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San Juan (, ; "Saint
John John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) * John (surname), including a list of people who have the name John John may also refer to: New Testament Works ...

John
") is the
capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of the government. A capita ...
and most-populous
municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
in the
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good Common good Common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about r ...
of
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico) is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...

Puerto Rico
, an
unincorporated territory Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as ma ...
of the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. As of the
2010 census2010 census may refer to: * 2010 Chinese Census * 2010 Dominican Republic Census * 2010 Indonesian census * 2010 Malaysian Census * 2010 Russian Census * 2010 Turkish census * 2010 United States Census * 2010 Zambian census {{Disambiguation ...
, it is the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of the United States, with a population of 395,326. San Juan was founded by
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
colonists in 1521, who called it Ciudad de Puerto Rico ("City of Puerto Rico",
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
for ''rich port city''). Puerto Rico's capital is the third oldest European-established capital city in the Americas, after
Santo Domingo , total_type = Total , population_density_km2 = auto , timezone = Atlantic Standard Time, AST , area_code_type = Area codes , area_code = 809, 829, 849 , postal_code_type = Postal codes , postal_code = 10100–10699 (Distrito Nacion ...

Santo Domingo
, in the
Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic ( ; es, República Dominicana, ) is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region. It occupies the eastern five-eighths of the island, which it shares with ...

Dominican Republic
, founded in 1496, and
Panama City Panama City ( es, Ciudad de Panamá, links=no; ), also simply known as Panama (or Panamá in Spanish), is the capital and largest city of Panama Panama ( , ; es, link=no, Panamá ), officially the Republic of Panama ( es, República ...

Panama City
, in
Panama Panama ( , ; es, link=no, Panamá ), officially the Republic of Panama ( es, República de Panamá), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several ...

Panama
, founded in 1521, and is the oldest European-established city under
United States sovereignty
United States sovereignty
. Several historical buildings are located in San Juan; among the most notable are the city's former defensive forts,
Fort San Felipe del Morro Castillo San Felipe del Morro, also known as El Morro, is a citadel built between 16th and 18th centuries in San Juan, Puerto Rico.www ...
and Fort San Cristóbal, and
La Fortaleza ''La Fortaleza'' (''The Fortress'') is the official residence An official residence is the House, residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, governor, Clergy, religious leader, leaders of international organizations, ...

La Fortaleza
, the oldest executive mansion in continuous use in the Americas. Today, San Juan is Puerto Rico's most important seaport and is the island's financial, cultural, and tourism center. The population of the
Metropolitan Statistical Area #REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area #REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area#REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region with a relatively high population density a ...
, including San Juan and the municipalities of Bayamón,
Guaynabo Guaynabo () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledg ...
, Cataño, Canóvanas,
Caguas Caguas (), founded in 1775, is a city and Municipalities of Puerto Rico, municipality of Puerto Rico located in the Central Mountain Range of Puerto Rico, south of San Juan, Puerto Rico, San Juan and Trujillo Alto, Puerto Rico, Trujillo Alto, wes ...
,
Toa Alta Toa Alta () is a Municipalities of Puerto Rico, municipality of Puerto Rico located in the northern coast of the island, north of Naranjito, Puerto Rico, Naranjito; south of Dorado, Puerto Rico, Dorado and Toa Baja, Puerto Rico, Toa Baja; east of V ...
,
Toa Baja Toa Baja () is a Toa Baja barrio-pueblo, town and Municipalities of Puerto Rico, municipality of Puerto Rico located in the northern coast, north of Toa Alta, Puerto Rico, Toa Alta and Bayamón, Puerto Rico, Bayamón; east of Dorado, Puerto Rico, ...
, Carolina and
Trujillo Alto Trujillo Alto () is a Trujillo Alto barrio-pueblo, town and Municipalities of Puerto Rico, municipality of Puerto Rico located in the Northern Coastal Plain, on the boundary between the karst zone and Sierra de Luquillo, north of Caguas, Puerto R ...
, is about 2.6 million inhabitants; thus, about 80% of the population of Puerto Rico now lives and works in this area. San Juan is also a principal city of the San Juan-Caguas-Fajardo Combined Statistical Area. The city has been the host of events within the sports community, including the 1979
Pan American Games The Pan American Games (also known colloquially as the Pan Am Games) is a continental Continental may refer to: Places * Continent * Continental, Arizona, a small community in Pima County, Arizona, US * Continental, Ohio, a small town in Pu ...
; 1966
Central American and Caribbean Games The Central American and Caribbean Games (CAC or CACGs) are a multi-sport regional championship event, held quadrennial (once every four years), typically in the middle (even) year between Summer Olympics The Summer Olympic Games, also ...
; events of the 2006, 2009 and 2013
World Baseball Classic The World Baseball Classic (WBC) is an international baseball tournament sanctioned from 2006 to 2013 by the International Baseball Federation (IBAF) and after 2013 by World Baseball Softball Confederation (WBSC) in partnership with Major League ...
s; the
Caribbean Series The Caribbean Series (''Spanish'': ''Serie del Caribe''), also called Caribbean World Series, is the highest tournament for professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents and ar ...
and the
Special Olympics Special Olympics is the world's largest sports organization for children and adults with intellectual disabilities Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability and formerly mental retardation (MR), Rosa's Law, Pub. L ...
and
MLB Major League Baseball (MLB) is an American professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents and are paid to play for a specific team or club system. It is played in baseball lea ...

