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is a city in
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
. It is the largest city north of
Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the capital and most populous Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan ...

Tokyo
, and the largest city on
Hokkaido , officially Hokkaidō Circuit Prefecture, is the second largest island of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in t ...

Hokkaido
, the northernmost main island of the country. It is the capital city of
Hokkaido Prefecture is the second largest island of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coa ...

Hokkaido Prefecture
and
Ishikari Subprefecture 250px, Ishikari Subprefecture is a Subprefectures of Hokkaido, subprefecture of Hokkaido, Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan, located in the western part of the island. The subprefecture covers and in 2011 had a population of 2,334,241. The subprefectur ...

Ishikari Subprefecture
. Sapporo lies in the southwest of Hokkaido, within the
alluvial fan An alluvial fan is an accumulation of sediments shaped like a section of a shallow cone, with its apex at a point source of sediments, such as a narrow canyon emerging from an escarpment. They are characteristic of mountainous terrain in arid to ...

alluvial fan
of the
Toyohira River The is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching an ...
, which is a tributary stream of the
Ishikari is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be de ...
. It is considered the cultural, economic, and political center of Hokkaido. As with most of Hokkaido, the Sapporo area was settled by the indigenous
Ainu Ainu or Aynu may refer to: *Ainu people, an East Asian ethnic group of Japan and Russian Far East *Ainu languages, a family of languages **Ainu language of Hokkaido **Kuril Ainu language, extinct language of the Kuril Islands **Sakhalin Ainu languag ...
people, beginning over 15,000 years ago. Starting in the late 19th century, Sapporo saw increasing settlement by
Yamato was originally the area around today's Sakurai City in Nara Prefecture of Japan, which became Yamato Province and by extension a name for the whole of Japan. Yamato is also the dynastic name of the ruling Imperial House of Japan. Japanese hist ...
migrants. Sapporo hosted the
1972 Winter Olympics The 1972 Winter Olympics, officially known as the (French: Les ''XIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver''), was a winter multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, recreational games and play *Sporting ...
, the first Winter Olympics ever held in Asia, and the second Olympic games held in Japan after the
1964 Summer Olympics The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the , were an international multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, recreational games and play *Sporting (neighborhood), in Alexandria, Egypt ...
. Sapporo is currently
bidding Bidding is an offer (often competitive Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is the "against each other" spirit between two competing sides. The re ...
for the 2030 Winter Olympics. The
Sapporo Dome is a stadium A stadium (plural stadiums or stadia) is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a tiered structure designed to allow sp ...

Sapporo Dome
hosted three games during the
2002 FIFA World Cup The 2002 FIFA World Cup was the 17th FIFA World Cup The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a ...
and two games during the
2019 Rugby World Cup The 2019 Rugby World Cup was the ninth edition of the Rugby World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's rugby union teams. It was hosted in Japan from 20 September to 2 November in 12 venues all across the country. The opening match wa ...
. Additionally, Sapporo has hosted the Asian Winter Games three times, in 1986,
1990 Important events of 1990 include the Reunification of Germany German reunification (german: link=no, Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of ...
, and
2017 2017 was designated as International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development2017 was declared as the International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development by the United Nations General Assembly on 4 December 2015 relating to sustainab ...
. The annual
Sapporo Snow Festival The is a festival held annually in Sapporo is the largest Cities of Japan, Japanese city north of Tokyo and the largest city on Hokkaido, which is Japan's northernmost main island. It is the capital city of Hokkaido, Hokkaido Prefecture a ...
draws more than 2 million tourists from abroad. Other notable sites include the Sapporo Beer Museum, which is the only beer museum in Japan, and the
Sapporo TV Tower The , built in 1957, is a TV tower with an observation deck at a height of 90.38 metres. Located on the ground of Odori Park is a park located in the heart of Sapporo is the largest Cities of Japan, Japanese city north of Tokyo and the larges ...

Sapporo TV Tower
located in
Odori Park is a park located in the heart of Sapporo is a city in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal ...
. It is home to
Hokkaido University , or , is a Japanese national university A national university is mainly a university created or managed by a government, but which may also at the same time operate autonomously without direct control by the state. Some national univer ...

Hokkaido University
, just north of
Sapporo Station is a railway station in Chūō-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. It is served by Hakodate Main Line and other lines of Hokkaido Railway Company (JR Hokkaido), and is also connected to the Sapporo Municipal Subway, Subway Sapporo Station (Sapporo M ...
. The city is served by
Okadama Airport is an airport located in Okadama-chō, Higashi-ku, Sapporo, Higashi-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, north of the city center of Sapporo. Its scheduled airline service is limited to turboprop flights to other cities in Hokkaidō; larger aircraft use New C ...
and
New Chitose Airport is an international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to park and maintain aircraft, and a contro ...

New Chitose Airport
in nearby Chitose.


Etymology

Sapporo's name was taken from Ainuic ''sat poro pet'' (), which can be translated as the "dry, great river", a reference to the Toyohira River.


History


Early history

Before its establishment, the area occupied by Sapporo (known as the Ishikari Plain) was home to a number of indigenous
Ainu Ainu or Aynu may refer to: *Ainu people, an East Asian ethnic group of Japan and Russian Far East *Ainu languages, a family of languages **Ainu language of Hokkaido **Kuril Ainu language, extinct language of the Kuril Islands **Sakhalin Ainu languag ...
settlements. In 1866, at the end of the
Edo period The or is the period between 1603 and 1867 in the history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...
, construction began on a canal through the area, encouraging a number of early settlers to establish Sapporo village. In 1868, the officially recognized year celebrated as the "birth" of Sapporo, the new
MeijiMeiji, the Romanization of Japanese, romanization of the Japanese language, Japanese Japanese writing system, characters wiktionary:明, 明 wiktionary:治, 治 , may refer to: Japanese emperor and era * Emperor Meiji, the Emperor of Japan between ...
government concluded that the existing administrative center of Hokkaido, which at the time was the port of
Hakodate is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be ...
, was in an unsuitable location for defense and further development of the island. As a result, it was determined that a new capital on the Ishikari Plain should be established. The plain itself provided an unusually large expanse of flat, well drained land which is relatively uncommon in the otherwise mountainous geography of Hokkaido. During 1870–1871,
Kuroda Kiyotaka Count Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. ...

