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upright 1.5, Late 15th century German woodcut depicting Saracens Saracens () were primarily
Arab Muslims Arab Muslims ( ar, مسلمون عرب) are adherents of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' ...
, but also Turks,
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestr ...

Persians
or other Muslims as referred to by Christian writers in Europe during the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
. The term's meaning evolved during its history. In the early centuries of the
Christian Era The terms (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII as a ...
, Greek and Latin writings used the term to refer to the people who lived in desert areas in and near the Roman province of
Arabia Petraea Arabia Petraea or Petrea, also known as Rome's Arabian Province ( la, Provincia Arabia; ar, العربية البترائية; grc, ἐπαρχία Πετραίας Αραβίας) or simply Arabia, was a frontier Roman province, province of ...

Arabia Petraea
, and in
Arabia Deserta Arabia Deserta (Latin meaning "Abandoned/Deserted Arabia"), also known as Arabia Magna ("Great Arabia"), signified the desert upright=1.5, alt=see caption, Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali ("Empty quarter") in the United Arab Emirates">Ru ...
. In Europe during the
Early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages ...
, the term came to be associated with
tribes of Arabia The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classif ...
. The oldest known source mentioning ''Saracens'' in relation to Islam dates to the 7th century. It was found in Doctrina Jacobi, a commentary that discussed the
Muslim conquest of the Levant The Muslim conquest of the Levant ( ar, اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْإٍسْـلَامِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, ''Al-Fatḥ ul-Islāmiyyu lish-Shām''), also known as the Arab conquest of the Levant ( ar, اَلْـفَـتْـحُ ...
. By the 12th century, ''Saracen'' had become synonymous with ''Muslim'' in
Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share ...
literature. Such expansion in the meaning of the term had begun centuries earlier among the
Byzantine Greeks The Byzantine Greeks were the Greek-speaking Eastern Romans of Orthodox Christianity Orthodoxy (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially ...
, as evidenced in documents from the 8th century. In the Western languages before the 16th century, ''Saracen'' was commonly used to refer to Muslim Arabs, and the words ''Muslim'' and ''Islam'' were generally not used (with a few isolated exceptions). The term became gradually obsolete following the
Age of Discovery The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (sometimes also, particularly regionally, Age of Contact or Contact Period), is an informal and loosely defined term for the early modern period The early modern period of modern history ...
.


Early usage and origins

The
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...
term ''Saraceni'' is of unknown original meaning. There are claims of it being derived from the Semitic
triliteral root The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental r ...
''šrq'' "east" and ''šrkt'' "tribe, confederation". Another possible Semitic root is ''srq'' "to steal, rob, plunder", more specifically from the noun ''sāriq'' ( ar, سارق), pl. ''sariqīn'' (), which means "thief, marauder, plunderer". In his ''Levantine Diary'', covering the years 1699–1740, the Damascene writer
Hamad bin Kanan al-Salhi Hamad may refer to: People * Hamad (name), an Arabic given name and surname * Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa (1872–1942), Ruler of Bahrain from 1932 until his death in 1942. * Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, King of Bahrain since 2002. Cities and villages ...
( ar, محمد بن كَنّان الصالحي) used the term ''sarkan'' to mean "travel on a military mission" from the
Near East The Near East ( ar, الشرق الأدنى, al-Sharq al-'Adnā, he, המזרח הקרוב, arc, ܕܢܚܐ ܩܪܒ, fa, خاور نزدیک, Xāvar-e nazdik, tr, Yakın Doğu) is a geographical term which roughly encompasses a transcontinental ...
to parts of Southern Europe which were under
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
rule, particularly
Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or poli ...

Cyprus
and
Rhodes Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek#REDIRECT Greek Gre ...

Rhodes
.
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, , ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes ...
's
2nd-century The 2nd century is the period from 101 ( CI) through 200 ( CC) in accordance with the Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in , was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on , by edict. It was designed with ...
work, ''
Geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The first person t ...
'', describes ''Sarakēnḗ'' ( grc, Σαρακηνή) as a region in the northern
Sinai Peninsula The Sinai Peninsula, or simply Sinai (now usually ) (, ), is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other ...