MLB
San Juan Series in 2010. The damage caused in 2017 by
Hurricane Maria Hurricane Maria was a deadly Category 5 hurricane A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale ...

Hurricane Maria
was extensive. Significant progress had been made in the capital by April 2019, and particularly by October 2019. This was significant for tourism, which had rebounded by October of that year and was close to the pre-Maria era.


History

In 1508,
Juan Ponce de León Juan Ponce de León (, , , ; 1474 – July 1521) was a Spaniards, Spanish explorer and ''conquistador'' known for leading the first official European expedition to Florida and serving as the first governor of Puerto Rico. He was born in Sante ...

Juan Ponce de León
founded the original settlement which he called Caparra. It was named after the Province of Cáceres in
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, the birthplace of
Nicolás de Ovando ''Frey'' Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres (1460 – 29 May 1511) was a Spanish soldier from a noble family and a Knight of the Order of Alcántara, a military order of Spain. He was Governor of the Indies (Hispaniola) from 1502 until 1509, sent by t ...

Nicolás de Ovando
, then the Governor of Spain's Caribbean territories. Today, it is part of the Pueblo Viejo district of
Guaynabo Guaynabo () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledg ...
, directly to the west of the modern municipality of San Juan. A year later, the settlement was moved to a site then called Puerto Rico, Spanish for "rich port" or "good port", after its similar geographical features to the town of Puerto Rico de Gran Canaria in the
Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island ...
. The
local Catholic diocese
local Catholic diocese
, the second oldest in the Americas and the oldest in the United States, was founded in the newly built settlement in August 8 of 1511. In 1521, the newer settlement was given its formal name: ''Ciudad de Puerto Rico de San Juan Bautista''. Many of the oldest European-founded institutions in the Western Hemisphere, such as the Santo Tomás de Aquino Convent and the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción Hospital, were established during this time in San Juan. The ambiguous use of ''San Juan Bautista'' and ''Puerto Rico'' for both the city and the island in time led to a reversal in practical use by most inhabitants: by 1746 the name for the city (Puerto Rico) had become that of the entire island, leading to the city being identified as ''Puerto Rico de Puerto Rico'' on maps of the era. San Juan, as a settlement of the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
, was used by merchant and military ships traveling from Spain as the first stopover in the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
. Because of its prominence in the Caribbean, a network of fortifications was built to protect the transports of gold and silver from the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: "[16c: from ...
to Europe. Because of the rich cargoes, San Juan became a target of the foreign powers of the time. San Juan underwent attacks from the English led by Sir Francis Drake in 1595 (in what is known as the Battle of Puerto Rico) and by George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, in 1598. Artillery from San Juan's fort, Fort San Felipe del Morro, El Morro, repelled Drake; however, Clifford managed to land troops and lay siege to the city. After a few months of English occupation, Clifford was forced to abandon the siege when his troops began to suffer from exhaustion and sickness. In 1625 the city was sacked by Dutch forces led by Captain Boudewijn Hendricksz, Balduino Enrico (also known as Boudewijn Hendricksz/Bowdoin Henrick), but El Morro withstood the assault and was not taken. The Dutch were counterattacked by Captain
Juan de Amézqueta
Juan de Amézqueta
and 50 members of the civilian militia on land and by the cannons of the Spanish troops in El Morro castle. The land battle left 60 Dutch soldiers dead and Enrico with a sword wound to his neck which he received from the hands of Amézqueta. The Dutch ships at sea were boarded by Puerto Ricans who defeated those aboard. After a long battle, the Spanish soldiers and volunteers of the city's militia were able to defend the city from the attack and save the island from an invasion. On October 21, Enrico set
La Fortaleza ''La Fortaleza'' (''The Fortress'') is the official residence An official residence is the House, residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, governor, Clergy, religious leader, leaders of international organizations, ...