Kuroda Kiyotaka
, vice-chairman of the Hokkaido Development Commission (Kaitaku-shi), approached the American government for assistance in developing the land. As a result,
Horace Capron Horace Capron (August 31, 1804 – February 22, 1885) was an American businessman and agriculturalist, a founder of Laurel, Maryland, a Union officer in the American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by Names of the Ame ...

Horace Capron
,
Secretary of Agriculture A secretary, administrative professional, or personal assistant A personal assistant, also referred to as personal aide (PA) or personal secretary (PS), is a job title describing a person who assists a specific person with their daily busin ...
under President
Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; ; April 27, 1822July 23, 1885) was an American military leader who served as the 18th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and he ...

Ulysses S. Grant
, became an ''
oyatoi gaikokujinThe foreign employees in Meiji Japan, known in Japanese language, Japanese as ''O-yatoi Gaikokujin'' (Kyūjitai: , Shinjitai: , "hired foreigners"), were hired by the government of Japan, Japanese government and municipalities for their specialized ...
'' and was appointed as a special advisor to the commission. Construction began around
Odori Park is a park located in the heart of Sapporo is a city in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal ...
, which still remains as a green ribbon of recreational land bisecting the central area of the city. The city closely followed a
grid plan In urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification f ...
with streets at right-angles to form city blocks. The continuing expansion of the Japanese into Hokkaido continued, mainly due to migration from the main island of
Honshu , historically called , is the largest and most populous main island of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the n ...
immediately to the south, and the prosperity of Hokkaido and particularly its capital grew to the point that the Development Commission was deemed unnecessary and was abolished in 1882.
Edwin Dun Edwin Dun (June 19, 1848 – May 15, 1931) was a rancher from Ohio Ohio is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. Of the List of states and territories of the United States, fifty st ...
came to Sapporo to establish sheep and cattle ranches in 1876. He also demonstrated pig raising and the making of butter, cheese, ham and sausage. He was married twice, to Japanese women. He once went back to the US in 1883 but returned to Japan as a secretary of government.
William S. Clark
William S. Clark
, who was the president of the Massachusetts Agricultural College (now the
University of Massachusetts Amherst The University of Massachusetts Amherst (UMass Amherst, UMass) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organizat ...
), came to be the founding vice-president of the
Sapporo Agricultural College was a school in Sapporo is the largest Cities of Japan, Japanese city north of Tokyo and the largest city on Hokkaido, which is Japan's northernmost main island. It is the capital city of Hokkaido, Hokkaido Prefecture and Ishikari Subprefectur ...

Sapporo Agricultural College
(now
Hokkaido University , or , is a Japanese national university A national university is mainly a university created or managed by a government, but which may also at the same time operate autonomously without direct control by the state. Some national univer ...

Hokkaido University
) for only eight months from 1876 to 1877. He taught academic subjects in science and lectured on the Bible as an "ethics" course, introducing Christian principles to the first entering class of the College. In 1880, the entire area of Sapporo was renamed as "Sapporo-ku" (Sapporo Ward), and a railroad between Sapporo and Temiya,
Otaru is a Cities of Japan, city and Seaports of Japan, port in Shiribeshi Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan, northwest of Sapporo. The city faces Ishikari Bay and the Sea of Japan, and has long served as the main port of the bay. With its many historica ...

Otaru
was laid. That year the
Hōheikan The is a historical building and a wedding venue, located in Nakajima Park, Chūō-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaidō prefecture, Hokkaidō, Japan. The building has previously been a hotel, guest house, event venue, and military camp. Currently, the Hōheikan ...
, a hotel and reception facility for visiting officials and dignitaries, was erected adjacent to the Odori Park. It was later moved to
Nakajima Park is a city park in Chūō-ku, Sapporo is one of the ten wards in Sapporo is the largest Cities of Japan, Japanese city north of Tokyo and the largest city on Hokkaido, which is Japan's northernmost main island. It is the capital city of Hokkaid ...

Nakajima Park
where it remains today. Two years later, with the abolition of the Kaitaku-shi, Hokkaidō was divided into three prefectures: Hakodate, Sapporo, and Nemuro. The name of the urban district in Sapporo remained Sapporo-ku, while the rest of the area in Sapporo-ku was changed to Sapporo-gun. The office building of Sapporo-ku was also located in the urban district. Sapporo, Hakodate, and Nemuro Prefectures were abolished in 1886, and Hokkaidō government office building, an American-
neo-baroque #Redirect Neo-Baroque The Baroque Revival, also known as Neo-Baroque (or Second Empire architecture in France and Wilhelminism in Germany), was an architectural style of the late 19th century. The term is used to describe architecture and a ...
-style structure with red bricks, constructed in 1888. The last squad of the Tondenhei, the soldiers pioneering Hokkaido, settled in the place where the area of Tonden in
Kita-ku, Sapporo is a wards of Japan, ward of Sapporo composed of residential neighborhoods mostly arranged in grid patterns, and each built surrounding a train station, broken up by areas of farmland and some light-industrial areas. With 260,000 people, it is ...
is currently located. Sapporo-ku administered surrounding Sapporo-gun until 1899, when the new district system was announced. After that year, Sapporo-ku was away from the control of Sapporo-gun. The "ku" (district) enforced from 1899 was an autonomy which was a little bigger than towns, and smaller than cities. In Hokkaido at that time, Hakodate-ku and Otaru-ku also existed. File:明治24年札幌中心部.jpg, Sapporo city map in 1891 File:Kiyotaka_Kuroda_formal.jpg,
Kuroda Kiyotaka Count Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. ...

