions. He frequently calls himself "king of Akkad" first, after he apparently founded the city of Akkad. He appears to have taken over the rule of Kish at some point, and later also much of Mesopotamia, referring to himself as "Sargon, king of Akkad, overseer of
Inanna Inanna is an ancient Mesopotamian goddess associated with love, beauty, sex, war, justice and political power. She was originally worshiped in Sumer Sumer ()The name is from '; ''kig̃ir'', written and ,approximately "land of the ...
, king of Kish, anointed of
Anu , image=File:Cuneiform sumer dingir.svg , caption=Ur III Sumerian cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active u ...

Anu
, king of the land esopotamia governor ( ensi) of
Enlil Enlil, , "Lord Wind" later known as Elil, is an ancient Mesopotamian god associated with wind, air, earth, and storms. He is first attested as the chief deity of the Sumerian pantheon Sumerian religion was the religion Religion is a ...
". During Sargon's reign,
East Semitic The East Semitic languages are one of three divisions Division or divider may refer to: Mathematics *Division (mathematics) Division is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, the ways that numbers are combined to make new numbers. ...
was standardized and adapted for use with the
cuneiform script Cuneiform is a - that was used to write several languages of the . The script was in active use from the early until the beginning of the . It is named for the characteristic wedge-shaped impressions (: ) which form its . Cuneiform was origi ...

cuneiform script
previously used in the Sumerian language into what is now known as the "
Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages''. Ed. Roger D. Woodard (2004, Cambridge) Pages 218-280 ...

Akkadian language
". A style of
calligraphy Calligraphy (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

calligraphy
developed in which text on clay tablets and cylinder seals was arranged amidst scenes of mythology and ritual.''Britannica''


Year names

While various copies of the Sumerian king list credit Sargon with a 56, 55, or 54-year reign, dated documents have been found for only four different year-names of his actual reign. The names of these four years describe his campaigns against Elam, Mari,
Simurrum The Simurrum Kingdom ( akk, 𒋛𒈬𒌨𒊑𒅎: ''Si-mu-ur-ri-im'') was an important city state of the Mesopotamian Mesopotamia ( ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc, Μεσοποταμία; Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ ...
(a Hurrian region), and Uru'a (an Elamite city-state).


Nippur inscription

Among the most important sources for Sargon's reign is a tablet of the
Old Babylonian Old Babylonian may refer to: *the period of the First Babylonian dynasty (20th to 16th centuries BC) *the historical stage of the Akkadian language of that time See also

*Old Assyrian (disambiguation) {{disambig ...
period recovered at
Nippur Nippur (Sumerian: ''Nibru'', often logographically recorded as , EN.LÍLKI, "Enlil City;"The Cambridge Ancient History: Prolegomena & Prehistory': Vol. 1, Part 1. Accessed 15 Dec 2010. AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian ...
in the
University of Pennsylvania The University of Pennsylvania (Penn or UPenn) is a in , Pennsylvania. The university, established as the College of Philadelphia in 1740, is one of the nine chartered prior to the . , Penn's founder and first president, advocated an edu ...

University of Pennsylvania
expedition in the 1890s. The tablet is a copy of the inscriptions on the pedestal of a statue erected by Sargon in the temple of
Enlil Enlil, , "Lord Wind" later known as Elil, is an ancient Mesopotamian god associated with wind, air, earth, and storms. He is first attested as the chief deity of the Sumerian pantheon Sumerian religion was the religion Religion is a ...
. Its text was edited by
Arno Poebel Arno Poebel (1881–1958) was a German Assyriologist Assyriology (from Greek , ''Assyriā''; and , '' -logia'') is the archaeological, historical, and linguistic study of Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesop ...
(1909) and Leon Legrain (1926).