La Fortaleza
and the city ablaze. Captains Amézqueta and Andrés Botello decided to put a stop to the destruction and led 200 men in an attack against the enemy's front and rear guard. They drove Enrico and his men from their trenches and into the ocean in their haste to reach their ships.The History of Puerto Rico From the Spanish Discovery to the American Occupation / Middeldyk, R.A. Van Identifier: etext12272 The History of Puerto Rico From the Spanish Discovery to the American Occupation
The British
attack Attack may refer to: Warfare and combat * Offensive (military) * Charge (warfare) * Attack (fencing) * Strike (attack) * Attack (computing) * Attack aircraft Books and publishing * The Attack (novel), ''The Attack'' (novel), a book * ''Attack No. ...
in 1797, during the
French Revolutionary Wars The French Revolutionary Wars (french: Guerres de la Révolution française) were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted French First Republic, France against Gr ...
, led by
Sir Ralph Abercromby Sir Ralph Abercromby (sometimes spelt Abercrombie) (7 October 173428 March 1801) was a Scottish soldier and politician. He twice served as MP for Clackmannanshire (UK Parliament constituency), Clackmannanshire, rose to the rank of lieutena ...
(who had just conquered
Trinidad Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago (, ), officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is the southernmost island country in the Caribbean The Caribbean ( ...