Kuroda Kiyotaka


20th century

In 1907, the
Tohoku Imperial University , or , located in Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture, Miyagi in the Tōhoku Region, Japan, is a Japanese national university. It was the third National Seven Universities, Imperial University in Japan, the top three Designated National University along wi ...
was established in
Sendai is the capital city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defin ...
Miyagi Prefecture is a Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan located in the Tōhoku region of Honshu. Miyagi Prefecture has a population of 2,305,596 (1 June 2019) and has a geographic area of . Miyagi Prefecture borders Iwate Prefecture to the north, Akita ...
, and
Sapporo Agricultural College was a school in Sapporo is the largest Cities of Japan, Japanese city north of Tokyo and the largest city on Hokkaido, which is Japan's northernmost main island. It is the capital city of Hokkaido, Hokkaido Prefecture and Ishikari Subprefectur ...

Sapporo Agricultural College
was controlled by the University. Parts of neighbouring villages including Sapporo Village, Naebo Village, Kami Shiroishi Village, and districts where the Tonden-hei had settled, were integrated into Sapporo-ku in 1910. The
Sapporo Streetcar The is a tram network located in Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan. It is operated by the Sapporo City Transportation Bureau. The system is sometimes referred to by residents as simply the . The first section of the network opened ...
was opened in 1918, and Hokkaido Imperial University was established in Sapporo-ku, as the fifth
Imperial UniversityImperial University may refer to: * Imperial University (Université Impériale) or University of France, the French university re-organisation initiated by Napoleon. * The of Japan, founded as Imperial Universities before World War II ** Universit ...
in Japan. Another railroad operated in Sapporo, the Jōzankei Railroad, which was ultimately abolished in 1969. In 1922, the new city system was announced by the Tokyo government, and Sapporo-ku was officially changed to Sapporo City. The Sapporo Municipal Bus System was started in 1930. In 1937, Sapporo was chosen as the site of the 1940 Winter Olympics, but due to the outbreak of the
Second Sino-Japanese War The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. The war made up the Chinese theater of the wider Pacific War, Pac ...
, this was cancelled the next year. Maruyama Town was integrated as a part of Chūō-ku in 1940, and the
Okadama Airport is an airport located in Okadama-chō, Higashi-ku, Sapporo, Higashi-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, north of the city center of Sapporo. Its scheduled airline service is limited to turboprop flights to other cities in Hokkaidō; larger aircraft use New C ...
was constructed in 1942. The first
Sapporo Snow Festival The is a festival held annually in Sapporo is the largest Cities of Japan, Japanese city north of Tokyo and the largest city on Hokkaido, which is Japan's northernmost main island. It is the capital city of Hokkaido, Hokkaido Prefecture a ...
was held in 1950. In the same year, adjacent Shiroishi Village was integrated into Sapporo City, rendered as a part of Shiroishi-ku, and Atsubetsu-ku. In 1955, Kotoni Town, the entire Sapporo Village, and Shinoro Village were merged into Sapporo, becoming a part of the current Chūō-ku, Kita-ku, Higashi-ku, Nishi-ku, and Teine-ku. The expansion of Sapporo continued, with the merger of Toyohira Town in 1961, and Teine Town in 1967, each becoming a part of Toyohira-ku, Kiyota-ku, and Teine-ku. The ceremony commemorating the 100th anniversary of the foundation of Sapporo and Hokkaido was held in 1968. The
Sapporo Municipal Subway The is a mostly-underground rubber-tyred rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn, metropolitana or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally f ...
system was inaugurated in 1971, which made Sapporo the fourth city in Japan to have a subway system. From February 3 to 13, 1972, the
1972 Winter Olympics The 1972 Winter Olympics, officially known as the (French: Les ''XIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver''), was a winter multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, recreational games and play *Sporting ...
were held, the first Winter Olympics held in Asia. On April 1 of the same year, Sapporo was designated as one of the cities designated by government ordinance, and seven wards were established. The last public performance by the opera singer,
Maria Callas Maria Callas . (December 2, 1923 – September 16, 1977) was an American-born Greek soprano A soprano () is a type of classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7t ...
, was in Sapporo at the Hokkaido Koseinenkin Kaikan on 11 November 1974. The Sapporo Municipal Subway was expanded when the Tōzai line started operation in 1976, and the Tōhō line was opened in 1988. In 1989, Atsubetsu-ku and Teine-ku were separated from Shiroishi-ku and Nishi-ku. Annual events in Sapporo were started, such as the Pacific Music Festival in 1990, and Yosakoi Sōran Festival in 1992. A professional football club,
Consadole Sapporo is a Japanese professional football club A football team is a group of players selected to play together in the various team sports known as football. Such teams could be selected to play in a match against an opposing team, to represent a foo ...
, was established in 1996. In 1997, Kiyota-ku was separated from Toyohira-ku. In the same year, Hokkaidō Takushoku Bank, a Hokkaido-based bank with headquarters in Odori, went bankrupt. File:Sapporo-City-1918-Taisho-Era.png, Sapporo City, Taisho era, 1918 File:Odori Park in 1936.JPG, Odori Park in 1936 File:Hokkaido Prefectural Office02s5s4272.jpg, The Former Hokkaido Government Office Building File:Sapporo tower.jpg, The
Sapporo TV Tower The , built in 1957, is a TV tower with an observation deck at a height of 90.38 metres. Located on the ground of Odori Park is a park located in the heart of Sapporo is the largest Cities of Japan, Japanese city north of Tokyo and the larges ...

Sapporo TV Tower
was built in 1957


21st century

In 2001 the construction of the
Sapporo Dome is a stadium A stadium (plural stadiums or stadia) is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a tiered structure designed to allow sp ...