Sinai Peninsula
. Ptolemy also mentions a people called the ''Sarakēnoí'' ( grc, οἱ Σαρακηνοί) living in the northwestern
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...
(near neighbor to the Sinai).
Eusebius Eusebius of Caesarea (; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, ''Eusébios tés Kaisareías''; AD 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου) ...

Eusebius
in his ''
Ecclesiastical history __NOTOC__ Church history or ecclesiastical history as an academic discipline studies the history of Christianity The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christian countries, and the Church with its various denominati ...
'' narrates an account wherein
Pope Dionysius of Alexandria Dionysius the Great was the 14th Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria from 28 December 248 until his death on 22 March 264. Most information known about him comes from his large surviving correspondence. Only one original letter survives to this day; ...
mentions Saracens in a letter while describing the persecution of Christians by the Roman emperor
Decius Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius (c. 201 ADJune 251 AD), sometimes translated as Trajan Decius or Decius, was the emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler ...

Decius
: "Many were, in the Arabian mountain, enslaved by the barbarous 'sarkenoi'." The ''
Augustan History The ''Historia Augusta'' (English: ''Augustan History'') is a late Roman collection of biographies A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person's life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, r ...
'' also refers to an attack by ''Saraceni'' on
Pescennius Niger Gaius Pescennius Niger (c. 135 – 194) was Roman Emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throu ...
's army in
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
in 193, but provides little information as to identifying them. Both
Hippolytus of Rome Hippolytus of Rome (c. 170 – c. 235 AD) was one of the most important second-third century Christian theologians, whose provenance, identity and corpus remain elusive to scholars and historians. Suggested communities include Palestine, Egypt, A ...
and Uranius mention three distinct peoples in Arabia during the first half of the third century: the ''Taeni'', the ''Saraceni'', and the ''Arabes''. The ''Taeni'', later identified with the
Arab people The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world. In modern usage the term refers to ...

Arab people
called ''
Tayy , location = 2nd century CE–10th century: Jabal Tayy and Syrian Desert The Syrian Desert ( ar, بادية الشام, ''Bādiyah Ash-Shām''), also known as the Syrian steppe, the Jordanian steppe, or the Badia, is a region of desert ...
'', were located around
Khaybar KhaybarOther standardized Arabic transliterations: / . Anglicized pronunciation: , . ( ar, خَيْبَر, ) is an oasis In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science ...
(an oasis north of Medina) and also in an area stretching up to the
Euphrates The Euphrates () is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Tigris–Euphrates river system, Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia (the "Land Between the Rivers"). O ...
. The ''Saraceni'' were placed north of them. These Saracens, located in the northern
Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia. It includes the cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, Tabuk, Yanbu and Taif. It is also known as the "Western P ...

Hejaz
, were described as people with a certain military ability who were opponents of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
and who were classified by the Romans as
barbarian A barbarian is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Bioc ...

barbarian
s. The Saracens are described as forming the ''
equites The ''equites'' (; la, eques nom. singular; literally "horse-" or "cavalrymen", though sometimes referred to as "knight A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a head of state (including the pope) or representati ...
'' (heavy cavalry) from
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3 ...
and
Thamud The Thamūd ( ar, ثَمُوْد) were an ancient Arabian tribe or tribal confederation that occupied the northwestern Arabian peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , ...
. In one document, the defeated enemies of
Diocletian Diocletian (; la, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus; born Diocles; 22 December c. 244 – 3 December 311) was from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in , Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become a commander of ...
's campaign in the
Syrian Desert The Syrian Desert ( ar, بادية الشام, ''Bādiyat Ash-Shām''), also known as the Syrian steppe, the Jordanian steppe, or the Badia, is a region of desert, Semi-arid climate, semi-desert and steppe covering of the Middle East, including p ...

Syrian Desert
are described as Saracens. Other 4th-century military reports make no mention of Arabs, but refer to ''Saracen'' groups ranging as far east as
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in th ...

Mesopotamia
who were involved in battles on both the
Sasanian The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (, ''Ērānshahr The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (Middle Persian Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its ...