Trinidad
). His army laid siege to the city but was forced to withdraw in defeat as the Puerto Rican defenses proved more resilient than those of Trinidad. Various events and circumstances, including liberalized commerce with Spain, the opening of the island to immigrants as a direct result of the
Royal Decree of Graces of 1815 The Royal Decree of Graces of 1815 (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanis ...
, and the colonial revolutions, led to an expansion of San Juan and other Puerto Rican settlements in the late 18th and early 19th century. On May 8, 1898, United States Navy ships, among them , , , , and , commanded by
Rear Admiral Rear admiral is a senior naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for wa ...
William T. Sampson arrived at San Juan Bay. captured the Spanish freighter ''Rita'' in San Juan Bay, thus being the first hostile encounter between the warring sides in Puerto Rico. On May 9, ''Yale'' fought a brief battle with an
auxiliary cruiser An armed merchantman is a merchant ship A merchant ship, merchant vessel, trading vessel, or merchantman is a watercraft that transports cargo or carries passengers for hire. This is in contrast to pleasure craft, which are used for personal ...
of Spain, name unknown, resulting in a Spanish victory. Around this time, Captain Ángel Rivero Méndez was assigned the command of the Spanish forces in the fortress of San Cristóbal in San Juan. On May 10, ''Yale'' returned to San Juan Bay, Rivero-Méndez ordered his men to open fire upon ''Yale'' using an Ordoñez 15-centimeter cannon, thus becoming the first attack against the Americans in Puerto Rico during the
Spanish–American War The Spanish–American War (April 21 – August 13, 1898, es, Guerra hispano-estadounidense or ; fil, Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was an armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, S ...
. For his actions, Captain Rivero-Méndez was awarded the "Cruz de la Orden de Mérito Militar" (The Cross of the Order of the Military Merit) first class. The residents of San Juan were furious with Rivero and blamed him for the destruction caused to their city by the American bombardments. Nothing came of those accusations and Capt. Rivero-Méndez was ordered to turn over the keys of all the military installations in San Juan to Captain Henry A. Reed of the U.S. Army after the
Treaty of Paris of 1898 The Treaty of Paris of 1898 (Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas ...
was signed. On July 25, General Nelson A. Miles landed at (in southwestern Puerto Rico) with 3,300 soldiers in what was known as the
Puerto Rican Campaign The Puerto Rico campaign was the American military sea and land operation on the island of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Lib ...
. The American troops found some resistance and engaged the Spanish and Puerto Rican troops in battle, the most notable of these the battles of
Yauco Yauco () is a town and Municipalities of Puerto Rico, municipality in southwestern Puerto Rico. Although the downtown is inland, the municipality stretches to a southern coast facing the Caribbean Sea. Yauco is located south of Maricao, Puerto Ri ...
and Asomante. All military actions in Puerto Rico were suspended August 13, 1898, after President
William McKinley William McKinley (January 29, 1843September 14, 1901) was the 25th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power of ...
and French Ambassador
Jules Cambon Jules-Martin Cambon (5 April 1845 – 19 September 1935) was a French diplomat and brother to Paul Cambon Pierre Paul Cambon (20 January 1843 in Paris – 29 May 1924 in Paris) was a French diplomat and brother to Jules Cambon. Biography He w ...

Jules Cambon
, acting on behalf of the Spanish government, signed an
armistice An armistice is a formal agreement Agreement or concord (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates. It is an instance of inflection, and usually involves makin ...

armistice
. Spain ceded the island to the United States later the same year by signing the Treaty of Paris.
Camp Las Casas Camp Las Casas was a United States military installation established in Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Santurce, Puerto Rico in 1904. The camp was the main training base of the "Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry," On January 15, 1899, the military ...
, located in the district of Santurce, served as the main training camp for the Puerto Rican soldiers prior to World War I and World War II; the majority of the men trained in this facility were assigned to the "Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry" which was renamed the
65th Infantry Regiment The 65th Infantry Regiment, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" during the Korean War The Korean War (see § Names) was a war fought between North Korea North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), i ...
of the United States Army by the Reorganization Act of June 4, 1920. The 65th Infantry was deactivated in 1956 and became the only unit ever to be transferred from an active Army component to the
Puerto Rico National Guard The Puerto Rico National Guard (PRNG) is the national guard National Guard is the name used by a wide variety of current and historical uniformed organizations in different countries. The original National Guard National Guard is the name used b ...

Puerto Rico National Guard
. Lieutenant Teófilo Marxuach (retired as a Lieutenant Colonel), a native of
Arroyo, Puerto Rico Arroyo () is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subord ...
, fired the first shot in what is considered to be the first shot of World War I fired by the regular armed forces of the United States against any ship flying the colors of the
Central Powers The Central Powers, also known as the Central Empires,german: Mittelmächte; hu, Központi hatalmak; tr, İttifak Devletleri / ; bg, Централни сили, translit=Tsentralni sili was one of the two main coalitions that fought World ...
."US Naval Institute Proceedings"; "A Breach of Neutrality"; by: Lt. Isaiah Olch, US Navy; Vol. 62; July - December 1936 Marxuach, who was a member of the "Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry" and Officer of the Day, on March 25, 1915, opened fire on the ''Odenwald'', an armed German supply vessel, when it was trying to force its way out of San Juan's bay. The shots ordered by Lt. Marxuach were the first fired by the United States in World War I. In 1919, Félix Rigau Carrera, "El Aguila de Sabana Grande" (The Eagle from Sabana Grande), the first Puerto Rican pilot, became the first native Puerto Rican to fly an aircraft in the island when he flew his
Curtiss JN-4 The Curtiss JN "Jenny" was a series of biplane A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft A fixed-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air flying machine Early flying machines include all forms of aircraft studied or constructed before the dev ...