Sapporo Dome
was completed, and in 2002 the Dome hosted three games during the
2002 FIFA World Cup The 2002 FIFA World Cup was the 17th FIFA World Cup The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a ...
; Germany vs Saudi Arabia, Argentina vs England and Italy vs Ecuador, all of which were in the first round. Fumio Ueda, was elected as Sapporo mayor for the first time in 2003. Sapporo became the home to a
Nippon Professional Baseball or NPB is the highest level of baseball in Japan Baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a pl ...
team,
Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters The are a Japanese professional Baseball in Japan, baseball team based in Sapporo, Hokkaidō. They compete in the Pacific League of Nippon Professional Baseball, playing the majority of their home games at the Sapporo Dome. The Fighters also host ...
, in 2004, which won the 2006 Japan Series, and the victory parade was held on Ekimae-Dōri (a street in front of
Sapporo Station is a railway station in Chūō-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. It is served by Hakodate Main Line and other lines of Hokkaido Railway Company (JR Hokkaido), and is also connected to the Sapporo Municipal Subway, Subway Sapporo Station (Sapporo M ...
) in February 2007. The
34th G8 summit The 34th G8 summit was held in the town of Tōyako, Hokkaido, Japan, on July 7–9, 2008. The locations of previous summits to have been hosted by Japan include: Tokyo (1979, 1986, 1993); and Nago, Okinawa Prefecture, Okinawa (2000). The G8 Summ ...
took place in Tōyako in 2008, and a number of people including
anti-globalization The anti-globalization movement, or counter-globalization movement, is a social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, a ...
activists marched in the heart of the city to protest. Police officers were gathered in Sapporo from all over Japan, and the news reported that four people were arrested in the demonstrations. The Hokkaidō Shinkansen line, which currently connects
Honshu , historically called , is the largest and most populous main island of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the n ...
to
Hakodate is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be ...
through the
Seikan Tunnel The Seikan Tunnel ( ja, 青函トンネル, or , ), is a dual gauge A dual gauge railway is a track that allows the passage of trains of two different track gauges. It is sometimes called a "mixed gauge" track. A dual gauge track consists of t ...
, is planned to link to Sapporo by 2030. File:2008 G8 Summit Antiglobalist Demonstration March.jpg, The
34th G8 summit The 34th G8 summit was held in the town of Tōyako, Hokkaido, Japan, on July 7–9, 2008. The locations of previous summits to have been hosted by Japan include: Tokyo (1979, 1986, 1993); and Nago, Okinawa Prefecture, Okinawa (2000). The G8 Summ ...
protest march in 2008


Geography

Sapporo is a city located in the southwest part of Ishikari Plain and the
alluvial fan An alluvial fan is an accumulation of sediments shaped like a section of a shallow cone, with its apex at a point source of sediments, such as a narrow canyon emerging from an escarpment. They are characteristic of mountainous terrain in arid to ...

alluvial fan
of the
Toyohira River The is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching an ...
, a tributary stream of the
Ishikari River is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be ...
. It is part of
Ishikari Subprefecture 250px, Ishikari Subprefecture is a Subprefectures of Hokkaido, subprefecture of Hokkaido, Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan, located in the western part of the island. The subprefecture covers and in 2011 had a population of 2,334,241. The subprefectur ...

Ishikari Subprefecture
. Roadways in the urban district are laid to make a grid plan. The western and southern parts of Sapporo are occupied by a number of mountains including Mount Teine, Maruyama, and
Mount Moiwa is a mountain located about southwest of the center of Sapporo is the largest Cities of Japan, Japanese city north of Tokyo and the largest city on Hokkaido, which is Japan's northernmost main island. It is the capital city of Hokkaido, Hokka ...
, as well as many rivers including the Ishikari River, Toyohira River, and Sōsei River. Sapporo has an elevation of Sapporo has many parks, including Odori Park, which is located in the heart of the city and hosts a number of annual events and festivals throughout the year. Moerenuma Park is also one of the largest parks in Sapporo, and was constructed under the plan of
Isamu Noguchi was a Japanese American artist and landscape architect whose artistic career spanned six decades, from the 1920s onward. Known for his sculpture and public artworks, Noguchi also designed stage sets for various Martha Graham productions, an ...

Isamu Noguchi
, a Japanese-American artist and landscape architect. Neighbouring cities are
Ishikari is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be de ...
, Ebetsu, Kitahiroshima, Eniwa, Chitose,
Otaru is a Cities of Japan, city and Seaports of Japan, port in Shiribeshi Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan, northwest of Sapporo. The city faces Ishikari Bay and the Sea of Japan, and has long served as the main port of the bay. With its many historica ...

Otaru
, Date, and adjoining towns are Tōbetsu, Kimobetsu, Kyōgoku.


Wards

Sapporo currently has ten ''.


Cityscape

File:SapporoCity Skylines2020.jpg, Sapporo City Skyline from (2020) File:Sapporo (31503219368).jpg,
Odori Park is a park located in the heart of Sapporo is a city in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal ...
(2018) File:Sapporo view of city from Sapporo TV tower - 2016 08 14.ogg, View of the city from above (2016) File:札幌駅(Sapporo Station - Hokkaido Railway company) - panoramio (2).jpg,
Sapporo Station is a railway station in Chūō-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. It is served by Hakodate Main Line and other lines of Hokkaido Railway Company (JR Hokkaido), and is also connected to the Sapporo Municipal Subway, Subway Sapporo Station (Sapporo M ...
(2013) File:すすきの繁華街 - panoramio.jpg,
Susukino is a red-light district A red-light district or pleasure district is a part of an urban area where a concentration of prostitution and sex industry, sex-oriented businesses, such as sex shops, strip clubs, and adult theaters, are found. In most ...
(2009) File:Hokkaido_University.jpg, A view of Sapporo city and Hokkaidō University (2009)


Climate

Sapporo has a
humid continental climate A humid continental climate is a climatic Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables over a time spanning from months t ...
(
KöppenKöppen is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Bernd Köppen (born 1951), German pianist and composer * Edlef Köppen (1893–1939), German author and radio editor * Friedrich Köppen (1775–1858), German philosopher * Jan ...
: ''Dfa''), with a wide range of temperature between the summer and winter. Summers are generally warm and humid, but not oppressively hot, and winters are cold and very snowy, with an average snowfall of per year. Sapporo is one of few metropolises in the world with such heavy snowfall, enabling it to hold events and festivals with snow statues. The heavy snowfall is due to the
Siberian High The Siberian High (also Siberian Anticyclone; russian: Азиатский антициклон ''Aziatsky antitsiklon'') is a massive collection of cold dry air that accumulates in the northeastern part of Eurasia from September until April. It is ...