Sasanian
and Roman sides. The Saracens were named in the Roman administrative document ''
Notitia Dignitatum Palestine and the River Jordan, from the ''Notitia Dignitatum'' illuminated by Peronet Lamy.">Peronet_Lamy.html" ;"title="River Jordan, from the ''Notitia Dignitatum'' illuminated by Peronet Lamy">River Jordan, from the ''Notitia Dignitatum'' ...
,'' dating from the time of
Theodosius I Theodosius I ( grc-gre, Θεοδόσιος ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also called Theodosius the Great, was Roman emperor from 379 to 395. During his reign, he faced and overcame a war against the Goths and two civil wars, and ...

Theodosius I
in the
4th century The 4th century (per the Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in Crisis of the ...
, as comprising distinctive units in the
Roman army The Roman army (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in ...

Roman army
. They were distinguished in the document from Arabs.


Medieval usage

No later than the early fifth century, Christian writers began to equate Saracens with Arabs. Saracens were associated with
Ishmaelites In the Abrahamic religions The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic Semitic most commonly refers to the Semitic languages, a name used since the 1770s to re ...
(descendants of
Abraham Abraham, ''Ibrāhīm''; el, Ἀβραάμ, translit=Abraám, name=, group= (originally Abram) is the common patriarch of the Abrahamic religions, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In Judaism, he is the founding father of the covenan ...

Abraham
's older son
Ishmael Ishmael ''Ismaḗl''; Classical/Qur'anic Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of ...
) in some strands of Jewish, Christian, and Islamic genealogical thinking. The writings of
Jerome Jerome (; la, Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; – 30 September 420), also known as Jerome of Stridon, was a Christian priest A priest is a religious leader authoriz ...

Jerome
(d. 420) are the earliest known version of the claim that Ishmaelites chose to be called Saracens in order to identify with Abraham's "free" wife
Sarah Sarah (; ar, سَارَة ) born Sarai ( ''Sāray'') is a biblical matriarch and prophetess In religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, ...

Sarah
, rather than as Hagarenes, which would have highlighted their association with Abraham's "slave woman"
Hagar Hagar ( he, הָגָר, ''Hāgār'', of uncertain origin; ar, هَاجَر ''Hājar''; gr, Ἁγάρ, ''Hagár''; la, Agar) is a biblical figure. According to the Book of Genesis The Book of Genesis,, "''Bərēšīṯ''", "In hebeginn ...

Hagar
. This claim was popular during the Middle Ages, but derives more from Paul's allegory in the New Testament letter to the Galatians than from historical data. The name ''Saracen'' was not indigenous among the populations so described but was applied to them by Greco-Roman historians based on Greek place names. As the Middle Ages progressed, usage of the term in the Latin West changed, but its connotation remained negative, associated with opponents of Christianity, and its exact definition is unclear. In an 8th-century polemical work,
John of Damascus John of Damascus (or John Damascene, gr, Ἰωάννης ὁ Δαμασκηνός, Ioánnēs ho Damaskēnós, ; la, Ioannes Damascenus) was a Christian monk, priest A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the Sacred rite, ...

John of Damascus
criticized the Saracens as followers of a false prophet and "forerunner to the Antichrist." By the 12th century, Medieval Europeans used the term ''Saracen'' as both an ethnic and religious marker. In some Medieval literature, Saracens were equated with Muslims in general and described as dark-skinned, while Christians lighter-skinned. An example is in '' The King of Tars'', a medieval romance. ''
The Song of Roland ''The Song of Roland'' (french: La Chanson de Roland) is an 11th-century epic poem (chanson de geste) based on Roland and the Battle of Roncevaux Pass in 778, during the reign of Charlemagne. It is the oldest surviving major work of French lite ...
'', an
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular o ...
11th-century heroic poem, refers to the black skin of Saracens as their only exotic feature. The term ''Saracen'' remained in widespread use in the West as a synonym for "Muslim" until the 18th century. When the
Age of Discovery The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (sometimes also, particularly regionally, Age of Contact or Contact Period), is an informal and loosely defined term for the early modern period The early modern period of modern history ...
led to it becoming gradually obsolete and referred to Muslims as "
Mohammedan ''Mohammedan'' (also spelled ''Muhammadan'', ''Mahommedan'', ''Mahomedan'' or ''Mahometan'') is a term for a follower of Muhammad, the Prophets of Islam, Islamic prophet. It is used as both a noun and an adjective, meaning belonging or relatin ...
" which came into usage from the 1600 onwards. However "Saracen" continued to be used until the 19th century. The Victorian era phrase "
Indo-Saracenic Architecture Indo-Saracenic architecture (also known as Indo-Gothic, Mughal-Gothic, Neo-Mughal, Hindoo style) was a revivalist architectural style mostly used by British architects in India in the later 19th century, especially in public and government buildi ...
" is an example of this. In the Wiltshire dialect, the meaning of "Sarsen" (Saracen) was eventually extended to refer to anything regarded as non-Christian, whether Muslim or pagan. From that derived the still current term "
Sarsen Sarsen stones are sandstone Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock of a clast (sand grain), derived from a basalt Basalt (, ) is a fine-grained extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of low-viscosity lava rich in ...
" (a shortening of "Saracen stone"), denoting the kind of stone used by the builders of
Stonehenge Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England, west of Amesbury. It consists of an outer ring of vertical sarsen standing stones, each around high, wide, and weighing around 25 tons, topped by connecting ho ...

