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Sardis () or Sardes (;
Lydian Lydian may refer to: * Lydians, an ancient people of Anatolia * Lydian language, an ancient Anatolian language * Lydian alphabet ** Lydian (Unicode block) * Lydian (typeface), a decorative typeface * Lydian dominant scale or acoustic scale, a musica ...
: 𐤳𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 ''Sfard''; grc, Σάρδεις ''Sardeis''; peo, Sparda; hbo, ספרד ''Sfarad'') was an ancient city at the location of modern ''Sart'' (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005), near
Salihli Salihli is a large town and district of Manisa Province Manisa Province ( tr, ) is a province in western Turkey. Its neighboring provinces are İzmir tr, İzmirli , area_urban_km2 = 944 , area_total_km2 ...
, in
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
's
Manisa Province Manisa Province ( tr, ) is a Provinces of Turkey, province in western Turkey. Its neighboring provinces are İzmir Province, İzmir to the west, Aydın Province, Aydın to the south, Denizli Province, Denizli to the southeast, Uşak Province, ...
. Sardis was the capital of the ancient kingdom of
Lydia Lydia (Lydian language, Lydian: ‎𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣𐤠, ''Śfarda''; Aramaic: ''Lydia''; el, Λυδία, ''Lȳdíā''; tr, Lidya) was an Iron Age Monarchy, kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the mod ...

Lydia
,Rhodes, P.J. ''A History of the Classical Greek World 478-323 BC''. 2nd edition. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, p. 6. one of the important cities of the
Persian Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, wikt:𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian peoples, Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Grea ...

Persian Empire
, the seat of a
Seleucid The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Greece, Greek state in Western Asia, during the Hellenistic period, Hellenistic Period, that existed from 312 BC to 63 BC. The Sele ...
Satrap, the seat of a
proconsul A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose wo ...

proconsul
under the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
, and the metropolis of the province Lydia in later Roman and
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...

Byzantine
times. As one of the
seven churches of Asia 200px, Map of western Patmos.html"_;"title="Anatolia_showing_the_island_Patmos">Anatolia_showing_the_island_Patmos_and_the_locations_of_the_cities_housing_the_seven_churches The_Seven_Churches_of_Revelation,_also_known_as_the_Seven_Churches_of_ ...

seven churches of Asia
, it was addressed by the author of the
Book of Revelation The Book of Revelation (also called the Apocalypse of John, Revelation to John or Revelation from Jesus Christ) is the final book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; ...
in the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
, in terms which seem to imply that its church members did not finish what they started, that they were about image and not substance. Its importance was due first to its military strength, secondly to its situation on an important highway leading from the interior to the
Aegean Aegean may refer to: *Aegean Sea *Aegean Islands *Aegean Region (geographical), Turkey *Aegean Region (statistical), Turkey *Aegean civilizations *Aegean languages, a group of ancient languages and proposed language family *Aegean Sea (theme), a n ...

Aegean
coast, and thirdly to its commanding the wide and fertile plain of the
Hermus In Greek mythology, Hermus or Hermos (Ancient Greek: Ἕρμος) is a name attributed to multiple characters: * Hermus, god of the river Gediz River, Hermus (modern Gediz river) located in the Aegean Region, Aegean region of Lydia (modern Turkey ...
.


Geography

Sardis was situated in the middle of
Hermus In Greek mythology, Hermus or Hermos (Ancient Greek: Ἕρμος) is a name attributed to multiple characters: * Hermus, god of the river Gediz River, Hermus (modern Gediz river) located in the Aegean Region, Aegean region of Lydia (modern Turkey ...
valley, at the foot of
Mount Tmolus Mount Tmolus (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), re ...
, a steep and lofty spur which formed the citadel. It was about south of the Hermus. Today, the site is located by the present day village of ''Sart'', near
Salihli Salihli is a large town and district of Manisa Province Manisa Province ( tr, ) is a province in western Turkey. Its neighboring provinces are İzmir tr, İzmirli , area_urban_km2 = 944 , area_total_km2 ...
in the Manisa province of Turkey, close to the
Ankara Ankara, historically known as Ancyra and Angora, is the list of national capitals, capital of Turkey. Located in the Central Anatolia Region, central part of Anatolia, the city has a population of 4.5 million in its urban centre and over ...