Siberian High
developing over the Eurasian land mass and the
Aleutian Low The Aleutian Low is a semi-permanent low-pressure system located near the Aleutian Islands The Aleutian Islands (; ; ale, Unangam Tanaa, literally "Land of the Aleuts", possibly from Chukchi ''aliat'', "island"), also called the Aleut Islands ...

Aleutian Low
developing over the northern Pacific Ocean, resulting in a flow of cold air southeastward across Tsushima Current and to western Hokkaido. The city's annual average precipitation is around , and the mean annual temperature is .


Demographics

The first census of the population of Sapporo was taken in 1873, when 753 families with a total of 1,785 people were recorded in the town. The city has an estimated population of 1,957,914 as of May 31, 2019 and a
population density Population density (in agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise tr ...

population density
of 1,746 persons per km2 (4,500 persons per mi2). The total area is .


Economy

The tertiary sector dominates Sapporo's industry. Major industries include information technology, retail, and tourism, as Sapporo is a destination for winter sports and events and summer activities due to its comparatively cool climate. The city is also the manufacturing centre of Hokkaido, manufacturing various goods such as food and related products, fabricated metal products, steel, machinery, beverages, and pulp and paper. The
Sapporo Breweries is a Japanese brewery, beer brewing company founded in 1876. Sapporo is the oldest brand of beer in Japan. It was first brewed in Sapporo, Japan, in 1876 by brewer Seibei Nakagawa. The world headquarters of Sapporo Breweries is in Ebisu, Tokyo, E ...
, founded in 1876, is a major company and employer in the city.
Hokkaido International Airlines , previously known as , is a Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat ...
(Air Do) is headquartered in Chūō-ku. In April 2004,
Air Nippon Network , or A-net, was an airline based on the grounds of Haneda Airport, Tokyo International Airport in Ōta, Tokyo, Ōta, Tokyo, Japan. It operated feeder services for parent Air Nippon, itself a subsidiary of All Nippon Airways (ANA). Its main base ...
was headquartered in Higashi-ku. Other companies headquartered in Sapporo include
Crypton Future Media , or simply Crypton, is a Japanese media company based in Sapporo, Japan. It develops, imports, and sells products for music, such as sound generator software, sampling CDs and DVDs, and sound effect and background music libraries. The company als ...
, DB-Soft,
Hokkaido Air System , or HAC, is a regional airline that operates scheduled services in Hokkaidō and Aomori Prefecture, Japan from a main base of operations at Okadama Airport in Higashi-ku, Sapporo, Higashi-ku, Sapporo.Royce'. Greater Sapporo, Sapporo Metropolitan Employment Area (2.3 million people), had a total
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the ...
of US$84.7 billion in 2010. In 2014, Sapporo's GDP per capita (PPP) was US$32,446.


Culture and entertainment


Music

* 1934 – The International Contemporary Music Festival was held by
Akira Ifukube was a Japanese classical music, classical and film music composer, best known for his works on the Godzilla (franchise), ''Godzilla'' franchise. Biography Early years in Hokkaido Akira Ifukube was born on 31 May 1914 in Kushiro, Hokkaidō, Kus ...

Akira Ifukube
,
Fumio Hayasaka Fumio Hayasaka (早坂 文雄 ''Hayasaka Fumio''; August 19, 1914 – October 15, 1955) was a Japanese composer of classical music and film scores. Early life Hayasaka was born in the city of Sendai on the main Japanese island of Honshū. In ...
, Atsushi Miura, and Isamu Ifukube (30 September) * 1936 – Russian composer Alexander Tcherepnin visited Sapporo * 1960 – The
Sapporo Symphony OrchestraThe Sapporo Symphony Orchestra (札幌交響楽団 ''Sapporo Kokyo Gakudan'') is a Japanese orchestra based in Sapporo, Japan. Colloquially known as "Sakkyo", this is the only professional orchestra in Hokkaido. The orchestra gives its concerts at ...
founded * 1962 –
John Cage John Milton Cage Jr. (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American composer A composer (Latin wikt:compono, ''compōnō''; literally "one who puts together") is a person who writes musical composition, music, especially classical ...
and
David Tudor David Eugene Tudor (January 20, 1926 – August 13, 1996) was an American pianist and composer of experimental music Experimental music is a general label for any music that pushes existing boundaries and genre definitions . Experimental compos ...
visited Sapporo * 1966 –
Berliner Philharmoniker The Berlin Philharmonic (german: Berliner Philharmoniker, links=no, italic=no) is a German orchestra based in Berlin which is consistently ranked in the top handful of orchestras in the world, distinguished amongst peers for its virtuosity and co ...

Berliner Philharmoniker
with
Herbert von Karajan Herbert von Karajan (; born Heribert Ritter von Karajan; 5 April 1908 – 16 July 1989) was an Austrian conductor Conductor or conduction may refer to: Music * Conductor (music), a person who leads a musical ensemble like, for example, an ...
performed
Brahms Johannes Brahms (; 7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer, pianist, and conductor of the Romantic period Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that origin ...