Conquest of Sumer

In the inscription, Sargon styles himself "Sargon, king of Akkad, overseer (''mashkim'') of Inanna, king of Kish, anointed (''guda'') of Anu, king of the land esopotamia governor (''ensi'') of Enlil". It celebrates the conquest of
Uruk Uruk, also known as Warka, was an ancient city of (and later of ) situated east of the present bed of the River on the dried-up ancient channel of the Euphrates east of modern , , .Harmansah, 2007 Uruk is the for the . Uruk played a leading ...
and the defeat of
Lugalzagesi Lugal-Zage-Si ( ; frequently spelled ''Lugalzaggesi'', sometimes ''Lugalzagesi'' or "Lugal-Zaggisi") of Umma (reigned c. 2358 - 2334 BCE middle chronology) was the last Sumerian king before the conquest of Sumer by Sargon of Akkad and the rise of ...
, whom Sargon brought "in a collar to the gate of Enlil":Mario Liverani, ''The Ancient Near East: History'', Routledge (2013)
p. 143
Kramer 196
p. 324
Kuhrt, Amélie, ''The Ancient Near East: c. 3000–330 B.C.'', Routledge 1996 , p. 4

/ref> Sargon then conquered and E-Ninmar and "laid waste" the territory from
Lagash Lagash (cuneiform: LAGAŠKI; Sumerian language, Sumerian: ''Lagaš''), or Shirpurla, was an ancient city state located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, ...

Lagash
to the sea, and from there went on to conquer and destroy
Umma Umma ( sux, ; in modern in , formerly also called Gishban) was an ancient city in . There is some scholarly debate about the Sumerian and Akkadian names for this site. Traditionally, Umma was identified with Tell Jokha. More recently it h ...
:


Conquest of Upper Mesopotamia, as far as the Mediterranean sea

Submitting himself to the (Levantine god) , Sargon conquered territories of
Upper Mesopotamia Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the Upland and lowland, uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East. Since the early Muslim conquests of the mid-7th century, ...
and the
Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region of . In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the , which included present-day , , , , and most of southwest of the middle . In its widest historical sense, the Levant ...

Levant
, including
Mari Mari may refer to: Places *Mari, Paraíba, Brazil, a city *Mari, Cyprus, a village *Mari, Greece, a village, site of ancient town of Marius (Laconia), Marius *Mari, Iran (disambiguation), places in Iran *Mari, Punjab, a village and a union counci ...
, Yarmuti (
Jarmuth Jarmuth () was the name of two cities in the land of Canaan Land is the solid surface of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land ...
?) and
Ibla The International Baseball League of Australia was a baseball league which existed from 1999 to 2002. The league was created by David Nilsson after he purchased the rights to the Australian Baseball League (1989-1999), Australian Baseball League i ...

Ibla
"up to the Cedar Forest (the
Amanus The Nur Mountains ( tr, Nur Dağları, "Mountains of Holy Light"), formerly known as Alma-Dağ,,( ku, Çiyayê Gewr, "The White-grayish Mountain"), the ancient Amanus ( grc, Ἁμανός), medieval Black Mountain or Arabic Jabal al-Lukkam, is ...
) and up to the Silver Mountain ( Aladagh?)", ruling from the "upper sea" (Mediterranean) to the "lower sea" (Persian Gulf).


Conquests of Elam and Marhashi

Sargon also claims in his inscriptions that he is "Sargon, king of the world, conqueror of
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronz ...