Stonehenge
- long predating Islam.


Crusade Cycle

The rhyming stories of the
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular o ...
''
Crusade cycle The Crusade cycle is an Old French Old French (, , ; French language, Modern French: ) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century. Rather than a unified Dialect#Dialect or language, language, Old French w ...
'' were popular with medieval audiences in Northern France, Occitania and Iberia. Beginning in the late 12th century, stories about the sieges of
Antioch Antioch on the Orontes (; grc, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου, ''Antiókheia hē epì Oróntou''; also Syrian Antioch) grc-koi, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ ...

Antioch
and
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...
gave accounts of battle scenes and suffering, and of Saracen wealth, their silks and gold, and masterfully
embroidered Embroidery is the craft of decorating fabric or other materials using a needle to apply thread or yarn. Embroidery may also incorporate other materials such as pearl A pearl is a hard, glistening object produced within the soft tissue ...

embroidered
and
woven Woven fabric is any textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knit ...

woven
tents. From the story of the Frankish knights at the tent of Saracen leader Corbaran:
The tent was very rich, draped with brilliant silk, and patterned green silk was thrown over the grass, with lengths of cut fabric worked with birds and beasts. The cords with which it was tied are of silk, and the quilt was sewn with a shining, delicate ''samit''.


See also

*
Arab–Byzantine wars The Arab–Byzantine wars were a series of wars between the mostly Arab Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an A ...
*
Early Muslim conquests The early Muslim conquests ( ar, الفتوحات الإسلامية, ''al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya''), also referred to as the Arab conquests and the early Islamic conquests began with the Prophets of Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7 ...
*
Queen Mavia Mavia, ( ar, ماوية, ''Māwiyya''; also transliterated Mawia, Mawai, or Mawaiy, and sometimes referred to as Mania) was an Arab warrior-queen regnant, queen, who ruled over the Tanukhids, a confederation of semi-nomadic Arabs, in southern Syr ...
*
Serkland srklant on the Tillinge Runestone raised in memory of a Varangians, Varangian who did not return from Serkland, at the church of Tillinge in Uppland, Sweden. In Old Norse sources, such as sagas and runestones, Serkland (also ''Særkland'', ''Srklan ...

Serkland
* Böszörmény


Notes


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * Timani, Hussam, ''Saracens,'' in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol. II, pp. 538–542. * Tolan, John; Veinstein, Gilles and Henry Laurens. 2013. ''Europe and the Islamic World: A History. ''
Princeton University Press Princeton University Press is an independent publisher Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creatio ...

Princeton University Press
. . *Tolan, John Victor. 2002. ''Saracens: Islam in the Medieval European Imagination''.
Columbia University Press Columbia University Press is a university press A university press is an academic publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Tradit ...
. {{Authority control
Ancient peoples Peoples of the ancient world (i.e. prior to AD 476). ''For individuals, see :Ancient people.'' {{CatAutoTOC + Historical ethnic groups ...
Arabs Christianity and Islam Ethnonyms Exonyms Ethno-cultural designations