Brahms
's Symphony No. 2 at Sapporo Shimin Kaikan (April) * 1974 –
Maria Callas Maria Callas . (December 2, 1923 – September 16, 1977) was an American-born Greek soprano A soprano () is a type of classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7t ...
last public performance at the Hokkaido Koseinenkin Kaikan (11 November) * 1986 – The Sapporo Art Park include the Outdoor Stage and Art Hall (27 July) * 1990 – The Pacific Music Festival (PMF) started * 1997 – The Sapporo Concert Hall Kitara opened * 2018 – Th
Sapporo Community Plaza
is set to open in October


Art

* The
Hokkaido Museum of Modern Art The opened in Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan in 1977. The collection includes works by Jules Pascin and the École de Paris as well as by modern Japanese artists, in particular those with a connection to Hokkaidō. There are five related Prefectural ...
represents Hokkaido artists like Eien Iwahashi, Kinjiro Kida, Nissho Kanda,
Tamako Kataoka (5 January 1905 in Sapporo is the largest Cities of Japan, Japanese city north of Tokyo and the largest city on Hokkaido, which is Japan's northernmost main island. It is the capital city of Hokkaido, Hokkaido Prefecture and Ishikari Subprefect ...
, and especially glass objects of Ecole de Paris *The Hongō Shin Memorial Museum of Sculpture hosts a collection of over 1,800 works by the artist Hongō Shin. * The Sapporo Art Park contains Art museum featuring outdoor installations & a sculpture garden, and the old house of Takeo Arishima. * The Moerenuma Park including the Glass Pyramid, designed by
Isamu Noguchi was a Japanese American artist and landscape architect whose artistic career spanned six decades, from the 1920s onward. Known for his sculpture and public artworks, Noguchi also designed stage sets for various Martha Graham productions, an ...

Isamu Noguchi
* The Migishi Kotaro Museum of Art * The Hongo Shin Memorial Museum of Sculpture * The Miyanomori Art Museum * Th
Sapporo Odori 500-m Underground Walkway Gallery
* Member of UNESCO Creative Cities Network as
Creative City of Media Arts
since 2013
Sapporo International Art Festival
(2014/2017)


Literature

* The Hokkaido Museum of Literature * Takeo Arishima Residence in Sapporo Art Park * Junichi Watanabe (writer), Junichi Watanabe Museum of Literature


Film

* The Idiot (1951 film) by Akira Kurosawa * The Northern Museum of Visual Culture * Theater Kino * The Sapporo International Short Film Festival and Market


Points of interest


Registered Tangible Cultural Properties in Sapporo
* The former Hokkaidō government office building * The Sapporo Clock Tower * The Hokkaidō Shrine * Nishino Shrine * Hokkaido Museum * Historical Village of Hokkaido * Sapporo Buried Cultural Property Center * Th
Sapporo City Archive Museum
(Former Sapporo Court of Appeal) * The
Edwin Dun Edwin Dun (June 19, 1848 – May 15, 1931) was a rancher from Ohio Ohio is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. Of the List of states and territories of the United States, fifty st ...
Memorial Hall * The
Hokkaido University , or , is a Japanese national university A national university is mainly a university created or managed by a government, but which may also at the same time operate autonomously without direct control by the state. Some national univer ...

Hokkaido University
& Hokkaido University Museum * The Sapporo Beer Museum & Sapporo Factory * The
Sapporo TV Tower The , built in 1957, is a TV tower with an observation deck at a height of 90.38 metres. Located on the ground of Odori Park is a park located in the heart of Sapporo is the largest Cities of Japan, Japanese city north of Tokyo and the larges ...

Sapporo TV Tower
* The Sapporo Convention Center * The Sapporo Salmon Museum in Makomanai Park * The Sunpiazza Aquarium Sapporo JR Tower adjacent to
Sapporo Station is a railway station in Chūō-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. It is served by Hakodate Main Line and other lines of Hokkaido Railway Company (JR Hokkaido), and is also connected to the Sapporo Municipal Subway, Subway Sapporo Station (Sapporo M ...
. Sapporo Ramen Yokocho and Norubesa (a building with a Ferris wheel) are in
Susukino is a red-light district A red-light district or pleasure district is a part of an urban area where a concentration of prostitution and sex industry, sex-oriented businesses, such as sex shops, strip clubs, and adult theaters, are found. In most ...
district. The district also has the Tanuki Kōji Shopping Arcade, the oldest shopping mall in the city. The district of Jōzankei in Minami-ku has many resort hotels with steam baths and onsen. The Peace Pagoda, one of many such monuments across the world built by the Buddhist order Nipponzan Myohoji to promote and inspire world peace, has a stupa that was built in 1959, halfway up Mount Moiwa, to commemorate peace after World War II. It contains some of the ashes of the Buddha that were presented to the Emperor of Japan by Prime Minister Nehru in 1954. Another portion was presented to Mikhail Gorbachev by the Nipponzan-Myohoji monk, Junsei Terasawa.


Parks/gardens

* The
Odori Park is a park located in the heart of Sapporo is a city in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal ...
* The
Nakajima Park is a city park in Chūō-ku, Sapporo is one of the ten wards in Sapporo is the largest Cities of Japan, Japanese city north of Tokyo and the largest city on Hokkaido, which is Japan's northernmost main island. It is the capital city of Hokkaid ...

Nakajima Park
* The Maruyama Park (Sapporo), Maruyama Park is located next to the Hokkaido Shrine and houses the Maruyama Zoo. * The Moerenuma Park * The Nishioka Park is a location of rich nature which centers around a pond and consists of marshland and the forest of the Tsukisamu River and its upper river basin. This park also serves as one of the main habitats in
Hokkaido , officially Hokkaidō Circuit Prefecture, is the second largest island of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in t ...

Hokkaido
for many types of wild birds. * The offers great views of the city. * The Hokkaido University Botanical Gardens and The Chizaki Rose Garden * The Hitsujigaoka Observation Hill has a farm with sheep and attracts visitors with a statue of .