Elam
and
Parahshum Marhaši (Sumerian language, Sumerian: ''Mar-ḫa-šiKI'' , ''Marhashi'', ''Marhasi'', ''Parhasi'', ''Barhasi''; in earlier sources Waraḫše. Akkadian language, Akkadian: "Parahshum" ''pa2-ra-ah-shum2-ki'') was a 3rd millennium BC polity situated ...
", the two major polities to the east of Sumer. He also names various rulers of the east whom he vanquished, such as " Luh-uh-ish-an, son of Hishibrasini, king of Elam, king of Elam" or "Sidga'u, general of Parahshum", who later also appears in an inscription by
Rimush Rimush (or Rimuš, 𒌷𒈬𒍑 ''Ri-mu-uš'') was the second king of the Akkadian Empire The Akkadian Empire () was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَا ...
. Sargon triumphed over 34 cities in total. Ships from
Meluhha or Melukhkha (''Me-luḫ-ḫaKI'' ) is the Sumerian name of a prominent trading partner of Sumer Sumer ()The name is from Akkadian language, Akkadian '; Sumerian language, Sumerian ''kig̃ir'', written and ,approximately "land of the civ ...
, Magan and
Dilmun Dilmun, or Telmun, (Sumerian: , later 𒉌𒌇(𒆠), ni.tukki = DILMUNki; ar, دلمون) was an ancient East Semitic The East Semitic languages are one of three divisions Division or divider may refer to: Mathematics *Division (mathematic ...
, rode at anchor in his capital of Akkad. He entertained a court or standing army of 5,400 men who "ate bread daily before him".


Sargon Epos

A group of four Babylonian texts, summarized as "Sargon Epos" or ''Res Gestae Sargonis'', shows Sargon as a military commander asking the advice of many subordinates before going on campaigns. The narrative of ''Sargon, the Conquering Hero,'' is set at Sargon's court, in a situation of crisis. Sargon addresses his warriors, praising the virtue of heroism, and a lecture by a courtier on the glory achieved by a champion of the army, a narrative relating a campaign of Sargon's into the far land of ''Uta-raspashtim'', including an account of a "darkening of the Sun" and the conquest of the land of ''Simurrum'', and a concluding oration by Sargon listing his conquests. The narrative of '' King of Battle'' relates Sargon's campaign against the Anatolian city of
PurushandaPurushanda (also variously Puruskhanda, Purushhattum or Burushattum) was an ancient city-state A city-state is an independent sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed ...
in order to protect his merchants. Versions of this narrative in both
Hittite Hittite may refer to: * Hittites, ancient Anatolian people ** Hittite language, the earliest-attested Indo-European language ** Hittite grammar ** Hittite phonology ** Hittite cuneiform ** Hittite inscriptions ** Hittite laws ** Hittite religion ** ...
and Akkadian have been found. The Hittite version is extant in six fragments, the Akkadian version is known from several manuscripts found at Amarna, Assur, and Nineveh. The narrative is anachronistic, portraying Sargon in a 19th-century milieu. The same text mentions that Sargon crossed the Sea of the West (
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
) and ended up in Kuppara, which some authors have interpreted as the Akkadian word for
Keftiu Caphtor ( he, כפתור) is a locality mentioned in the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, ''tà biblía'', "the books") is a collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred to Christians, Jews, Samaritans, Rastafari ...
, an ancient locale usually associated with Crete or
Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or poli ...

Cyprus
. Famine and war threatened Sargon's empire during the latter years of his reign. The ''Chronicle of Early Kings'' reports that revolts broke out throughout the area under the last years of his overlordship: A. Leo Oppenheim translates the last sentence as "From the East to the West he .e. Mardukalienated (them) from him and inflicted upon (him as punishment) that he could not rest (in his grave)."


''Chronicle of Early Kings''

Shortly after securing Sumer, Sargon embarked on a series of campaigns to subjugate the entire
Fertile Crescent The Fertile Crescent is a crescent-shaped region in the Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an establishe ...

Fertile Crescent
. According to the ''
Chronicle of Early Kings The Chronicle of Early Kings, Chronicle 20 in Grayson’s ''Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles'' and Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc, Μεσοποταμία; Syriac language, Classical Syriac: ܐ ...
'', a later Babylonian historiographical text: In the east, Sargon defeated four leaders of
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronz ...

Elam
, led by the king of Awan. Their cities were sacked; the governors, viceroys, and kings of
Susa Susa (; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronze Age until the beginning of the ...

Susa
, Waraḫše, and neighboring districts became vassals of Akkad.