Ankara
-
İzmir Izmir ( , ; tr, İzmir, ) is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia, capital of the İzmir Province, province of the same name. It is the list of cities in Turkey, third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara; ...

İzmir
highway (approximately from
İzmir Izmir ( , ; tr, İzmir, ) is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia, capital of the İzmir Province, province of the same name. It is the list of cities in Turkey, third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara; ...

İzmir
). The part of remains including the bath-gymnasium complex, synagogue and Byzantine shops is open to visitors year-round.


History


Foundation stories

The Greek historian and father of history, Herodotus, notes that the city was founded by the sons of Hercules, the Heraclides. According to Herodotus, the Heraclides ruled for five hundred and five years beginning with Agron, 1220 BC, and ending with
Candaules Candaules (died c.687 BC; el, Κανδαύλης, ''Kandaulēs''), also known as Myrsilos (Μυρσίλος), was a king of the ancient Kingdom of Lydia Lydia (Lydian language, Lydian: ‎𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣𐤠, ''Śfarda''; Aramaic: ...

Candaules
, 716 BC. They were followed by the Mermnades, which began with Gyges, 716 BC, and ended with
Croesus Croesus ( ; Lydian Lydian may refer to: * Lydians, an ancient people of Anatolia * Lydian language, an ancient Anatolian language * Lydian alphabet ** Lydian (Unicode block) * Lydian (typeface), a decorative typeface * Lydian dominant scale or aco ...

Croesus
, 546 BC. The earliest reference to Sardis is in ''
The Persians ''The Persians'' ( grc, Πέρσαι, ''Persai'', Latinised as ''Persae'') is an ancient Greek tragedy written during the Classical periodClassical period may refer to: *Classical Greece, specifically of the 5th and 4th centuries BC *Classical a ...
'' of
Aeschylus Aeschylus (, ; grc-gre, Αἰσχύλος ''Aiskhylos'', ; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kin ...
(472 BC); in the ''
Iliad The ''Iliad'' (; grc, Ἰλιάς, Iliás, ; sometimes referred to as the ''Song of Ilion'' or ''Song of Ilium'') is an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Moder ...

Iliad
'', the name “Hyde” seems to be given to the city of the Maeonian (i.e.
Lydian Lydian may refer to: * Lydians, an ancient people of Anatolia * Lydian language, an ancient Anatolian language * Lydian alphabet ** Lydian (Unicode block) * Lydian (typeface), a decorative typeface * Lydian dominant scale or acoustic scale, a musica ...
) chiefs and in later times Hyde was said to be the older name of Sardis, or the name of its
citadel A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brooke ...

citadel
. It is, however, more probable that Sardis was not the original capital of the Maeonians, but that it became so amid the changes which produced the powerful
Lydian empire Lydian may refer to: * Lydians The Lydians (known as ''Sparda'' to the Achaemenids The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian Iran ...
of the 8th century BC.


Target of conquest

The city was captured by the
Cimmerians The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
in the 7th century BC, by the
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestr ...

Persians
in the 6th, by the
Athenians , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens The Acropo ...

Athenians
in the 5th, and by
Antiochus III the Great Antiochus III the Great ( Greek: ; c. 2413 July 187 BC, ruled April/June 222 – 3 July 187 BC) was a Greek Hellenistic king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire. He ruled over the Syria (region), region of Syria and large parts of the rest o ...
at the end of the 3rd century BC. In the Persian era, Sardis was conquered by
Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia (; peo, wikt:𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, translit=Kūruš), commonly known as Cyrus the Great and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Ancient Greece, Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the Histo ...

Cyrus the Great
and formed the end station for the Persian
Royal Road The Royal Road was an ancient highway A highway is any public or private road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been Pavement (material), paved or otherwise improved to a ...
which began in
Persepolis Persepolis (; peo, 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ; ) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, , translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient based in foun ...

Persepolis
, capital of
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
. Sardis was the site of the most important Persian satrapy. During the
Ionian Revolt The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris (Asia Minor), Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Achaemenid Empire, Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC. At the heart ...
, the
Athenians , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens The Acropo ...
burnt down the city. Sardis remained under Persian domination until it surrendered to
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
in 334 BC.