Curtiss JN-4
from Las Casas. At the time, the area was used by the military as an air base and it was also Puerto Rico's first commercial airport, and Rigau Carrera was allowed to perform his historic flight from the air field."El Mundo"; "Fallece El Aguila - Fue Primer Boricua Manejo Avion en la Isla" (Spanish); by: Malen Rojas Daporte; October 20, 1954; Number 13,448 Camp Las Casas was eventually closed down, and in 1950 a public housing project by the name of Residencial Fray Bartolome de Las Casas was constructed on its former location. On January 2, 1947, the people of San Juan elected Felisa Rincón de Gautier (also known as Doña Fela) (1897–1994) as their mayor. Thus, she became the first woman to be elected as the mayor of a capital city in any of the Americas. During the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
era, she ordered the establishment of the island's first Civil Defense system under the directorship of Colonel Gilberto José Marxuach (Teófilo's son). Rincón de Gautier served as mayor until January 2, 1969. On October 30, 1950, San Juan was the scene of the San Juan Uprising, one of many uprisings which occurred in various towns and cities in Puerto Rico, by the
Puerto Rican Nationalist Party The Puerto Rico Nationalist Party (Spanish language, Spanish: ''Partido Nacionalista de Puerto Rico'', PNPR) is a Puerto Rico, Puerto Rican political party founded on September 17, 1922, in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Its primary goal is to work for ...
against the governments of Puerto Rico and the United States. Among the uprising's main objective was to attack La Fortaleza and the United States Federal Court House Building in
Old San Juan Old San Juan ( es, Viejo San Juan) is a historic district located at the "northwest triangle" of the islet of San Juan. Its area roughly correlates to the Ballajá, Catedral, Marina, Mercado, San Cristóbal, Old San Juan, San Cristóbal, an ...
. The "La Fortaleza battle", which ensued between the nationalists and the police lasted 15 minutes, and ended when four of the five attackers were killed.''El ataque Nacionalista a La Fortaleza''; by Pedro Aponte Vázquez; Page 2; Publisher: Publicaciones RENÉ;


Coat of arms and flag

The has an official flag and coat of arms.On March 8, 1948 the city government of San Juan officially adopted as the city's first flag an orange field, in the center of which is the coat of arms of the city. The orange color was based and taken from Father ' text and it reads : "Escudo de armas dado a Puerto Rico por los Reyes Católicos en el año de 1511, siendo Procurador un vecino llamado Pedro Moreno. Son : un cordero blanco con su banderilla colorada, sobre un libro, y todo sobre una isla verde, que es la de Puerto Rico, y por los lados una F y una I, que quiere decir Fernando e Isabel, los Reyes Católicos que se las dieron, y hoy se conservan en el estandarte real, que es de damasco anaranjado, con que se ganó la ciudad". ("Coat of arms given to Puerto Rico by the
Catholic Monarchs The term Catholic Monarchs refers to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, com ...
in the year 1511 being Procurator a
vecino 'Vecino' means either "neighbour Neighbour, Neighbor, Neighbours or Neighbors may refer to: * Person who lives in one's neighbourhood A neighbourhood ( British English, Australian English Australian English (AusE,AusEng, AuE, AuEng, ...

vecino
named Pedro Moreno. They are: a white lamb with a red flag, on top of a book, and everything above a green island, which is Puerto Rico...which is of orange damask, with which the city was won"). It appears that the color was changed from orange to white at some point. File:La recuperación de la isla de Puerto Rico por el gobernador de la isla, Juan de Haro. Por Eugenio Cajés..jpg, A 17th-century Spanish painting commemorating Captain Juan de Amézqueta's victory and Enrico's defeat at Puerto Rico de San Juan; by
Eugenio Caxés Eugenio Caxés (1574/75 – 15 December 1634) was a Spain, Spanish painter of the Baroque period. Biography He was born into a Florence, Florentine family in Madrid, and wrote his name in a variety of ways (Cajés, Cazés, Caxesi, and Caxe ...
,
Museo del Prado The Prado Museum ( ; ), officially known as Museo Nacional del Prado, is the main Spanish national art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own Collection (artwork), collection. I ...