Origin legends

Sargon became the subject of legendary narratives describing his rise to power from humble origins and his conquest of Mesopotamia in later Assyrian and Babylonian literature. Apart from these secondary, and partly legendary, accounts, there are many inscriptions due to Sargon himself, although the majority of these are known only from much later copies. The
Louvre The Louvre ( ), or the Louvre Museum ( ), is the world's most-visited museum, and a historic landmark in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of Fr ...

Louvre
has fragments of two Sargonic victory steles recovered from
Susa Susa (; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronze Age until the beginning of the ...

Susa
(where they were presumably transported from Mesopotamia in the
12th century BC The 12th century BC is the period from 1200 to 1101 BC. The Late Bronze Age collapse The Late Bronze Age collapse was a transition period in a large area covering much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa North Africa is a regio ...
).


Sumerian legend

The ''Sargon legend'' contains a legendary account of Sargon's rise to power. It is an older version of the previously-known Assyrian legend, discovered in 1974 in
Nippur Nippur (Sumerian: ''Nibru'', often logographically recorded as , EN.LÍLKI, "Enlil City;"The Cambridge Ancient History: Prolegomena & Prehistory': Vol. 1, Part 1. Accessed 15 Dec 2010. AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian ...
and first edited in 1983. The extant versions are incomplete, but the surviving fragments name Sargon's father as La'ibum. After a lacuna, the text skips to
Ur-Zababa Ur-Zababa is listed on the ''Sumerian King List'' as the second king of the 4th Dynasty of Kish (Sumer), Kish. This text also records that Ur-Zababa had appointed Sargon of Akkad as his cup-bearer. Sargon was later the ruler of the Akkadian Empir ...
, king of Kish, who awakens after a dream, the contents of which are not revealed on the surviving portion of the tablet. For unknown reasons, Ur-Zababa appoints Sargon as his
cup-bearer A cup-bearer was historically an officer of high rank in Court (royal), royal courts, whose duty was to pour and serve the drinks at the royal table. On account of the constant fear of plots and intrigues (such as poisoning), a person must have been ...
. Soon after this, Ur-Zababa invites Sargon to his chambers to discuss a dream of Sargon's, involving the favor of the goddess
Inanna Inanna is an ancient Mesopotamian goddess associated with love, beauty, sex, war, justice and political power. She was originally worshiped in Sumer Sumer ()The name is from '; ''kig̃ir'', written and ,approximately "land of the ...
and the drowning of Ur-Zababa by the goddess. Deeply frightened, Ur-Zababa orders Sargon murdered by the hands of Beliš-tikal, the chief smith, but Inanna prevents it, demanding that Sargon stop at the gates because of his being "polluted with blood." When Sargon returns to Ur-Zababa, the king becomes frightened again and decides to send Sargon to king
Lugal-zage-si Lugal-Zage-Si ( ; frequently spelled ''Lugalzaggesi'', sometimes ''Lugalzagesi'' or "Lugal-Zaggisi") of Umma 260px, Location of the city of Umma in Sumer Umma ( sux, ; modern ''Umm al-Aqarib'', Dhi Qar Province in Iraq, formerly also ca ...
of
Uruk Uruk, also known as Warka, was an ancient city of (and later of ) situated east of the present bed of the River on the dried-up ancient channel of the Euphrates east of modern , , .Harmansah, 2007 Uruk is the for the . Uruk played a leading ...
with a message on a clay tablet asking him to slay Sargon. The legend breaks off at this point; presumably, the missing sections described how Sargon becomes king. The part of the interpretation of the king's dream has parallels to the biblical story of
Joseph Joseph is a common masculine given name, derived from the Hebrew Yosef (יוֹסֵף). The form "Joseph" is used mostly in English, French and partially German-speaking (alongside "Josef") countries. This spelling is also found as a variant in th ...

Joseph
, the part about the letter with the carrier's death sentence has similarities to the Greek story of
Bellerophon spears the Chimera (mythology), Chimera, on an Attica, Attic Red-figure pottery, red-figure epinetron, 425–420 BC Bellerophon (; Ancient Greek: Βελλεροφῶν) or Bellerophontes () is a hero of Greek mythology. He was "the greatest hero ...