Events/festivals

February: the
Sapporo Snow Festival The is a festival held annually in Sapporo is the largest Cities of Japan, Japanese city north of Tokyo and the largest city on Hokkaido, which is Japan's northernmost main island. It is the capital city of Hokkaido, Hokkaido Prefecture a ...
The main site is at Odori Park, and other sites include Susukino (known as the Susukino Ice Festival) and Sapporo Satoland. Many of the snow and ice statues are built by members of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force.Tourism Statistics of Sapporo
2006, p.29 (pdf file)
May: the Sapporo Lilac Festival. Syringa vulgaris, Lilac was brought to Sapporo in 1889 by an American educator, Sarah Clara Smith. At the festival, people enjoy the flowers, wine and live music. June: the Yosakoi Soran Festival. The sites of the festival are centered on Odori Park and the street leading to Susukino, and there are other festival sites. In the festival, many dance teams dance to music composed based on a Japanese traditional song, "Sōran Bushi". Members of the dancing teams wear special costumes and compete on the roads or stages constructed on the festival sites. In 2006, 350 teams were featured with around 45,000 dancers, and over 1,860,000 people visited the festival. The Sapporo Summer Festival. People enjoy drinking at the beer garden in Odori Park and on the streets of
Susukino is a red-light district A red-light district or pleasure district is a part of an urban area where a concentration of prostitution and sex industry, sex-oriented businesses, such as sex shops, strip clubs, and adult theaters, are found. In most ...
. This festival consists of a number of fairs such as Tanuki Festival and Susukino Festival. September: the Sapporo Autumn Festival December: Christmas market in Odori Park, similar to German Christmas markets. From November through January, many citizens enjoy the Sapporo White Lighting, Illuminations.


Cuisine

The city is known home to Sapporo Breweries, Sapporo Brewery, and the white chocolate biscuits 'shiroi koibito' (白い恋人), also as the birthplace of miso ramen. The Kouraku Ramen Meitengai in Susukino district, an alley lined with many miso ramen restaurants since 1951. After its demolition due to plans for the Sapporo Olympics, the Ganso Sapporo Ramen Yokocho was established in the same place. It attracts many tourists throughout the year. From the year 1966, a food company named Sanyo Foods began to sell instant ramen under the brand name "Sapporo Ichiban". Haskap, a local variety of edible honeysuckle, similar to blueberries, is a specialty in Sapporo. Other specialty dishes of Sapporo are Soup Curry, soup curry, a soupy curry made with vegetables and chicken or other meats, and jingisukan, a barbecued lamb dish, named for Genghis Khan. Sapporo Sweets is a confectionery using many ingredients from Hokkaido and the Sapporo Sweets Competition is held annually. Sapporo is also well known for fresh seafood including salmon, sea urchin and crab. Crab in particular is famed. Many types of crab are harvested and served seasonally in Sapporo like the Horsehair crab, Snow crab, King crab, and Hanasaki crab with numerous dishes revolving around them.


Sports

The
Sapporo Dome is a stadium A stadium (plural stadiums or stadia) is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a tiered structure designed to allow sp ...

Sapporo Dome
was constructed in 2001 and currently is the host to the local professional teams, Hokkaido Consadole Sapporo (J1 League, football), and
Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters The are a Japanese professional Baseball in Japan, baseball team based in Sapporo, Hokkaidō. They compete in the Pacific League of Nippon Professional Baseball, playing the majority of their home games at the Sapporo Dome. The Fighters also host ...
(Nippon Professional Baseball, baseball). But ES CON Field Hokkaido (エスコンフィールド北海道, ''Esukon Fīrudo Hokkaidō'') ,baseball park under construction in Kitahiroshima, Hokkaido. It will be the future home of the
Nippon Professional Baseball or NPB is the highest level of baseball in Japan Baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a pl ...
's
Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters The are a Japanese professional Baseball in Japan, baseball team based in Sapporo, Hokkaidō. They compete in the Pacific League of Nippon Professional Baseball, playing the majority of their home games at the Sapporo Dome. The Fighters also host ...
and is scheduled to open in March, 2023. Sapporo was selected to be the host of the 5th Winter Olympics scheduled on February 3 to 12, 1940, but Japan had to give the Games back to the IOC, after the Second Sino-Japanese War broke out in 1937. In 1972, Sapporo hosted the 11th 1972 Winter Olympics, Winter Olympics. Some structures built for Olympic events remain in use today, including the ski jumps at Miyanomori Ski Jump Stadium, Miyanomori and Okurayama Ski Jump Stadium, Okurayama. After considering a bid for the 2026 Winter Olympics, Olympic representatives in Sapporo have said that the city is considering a bid for the 2030 Winter Olympics. The city predicts it may cost as much as 456.5 billion yen ($4.3 billion) to host the games and is planning to have 90 percent of the facilities within half an hour of the Olympic village, according to a report published 12 May 2016. The Alpen course would be in Niseko, the world's second-snowiest resort, while the village would be next to the
Sapporo Dome is a stadium A stadium (plural stadiums or stadia) is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a tiered structure designed to allow sp ...