Museo del Prado
File:El Morro Castle, San Juan, Puerto Rico.jpg, Castle San Felipe del Morro File:Félix Rigau Carrera.jpg, Rigau Carrera poses in his plane (1919) File:Teofilo Marxuach.jpg, Lieutenant Teofilo Marxuach File:La Fortaleza attack-1950.jpg, The bodies of two nationalists lie on the ground after their attack on
La Fortaleza ''La Fortaleza'' (''The Fortress'') is the official residence An official residence is the House, residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, governor, Clergy, religious leader, leaders of international organizations, ...

La Fortaleza
(1950) File:Coat of arms of San Juan (Puerto Rico).svg, The coat of arms of San Juan


Geography

San Juan is located along the north-eastern coast of Puerto Rico in the Northern Plains region. It lies south of the Atlantic Ocean; north of
Caguas Caguas (), founded in 1775, is a city and Municipalities of Puerto Rico, municipality of Puerto Rico located in the Central Mountain Range of Puerto Rico, south of San Juan, Puerto Rico, San Juan and Trujillo Alto, Puerto Rico, Trujillo Alto, wes ...
and
Trujillo Alto Trujillo Alto () is a Trujillo Alto barrio-pueblo, town and Municipalities of Puerto Rico, municipality of Puerto Rico located in the Northern Coastal Plain, on the boundary between the karst zone and Sierra de Luquillo, north of Caguas, Puerto R ...
; east of
Guaynabo Guaynabo () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledg ...
; and west of Carolina. The city occupies an area of , of which, (37.83%) is water. San Juan's main water bodies are San Juan Bay and two natural lagoons, the Condado Lagoon, Condado and Laguna San José (Puerto Rico), San José.


Hurricane Maria

Much of San Juan was flooded with
Hurricane Maria Hurricane Maria was a deadly Category 5 hurricane A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale ...

Hurricane Maria
on September 20, 2017, which also triggered numerous landslides.


Climate

San Juan has a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification, Am). It has an average temperature of . Temperatures of or higher are seen on an average 79 days annually, more commonly occurring during the wetter months of the northern summer, especially if the winds come from the south. In the winter, temperatures can drop to around . The average winter low is . The coolest temperature officially recorded was on March 3, 1957, and the hottest was on October 9, 1981. The record cold daily maximum is on February 4, 1935. The record warm daily minimum is on August 11, 1995, the most recent of four occasions. With a mean minimum of 67 °F (19 C), San Juan is in USDA plant hardiness zone 13B the highest category. Rainfall is well-distributed throughout the year. The months of January, February, and March are the driest. As March averages just of rain, the city falls under the tropical monsoon climate, tropical monsoon category. Rainfall averages , falling on an average 198.5 days per year. Despite this dampness, the city averages 2,970 hours of sunshine per year, or just over ⅔ of the possible total. Annual rainfall has historically ranged from in 1991 to in 2010.


Cityscape


Architecture

The architecture of San Juan is very diverse, due to its size and all the cultural influences received during its existence. The oldest part of the city, known as
Old San Juan Old San Juan ( es, Viejo San Juan) is a historic district located at the "northwest triangle" of the islet of San Juan. Its area roughly correlates to the Ballajá, Catedral, Marina, Mercado, San Cristóbal, Old San Juan, San Cristóbal, an ...
, mostly features the influence of Spanish architecture. This part of the city is comprised by a network of Sett (paving), "setted" roads usually surrounded by ancient, two-storied houses built on masonry. Some colonial structures have been restored and serve either as government offices or museums. Some examples are the Ballajá Barracks, which now serve as museum and headquarters of several cultural organizations;
La Fortaleza ''La Fortaleza'' (''The Fortress'') is the official residence An official residence is the House, residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, governor, Clergy, religious leader, leaders of international organizations, ...