Bellerophon
and the biblical story of Uriah.


Birth legend

A Neo-Assyrian text from the 7th century BC purporting to be Sargon's autobiography asserts that the great king was the illegitimate son of a priestess. Only the beginning of the text (the first two columns) is known, from the fragments of three manuscripts. The first fragments were discovered as early as 1850. Sargon's birth and his early childhood are described thus: Similarities between the Sargon Birth Legend and other infant birth exposures in ancient literature, including
Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, ''Mōše''; also known as Moshe Rabbenu ( he, מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ "Moshe our Teacher"); syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, ' () is considered the most important prophet in Judais ...

Moses
,
Karna Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण, IAST: ''Karṇa''), also known as Vasusena, Anga-raja, and Radheya, is one of the major characters of the Hindu epic ''Mahābhārata''. He is the son of the sun god Surya and princess Kunti (mother of the Pandava ...

Karna
, and
Oedipus Oedipus (, ; grc-gre, Οἰδίπους "swollen foot") was a mythical Greek king of Thebes. A tragic hero #REDIRECT Tragic hero#REDIRECT Tragic hero A tragic hero is the protagonist 200px, Shakespeare's '' Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.'' ...

Oedipus
, were noted by psychoanalyst
Otto Rank Otto Rank (; ; né Rosenfeld; 22 April 1884 – 31 October 1939) was an Austrian psychoanalyst, writer, and teacher. Born in Vienna en, Viennese , iso_code = AT-9 , registration_plate = Vehicle regis ...
in his 1909 book ''
The Myth of the Birth of the Hero ''The Myth of the Birth of the Hero'' (german: Der Mythus von der Geburt des Helden) is a book by German people, German psychoanalyst Otto Rank in which the author puts forth a psychoanalytical interpretation of mythological heroes, specifically wi ...
''. The legend was also studied in detail by Brian Lewis, and compared with many different examples of the infant birth exposure motif found in European and Asian folktales. He discusses a possible archetype form, giving particular attention to the Sargon legend and the account of the birth of
Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, ''Mōše''; also known as Moshe Rabbenu ( he, מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ "Moshe our Teacher"); syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, ' () is considered the most important prophet in Judais ...

Moses
.
Joseph Campbell Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904 – October 30, 1987) was an American professor of literature at Sarah Lawrence College who worked in comparative mythology and comparative religion. His work covers many aspects of the human experience ...
has also made such comparisons. Sargon is also one of the many suggestions for the identity or inspiration for the biblical
Nimrod Nimrod (; ; arc, ܢܡܪܘܕ; ar, نُمْرُود, Numrūd) is a Hebrew Bible, biblical figure mentioned in the Book of Genesis and Books of Chronicles. The son of Cush (Bible), Cush and therefore a great-grandson of Noah, Nimrod was describe ...

Nimrod
. Ewing William (1910) suggested Sargon based on his unification of the Babylonians and the Neo-Assyrian birth legend. Yigal Levin (2002) suggested that Nimrod was a recollection of Sargon and his grandson Naram-Sin, with the name "Nimrod" derived from the latter.


Family

The name of Sargon's main wife, Queen
Tashlultum Tashlultum () was a wife of King Sargon of Akkad Sargon of Akkad (; akk, 𒊬𒊒𒄀 ''Šar-ru-gi''), also known as Sargon the Great, was the first ruler of the Akkadian Empire The Akkadian Empire () was the first ancient empire of Mesopo ...
, and those of a number of his children are known to us. His daughter
Enheduanna Enheduanna ( Sumerian: , also transliterated as ''Enheduana'', ''En-hedu-ana'', or variants; fl. 23rd century BC) "ca. 2285–2250 B.C.E." is the earliest known poet whose name has been recorded. She was the High Priestess of the goddess Inanna ...