Reliable gold coins

The early Lydian kingdom was very advanced in the industrial arts and Sardis was the chief seat of its manufactures. The most important of these trades was the manufacture and dyeing of delicate woolen stuffs and carpets. The stream
Pactolus Pactolus ( el, Πακτωλός), now named Sart Çayı, is a river near the Aegean coast of Turkey. The river rises from Mount Tmolus, flows through the ruins of the ancient city of Sardis, and empties into the Gediz River, the ancient Hermus. ...
which flowed through the market-place "carried golden sands" in early antiquity, which was in reality
gold dust
gold dust
out of
Mount Tmolus Mount Tmolus (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), re ...
. It was during the reign of King
Croesus Croesus ( ; Lydian Lydian may refer to: * Lydians, an ancient people of Anatolia * Lydian language, an ancient Anatolian language * Lydian alphabet ** Lydian (Unicode block) * Lydian (typeface), a decorative typeface * Lydian dominant scale or aco ...

Croesus
that the
metallurgist Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering ''Materials Science and Engineering'' may refer to several journals in the field of materials science and engineering: * '' Materials Science and Engineering A'' * '' Materials Science ...

metallurgist
s of Sardis discovered the secret of separating
gold Gold is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elemen ...

gold
from
silver Silver is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical ele ...

silver
, thereby producing both metals of a purity never known before. This was an economic revolution, for while gold nuggets panned or mined were used as currency, their purity was always suspect and a hindrance to trade. Such nuggets or coinage were naturally occurring alloys of gold and silver known as
electrum Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), official ...

electrum
and one could never know how much of it was gold and how much was silver. Sardis now could mint nearly pure silver and gold coins, the value of which could be – and was – trusted throughout the known world. This revolution made Sardis rich and
Croesus Croesus ( ; Lydian Lydian may refer to: * Lydians, an ancient people of Anatolia * Lydian language, an ancient Anatolian language * Lydian alphabet ** Lydian (Unicode block) * Lydian (typeface), a decorative typeface * Lydian dominant scale or aco ...

Croesus
' name synonymous with wealth itself. For this reason, Sardis is famed in history as the place where modern
currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services ...

currency
was invented.


Desolation in 17 AD earthquake

Disaster came to the great city under the reign of the emperor
Tiberius Tiberius Caesar Augustus (; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March AD 37) was the second Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors use ...

Tiberius
, when in 17 AD, Sardis was destroyed by an earthquake, but it was rebuilt with the help of ten million
sesterces The sestertius (plural sestertii), or sesterce (plural sesterces), was an ancient Roman In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collaps ...
from the Emperor and exempted from paying taxes for five years. It was one of the great cities of western
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
until the later
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...
period. Later, trade and the organization of commerce continued to be sources of great wealth. After
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
became the capital of the East, a new road system grew up connecting the provinces with the capital. Sardis then lay rather apart from the great lines of communication and lost some of its importance. During the cataclysmic 7th Century Byzantine–Sasanian War, Sardis was in 615 one of the cities sacked in the invasion of Asia Minor by the Persian Shahin. Though the Byzantines eventually won the war, the damage to Sardis was never fully repaired. Still, Sardis retained its titular supremacy and continued to be the seat of the
metropolitan bishop In Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' deriv ...
of the province of Lydia, formed in 295 AD. It was enumerated as third, after
Ephesus Ephesus (; gr, Ἔφεσος, Éphesos; tr, Efes; may ultimately derive from hit, 𒀀𒉺𒊭, Apaša) was a city in ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Gree ...

Ephesus
and
Smyrna Smyrna ( ; grc, Σμύρνη, Smýrnē, or grc, Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is ...
, in the list of cities of the Thracesion thema given by
Constantine Porphyrogenitus Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus Traditionally, born in the purple (sometimes "born to the purple") was a category of members of royal family, royal families born during the reign of their parent. This notion was later loosely expanded to include ...
in the 10th century. However, over the next four centuries it was in the shadow of the provinces of Magnesia-upon-Sipylum and Philadelphia, which retained their importance in the region.