Sapporo Dome
, the report said. The plans were presented to the Japanese Olympic Committee on 8 November 2016. In 2002, Sapporo hosted three group matches of the 2002 FIFA World Cup, FIFA World Cup at the Sapporo Dome. In 2006, Sapporo hosted some games of the 2006 Basketball World Championship and also for the 2006 Women's Volleyball World Championship. In 2007, Sapporo hosted the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2007, FIS Nordic World Ski Championships at the Sapporo Dome, Miyanomori ski jump, Okurayama ski jump, and the Shirahatayama cross-country course. It has been host city of two Asian Winter Games and hosted the 2017 Asian Winter Games with Obihiro, Hokkaido, Obihiro. Sapporo will also host some games during the
2019 Rugby World Cup The 2019 Rugby World Cup was the ninth edition of the Rugby World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's rugby union teams. It was hosted in Japan from 20 September to 2 November in 12 venues all across the country. The opening match wa ...
. Skiing remains a major sport in Sapporo with almost all children skiing as a part of the school curriculum. Okurayama Elementary School is unusual in having its own ski hill and ski jumping hill on the school grounds. Within the city are commercial ski hills including Moiwayama, Bankeiyama, KobaWorld, Sapporo Teine and Fu's. Many sports stadiums and domes are located in Sapporo, and some of them have been designated as venues of sports competitions. The Sapporo Community Dome, also known by its nickname "Tsu-Dome", has hosted the Golden Market, a huge flea market event which is usually held twice a year, along with some sports events. The Makomanai Ice Arena, in Makomanai Park, was one of the venues of the Sapporo Olympics in 1972. It was renamed the Makomanai Sekisuiheim Ice Arena in 2007, when Sekisui Chemical Co., Ltd., acquired naming rights and renamed the arena after their real estate brand. Other large sports venues include the Makomanai Open Stadium, Tsukisamu Dome, Maruyama Baseball Stadium, and the Hokkaido Prefectural Sports Center, which hosts the professional basketball team, Levanga Hokkaido. Toyota Big Air is a major international snowboarding event held annually in Sapporo Dome. As one of the richest events of its kind in the world, it draws many of the world's best snowboarders.


Professional sport teams

* J.League – Hokkaido Consadole Sapporo (J1 in 1998, 2001–2002, 2008, 2012, 2017–present; J2 in 1999–2000, 2003–2007, 2009–2011, 2013–2016) . * Nippon Professional Baseball, NPB – Hokkaido Nippon Ham Fighters in Pacific League


Transportation

Sapporo has one streetcar line, three Hokkaido Railway Company, JR Hokkaido lines, three subway lines and JR Hokkaido Bus Company, JR Bus, Hokkaido Chuo Bus, Chuo Bus and other bus lines. Sapporo Subway trains have rubber-tired wheels.


Rapid transit

*
Sapporo Municipal Subway The is a mostly-underground rubber-tyred rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn, metropolitana or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally f ...
*
Sapporo Streetcar The is a tram network located in Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan. It is operated by the Sapporo City Transportation Bureau. The system is sometimes referred to by residents as simply the . The first section of the network opened ...
*Mount Moiwa Ropeway *Teineyama Ropeway


Rail

*JR Hokkaido Stations in Sapporo **Hakodate Main Line, Hakodate Line: (Zenibako) – Hoshimi – Hoshioki – Inaho – Teine – Inazumi Kōen – Hassamu – Hassamu Chūō – Kotoni – Sōen – Sapporo – Naebo – Shiroishi – Atsubetsu – Shinrinkōen – (Ōasa) **Chitose Line: Heiwa – Shin Sapporo – Kami Nopporo – (Kita-Hiroshima) **Sasshō Line (Gakuentoshi Line): Sōen – Hachiken – Shinkawa – Shinkotoni – Taihei – Yurigahara – Shinoro – Takuhoku – Ainosato Kyōikudai – Ainosato Kōen – (Ishikari Futomi)


Air

The Sapporo area is served by two airports:
Okadama Airport is an airport located in Okadama-chō, Higashi-ku, Sapporo, Higashi-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, north of the city center of Sapporo. Its scheduled airline service is limited to turboprop flights to other cities in Hokkaidō; larger aircraft use New C ...
, which offers regional flights within Hokkaido, and
New Chitose Airport is an international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to park and maintain aircraft, and a contro ...

New Chitose Airport
, a larger international airport located in the city of Chitose away connected by regular rapid trains taking around 40 minutes. The Sapporo-Tokyo route between New Chitose and Haneda is one of the busiest in the world.


Airport shuttle, tour and charter bus service

An airport shuttle bus servicing all hotels in Sapporo operates every day of the year
SkyExpress
was founded in 2005 and also provides transport to and from various ski resorts throughout Hokkaido, including Niseko, Hokkaido, Niseko.


Education


Universities


National

*
Hokkaido University , or , is a Japanese national university A national university is mainly a university created or managed by a government, but which may also at the same time operate autonomously without direct control by the state. Some national univer ...

Hokkaido University
*Hokkaido University of Education ''See Japanese national university''


Public

*Sapporo Medical University *Sapporo City University


Private

*Sapporo University *Hokusei Gakuen University *Hokkai School of Commerce *Hokkai Gakuen University *Fuji Women's University *Sapporo International University *Tenshi College *Health Sciences University of Hokkaido *Sapporo Ōtani University *Hokkaido Tokai University *Hokkaido Musashi Women's Junior College *Hokkaido Bunkyo University *Hokkaido University of Science *Koen Gakuen Women's Junior College *Hokkaido Institute of Technology *Hokkaido College of Pharmacy *Sapporo University of Health Sciences *Japan Health Care College


Primary and secondary schools

Sapporo Odori High School provides Japanese-language classes to foreign and Japanese returnee students, and the school has special admissions quotas for these groups. The city has two private international schools: * Hokkaido International School * Hokkaido Korean Primary, Middle and High School (Chosen gakko, North Korean school)


Twin towns – sister cities

Sapporo has Twin towns and sister cities, twinning relationships with several cities worldwide.Sister Cities , International Community Bureau
* Daejeon, South Korea (since October 2010) * Denver, United States (since September 1982) * Munich, Germany (since August 1972) * Novosibirsk, Russia (since June 1990) * Portland, Oregon, Portland, United States (since November 1959) * Shenyang, China (since November 1980)


See also

*Sapporo Brewery


Notes


References


External links


Official Website

Sapporo Travel

Unesco Media City Sapporo
{{Authority control Sapporo, Cities in Hokkaido Populated places established in 1868 1868 establishments in Japan Cities designated by government ordinance of Japan