Enheduanna
was a priestess who composed ritual hymns. Many of her works, including her ''Exaltation of
Inanna Inanna is an ancient Mesopotamian goddess associated with love, beauty, sex, war, justice and political power. She was originally worshiped in Sumer Sumer ()The name is from '; ''kig̃ir'', written and ,approximately "land of the ...
'', were in use for centuries thereafter. Sargon was succeeded by his son
Rimush Rimush (or Rimuš, 𒌷𒈬𒍑 ''Ri-mu-uš'') was the second king of the Akkadian Empire The Akkadian Empire () was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَا ...
; after Rimush's death another son,
Manishtushu Manishtushu (𒈠𒀭𒅖𒌅𒋢, ''Ma-an-ish-tu-su'') was the third king of the Akkadian Empire The Akkadian Empire () was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia after the long-lived civilization of Sumer. It was centered in the city of Akk ...
, became king. Manishtushu would be succeeded by his own son, Naram-Sin. Two other sons, Shu-Enlil (Ibarum) and Ilaba'is-takal (Abaish-Takal), are known.


Legacy

Sargon of Akkad is sometimes identified as the first person in
recorded history Recorded history or written history is a historical narrative History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the History of writing ...
to rule over an
empire An empire is a "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries". Narrowly defined, an empire is a sovereign state called an empire and w ...

empire
(in the sense of the central government of a multi-ethnic territory), although earlier Sumerian rulers such as
Lugal-zage-si Lugal-Zage-Si ( ; frequently spelled ''Lugalzaggesi'', sometimes ''Lugalzagesi'' or "Lugal-Zaggisi") of Umma 260px, Location of the city of Umma in Sumer Umma ( sux, ; modern ''Umm al-Aqarib'', Dhi Qar Province in Iraq, formerly also ca ...
might have a similar claim. His rule also heralds the history of
Semitic Semitic most commonly refers to the Semitic languages, a name used since the 1770s to refer to the language family currently present in West Asia, North and East Africa, and Malta. Semitic may also refer to: Religions * Abrahamic religions ** ...
empires in the Ancient Near East, which, following the Neo-Sumerian interruption (21st/20th centuries BC), lasted for close to fifteen centuries until the
Achaemenid The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire An empire is a sovereign state consisting of several territories and peoples subj ...

Achaemenid
conquest following the 539 BC
Battle of Opis The Battle of Opis, fought in September 539 BC, was a major engagement between the armies of Persia under Cyrus the Great and the Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nabonidus during the Persian invasion of Mesopotamia. At the time, Babylonia was the last ...
. Sargon was regarded as a model by Mesopotamian kings for some two millennia after his death. The Assyrian and Babylonian kings who based their empires in Mesopotamia saw themselves as the heirs of Sargon's empire. Sargon may indeed have introduced the notion of "empire" as understood in the later Assyrian period; the Neo-Assyrian ''Sargon Text'', written in the first person, has Sargon challenging later rulers to "govern the black-headed people" (i.e. the
indigenous population Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the b ...
of Mesopotamia) as he did. An important source for "Sargonic heroes" in oral tradition in the later Bronze Age is a Middle Hittite (15th century BC) record of a Hurro-Hittite song, which calls upon Sargon and his immediate successors as "deified kings" (dingir, d''šarrena''). Sargon shared his name with two later Mesopotamian kings.
Sargon I Sargon I (also transcribed as Šarru-kīn I and Sharru-ken I) was the king King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort ...

Sargon I
was a king of the Old Assyrian Empire, Old Assyrian period presumably named after Sargon of Akkad.
Sargon II Sargon II (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbreviation_of_logotype,_from__el.html" ;"title="Chiswick_Press_.ht ...
was a Neo-Assyrian king named after Sargon of Akkad; it is this king whose name was rendered ''Sargon'' () in the Hebrew Bible (Isaiah 20:1). Neo-Babylonian king Nabonidus showed great interest in the history of the Sargonid dynasty and even conducted excavations of Sargon's palaces and those of his successors.Oates, John. ''Babylon''. London: Thames and Hudson, 1979, p. 162.