Decline and fall in the second millennium, AD

After 1071, the Hermus valley began to suffer from the inroads of the
Seljuk Turks The Seljuk dynasty, or Seljuks ( ; fa, آل سلجوق ''Al-e Saljuq'', alternatively spelled as Seljuqs or Saljuqs), also known as Seljuk Turks, Seljuk Turkomans "The defeat in August 1071 of the Byzantine emperor Romanos Diogenes by the Turko ...
but the Byzantine general John Doukas reconquered the city in 1097. The successes of the general Philokales in 1118 relieved the district from later Turkish pressure and the ability of the
Comneni Komnenos ( gr, Κομνηνός; Latinized Comnenus; plural Komnenoi or Comneni (Κομνηνοί, )) is a Byzantine Greek Medieval Greek (also known as Middle Greek or Byzantine Greek) is the stage of the Greek language Greek (modern , r ...
dynasty together with the gradual decay of the
Seljuk Sultanate of Rum The Sultanate of Rum) or Seljuks of Turkey ( tr, Türkiye Selçukluları) or Rum Seljuk Sultanate ( fa, سلجوقیان روم, Saljuqiyān-e Rum, lit=Seljuks of Rome) was a Turko-Persian The composite Turco-Persian traditionConstantinople was taken by the
Venetians Venetian often means from or related to: * Venice, a city in Italy * Veneto, a region of Italy * Republic of Venice (697–1797), a historical nation in that area Venetian and the like may also refer to: * Venetian language, a Romance language sp ...
and
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the and the , on the edge of the . Later the term was associated with Germanic dynasties within the ...

Franks
in 1204 Sardis came under the rule of the Byzantine
Empire of Nicea The Empire of Nicaea or the Nicene Empire is the conventional historiographic Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historia ...
. However once the Byzantines retook Constantinople in 1261, Sardis with the entire
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
was neglected and the region eventually fell under the control of Ghazi (
Ghazw A ''ghazi'' ( ar, غازي, , plural ''ġuzāt'') was an individual who participated in ''ghazw'' (, '' ''), meaning military expeditions or raiding. The latter term was applied in early Islamic literature to expeditions led by the Islamic proph ...
) emirs. The Cayster valleys and a fort on the citadel of Sardis was handed over to them by treaty in 1306. The city continued its decline until its capture (and probable destruction) by the
Turco-Mongol The Turko-Mongol tradition was an ethnocultural An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that di ...
warlord
Timur Timur ; chg, ''Aqsaq Temür'', 'Timur the Lame') or as ''Sahib-i-Qiran'' ( 'Lord of the Auspicious Conjunction'), his epithet. ( chg, ''Temür'', 'Iron'; 9 April 133617–19 February 1405), later Timūr Gurkānī ( chg, ''Temür Kür ...

Timur
in 1402.


Archaeological expeditions

Some of the important finds from the site of Sardis are housed in the Archaeological Museum of Manisa, including Late Roman mosaics and sculpture, a helmet from the mid-6th century BC, and pottery from various periods.


Roman antiquities

By the 19th century, Sardis was in ruins, showing construction chiefly of the Roman period. Early excavators included the British explorer George Dennis, who uncovered an enormous marble head of
Faustina the Elder Annia Galeria Faustina the Elder, sometimes referred to as Faustina I (born on February 16 around 100; died in October or November of 140), was a Roman empress and wife of the Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empir ...
, wife of the Roman Emperor
Antoninus Pius Antoninus Pius (; la, Antōnīnus Pius ; 19 September 86 – 7 March 161) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emper ...

Antoninus Pius
. Found in the precinct of the Temple of
Artemis Artemis (; grc-gre, Ἄρτεμις Artemis, ) is the Greek goddess Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or ori ...

Artemis
, it probably formed part of a pair of colossal statues devoted to the Imperial couple. The 1.76 metre high head is now kept at the
British Museum The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of Lond ...

British Museum
. The first large-scale archaeological expedition in Sardis was directed by a
Princeton University Princeton University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Princeton University
team led by
Howard Crosby Butler Howard Crosby Butler (March 7, 1872 Croton Falls, New York North Salem is a Administrative divisions of New York#Town, town in the northeast part of Westchester County, New York, Westchester County, New York (state), New York. It is a suburb of Ne ...
between years 1910–1914, unearthing a temple to
Artemis Artemis (; grc-gre, Ἄρτεμις Artemis, ) is the Greek goddess Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or ori ...