Popular culture

Although historically inaccurate and supernatural fiction, supernatural in nature, ''The Scorpion King: Rise of a Warrior'' (2008) features Sargon of Akkad as a murderous army commander who uses black magic. He was the film's main villain and was portrayed by American actor and mixed martial artist Randy Couture. This is one of the few films, if not the only one, to depict Sargon. The twentieth episode of the second season of ''Star Trek: The Original Series'', "Return to Tomorrow", features an ancient, telepathic alien named Sargon who once ruled a mighty empire.


See also

* *History of Mesopotamia *List of kings of Akkad


Notes


References

*Albright, W. F., ''A Babylonian Geographical Treatise on Sargon of Akkad's Empire'', Journal of the American Oriental Society (1925). *Bachvarova, Mary R., "Sargon the Great: from history to myth", chapter 8 in: ''From Hittite to Homer: The Anatolian Background of Ancient Greek Epic' '', Cambridge University Press (2016), 166–198. *Paul-Alain Beaulieu, Beaulieu, Paul-Alain, ''et al.'' ''A Companion to the Ancient near East''. Blackwell, 2005. *Botsforth, George W., ed. "The Reign of Sargon". ''A Source-Book of Ancient History.'' New York: Macmillan, 1912. *Cooper, Jerrold S. and Wolfgang Heimpel. "The Sumerian Sargon Legend." ''Journal of the American Oriental Society'', Vol. 103, No. 1, (January–March 1983). *Foster, Benjamin R., ''The Age of Akkad. Inventing Empire in Ancient Mesopotamia'', Routledge, 2016. *Frayne, Douglas R. "Sargonic and Gutian Period." ''The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia'', Vol. 2. University of Toronto Press, 1993. *Gadd, C. J. "The Dynasty of Agade and the Gutian Invasion." ''Cambridge Ancient History'', rev. ed., vol. 1, ch. 19. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1963. *Glassner, Jean-Jacques. ''Mesopotamian Chronicles'', Atlanta, 2004. *Grayson, Albert Kirk. ''Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles''. J. J. Augustin, 1975; Eisenbrauns, 2000. *Thorkild Jacobsen, Jacobsen, Thorkild, ''The Sumerian King List'', Assyriological Studies, No. 11, Chicago: Oriental Institute, 1939. *Leonard William King, King, L. W.,
Chronicles Concerning Early Babylonian Kings
', II, London, 1907, pp.  87–96. *Samuel Noah Kramer, Kramer, S. Noah. ''The Sumerians: Their History, Culture and Character'', Chicago, 1963. *Kramer, S. Noah. ''History Begins at Sumer: Thirty-Nine "Firsts" in Recorded History.'' Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1981. *Lewis, Brian. ''The Sargon Legend: A Study of the Akkadian Text and the Tale of the Hero Who Was Exposed at Birth.'' American Schools of Oriental Research Dissertation Series, No. 4. Cambridge, MA: American Schools of Oriental Research, 1984. *Luckenbill, D. D., ''On the Opening Lines of the Legend of Sargon'', The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures (1917). *Postgate, Nicholas. ''Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the Dawn of History''. Routledge, 1994. *Roux, G. ''Ancient Iraq'', London, 1980. * *Schomp, Virginia. ''Ancient Mesopotamia''. Franklin Watts, 2005. *Marc van de Mieroop, Van de Mieroop, Marc. ''A History of the Ancient Near East: ca. 3000–323 BC.'' Blackwell, 2006, . *Van de Mieroop, Marc., ''Cuneiform Texts and the Writing of History'', Routledge, 1999. {{DEFAULTSORT:Sargon of Akkad 24th-century BC kings of Akkad 23rd-century BC kings of Akkad Founding monarchs 24th-century BC births 23rd-century BC deaths Nimrod Kings of the Universe Cup-bearers