Artemis
, and more than a thousand Lydian tombs. The excavation campaign was halted by
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, followed by the
Turkish War of Independence The Turkish War of Independence "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as ''İstiklâl Harbi'' "Independence War" or ''Millî Mücadele'' "National Struggle" (19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was a series of military campaigns waged by t ...
, though it briefly resumed in 1922. Some surviving artifacts from the Butler excavation were added to the collection of the
Metropolitan Museum of Art The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the Western Hemisphere. Its permanent collection contains over two million works, divided among 17 curatorial departments. The main building ...

Metropolitan Museum of Art
in
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...

New York
.


Sardis synagogue

The Hebrew place-name ''
Sepharad Sepharad ( or ; ''Sp̄āraḏ''; also ''Sefarad'', ''Sephared'', ''Sfard'') is the Hebrew name for Spain. A place called Sepharad, probably referring to Sardis Sardis () or Sardes (; Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 ''Sfard''; grc, Σάρδει ...
'' may have meant Sardis. A new expedition known as the Archaeological Exploration of Sardis was founded in 1958 by G.M.A. Hanfmann, professor in the Department of Fine Arts at
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
, and by Henry Detweiler, dean of the Architecture School at Cornell University. Hanfmann excavated widely in the city and the region, excavating and restoring the major Roman bath-gymnasium complex, the synagogue, late Roman houses and shops, a Lydian industrial area for processing
electrum Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), official ...

electrum
into pure gold and silver, Lydian occupation areas, and tumulus tombs at Bin Tepe. From 1976 until 2007, the excavation was directed by Crawford H. Greenewalt, Jr., professor in the Department of Classics at the
University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...

University of California, Berkeley
. Since 2008, the excavation has been under the directorship of Nicholas Cahill, professor at the
University of Wisconsin–Madison The University of Wisconsin–Madison (University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of i ...
. Since 1958, both
Harvard Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard
and Cornell Universities have sponsored annual archeological expeditions to Sardis. These excavations unearthed perhaps the most impressive synagogue in the western diaspora yet discovered from antiquity, yielding over eighty Greek and seven Hebrew inscriptions as well as numerous mosaic floors. (For evidence in the east, see
Dura Europos Dura-Europos ( el, Δοῦρα Εὐρωπός) was a Hellenistic The Hellenistic period spans the period of History of the Mediterranean region, Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergenc ...
in
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
.) The discovery of the Sardis synagogue has reversed previous assumptions about Judaism in the later Roman empire. Along with the discovery of the
godfearers God-fearers ( grc-x-koine, φοβούμενοι τὸν Θεόν, ''phoboumenoi ton Theon'') or God-worshippers ( grc-x-koine, θεοσεβεῖς, ''Theosebeis'') were a numerous class of Gentile Gentile (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a ...
/ theosebeis inscription from
Aphrodisias Aphrodisias (; grc, Ἀφροδισιάς, Aphrodisiás) was a small ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), g ...

Aphrodisias
, it provides indisputable evidence for the continued presence of Jewish communities in Asia Minor and their integration into general Roman life at a time when many scholars previously assumed that Christianity had eclipsed Judaism. The synagogue was a section of a large bath-gymnasium complex, that was in use for about 450–500 years. In the late 4th or 5th century, part of the bath-gymnasium complex was changed into a synagogue.


See also

*
Cities of the ancient Near East The earliest cities in history were in the ancient Near East, an area covering roughly that of the modern Middle East: its history began in the 4th millennium BC and ended, depending on the interpretation of the term, either with the conquest by ...
*
List of synagogues in Turkey This is a list of notable synagogues in Turkey. Istanbul {, class="wikitable sortable" style="border-collapse: collapse;" , - !Name !Founded !class="unsortable", Image 1 !class="unsortable", Image 2 !class="unsortable", Image 3 , - , Ahrida Synag ...


References


Sources

*


Further reading

*Elderkin, G. W. "The Name of Sardis." Classical Philology 35, no. 1 (1940): 54-56. Accessed July 11, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/264594. *Hanfmann, George M. A. "EXCAVATIONS AT SARDIS." Scientific American 204, no. 6 (1961): 124-38. Accessed July 11, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/24937494. * *HANFMANN, GEORGE M. A., and A. H. DETWEILER. "Sardis Through the Ages." Archaeology 19, no. 2 (1966): 90-97. Accessed July 11, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/41670460. *George M. A. Hanfmann. "Archeological Explorations of Sardis." Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 27, no. 2 (1973): 13-26. Accessed July 11, 2020. doi:10.2307/3823622. *Hanfmann, George M.A., Et al. 1983. ''Sardis from Prehistoric to Roman Times: Results of the Archaeological Exploration of Sardis 1958–1975'', Harvard University Press. *HANFMANN, G. M. A. "The Sacrilege Inscription: The Ethnic, Linguistic, Social and Religious Situation at Sardis at the End of the Persian Era." Bulletin of the Asia Institute, New Series, 1 (1987): 1-8. Accessed July 11, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/24048256. *Greenewalt, Crawford H., Marcus L. Rautman, and Nicholas D. Cahill. "The Sardis Campaign of 1985." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. Supplementary Studies, no. 25 (1988): 55-92. Accessed July 11, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/20066668. *Ramage, Andrew. "EARLY IRON AGE SARDIS AND ITS NEIGHBOURS." In Anatolian Iron Ages 3: The Proceedings of the Third Anatolian Iron Ages Colloquium Held at Van, 6-12 August 1990, edited by Çilingiroğlu A. and French D.H., 163-72. London: British Institute at Ankara, 1994. Accessed July 11, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/10.18866/j.ctt1pc5gxc.26. *Ramage, Nancy H. "PACTOLUS CLIFF: AN IRON AGE SITE AT SARDIS AND ITS POTTERY." In Anatolian Iron Ages 3: The Proceedings of the Third Anatolian Iron Ages Colloquium Held at Van, 6-12 August 1990, edited by Çilingiroğlu A. and French D.H., 173-84. London: British Institute at Ankara, 1994. Accessed July 11, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/10.18866/j.ctt1pc5gxc.27. *Greenwalt, Crawford H. "Sardis in the Age of Xenophon". In: ''Pallas'', 43/1995. Dans les pas des dix-mille, sous la direction de Pierre Briant. pp. 125-145. OI: https://doi.org/10.3406/palla.1995.1367 www.persee.fr/doc/palla_0031-0387_1995_num_43_1_1367 *Gadbery, Laura M. "Archaeological Exploration of Sardis." Harvard University Art Museums Bulletin 4, no. 3 (1996): 49-53. Accessed July 11, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/4301536. *Mitten, David Gordon. "Lydian Sardis and the Region of Colchis: Three Aspects". In: ''Sur les traces des Argonautes. Actes du 6e symposium de Vani (Colchide)'', 22-29 septembre 1990. Besançon : Université de Franche-Comté, 1996. pp. 129-140. (Annales littéraires de l'Université de Besançon, 613) ww.persee.fr/doc/ista_0000-0000_1996_act_613_1_1486*Cahill, Nicholas D., ed. 2008. "Love for Lydia. A Sardis Anniversary Volume Presented to Crawford H. Greenewalt, jr.", Archaeological Exploration of Sardis. . *Payne, Annick, and Jorit Wintjes. "Sardis and the Archaeology of Lydia." In Lords of Asia Minor: An Introduction to the Lydians, 47-62. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2016. Accessed July 11, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctvc5pfx2.7. *Berlin, Andrea M., and Paul J. Kosmin, eds. Spear-Won Land: Sardis from the King's Peace to the Peace of Apamea. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 2019. Accessed July 11, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctvj7wnr9.


External links


The Archaeological Exploration of Sardis
of the
Harvard University Art Museums The Harvard Art Museums are part of Harvard University and comprise three museums: the Archaeological Exploration of Sardis (founded in 1958), the Fogg Museum (established in 1895), the Busch-Reisinger Museum (established in 1903), and the Arthur ...

The Search for Sardis
history of the archaeological excavations in Sardis, in the Harvard Magazine

at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Sardis Turkey
a comprehensive photographic tour of the site
The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites - SardisLivius.org: Sardes
- pictures {{Authority control