La Fortaleza
, which has served as the residence of the Governor of Puerto Rico since the 16th Century; and the Ancient Welfare Asylum, which now houses the Institute of Puerto Rican Culture, among others. Old San Juan also features several public squares, like the Plaza de Armas, San Juan, Plaza de Armas, located in front of San Juan City Hall; and cathedrals, like the Catedral Metropolitana Basílica de San Juan Bautista (San Juan, Puerto Rico), Cathedral of San Juan Bautista. Old San Juan is also notable for being partly enclosed by massive walls and fortifications built by the Spanish government. The architecture is more varied in other districts of the city. The district of Santurce, Puerto Rico, Santurce features a lot of influence from art deco, while the districts of Hato Rey, Puerto Rico, Hato Rey feature more modern structures.


Barrios

What is now known as
Old San Juan Old San Juan ( es, Viejo San Juan) is a historic district located at the "northwest triangle" of the islet of San Juan. Its area roughly correlates to the Ballajá, Catedral, Marina, Mercado, San Cristóbal, Old San Juan, San Cristóbal, an ...
occupied the western end of a rocky islet, the Isleta de San Juan, at the mouth of San Juan Bay. During the 20th century, the main population centers surged well beyond the walls of the old city and onto Puerto Rico's main island, and merged with the existing settlements east and south of Old San Juan. With the annexation of Río Piedras, Puerto Rico, Río Piedras in 1951, the municipality of San Juan grew to four times its previous size. As a result, the municipality also went from 2 to 18 barrios (barrios), 16 of which fall within the former municipality of Río Piedras. Eight of the 18 barrios are further subdivided into subbarrios, including the two barrios (San Juan Antiguo and Santurce) that belonged to the original municipality of San Juan. The 18 barrios are: # Caimito, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Caimito # Cupey, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Cupey # El Cinco, San Juan, Puerto Rico, El Cinco # Gobernador Piñero, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Gobernador Piñero # Hato Rey Central, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Hato Rey Central # Hato Rey Norte, San Juan, Hato Rey Norte # Hato Rey Sur, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Hato Rey Sur # Monacillo, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Monacillo # Monacillo Urbano, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Monacillo Urbano # Oriente, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Oriente # Pueblo, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Pueblo # Quebrada Arenas, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Quebrada Arenas # Sabana Llana Norte, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Sabana Llana Norte # Sabana Llana Sur, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Sabana Llana Sur # San Juan Antiguo (not to be confused with Old San Juan, Puerto Rico, Old San Juan, a historic district with some overlapping areas) # Santurce # Tortugo, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Tortugo # Universidad, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Universidad


Old San Juan

During the Spanish colonial times most of the urban population resided in what is now known as
Old San Juan Old San Juan ( es, Viejo San Juan) is a historic district located at the "northwest triangle" of the islet of San Juan. Its area roughly correlates to the Ballajá, Catedral, Marina, Mercado, San Cristóbal, Old San Juan, San Cristóbal, an ...
. This sector is located on the western half of a small island called the ''Isleta de San Juan'', which is connected to the mainland by two bridges and a causeway. The small island, which comprises an area of , also hosts the working-class neighborhood of Puerta de Tierra and most of Puerto Rico's Executive Departments of the Government of Puerto Rico, central government buildings, including the Puerto Rico Capitol, Commonwealth's Capitol. The main central part of the city is characterized by narrow streets made of blue cobblestone and picturesque colonial buildings, some of which date back to the 16th and 17th century. Sections of the old city are surrounded by massive walls and several defensive structures and notable forts. These include the 16th-century
Fort San Felipe del Morro Castillo San Felipe del Morro, also known as El Morro, is a citadel built between 16th and 18th centuries in San Juan, Puerto Rico.www ...
and the 17th-century Fort San Cristóbal, both part of San Juan National Historic Site, and the 16th-century La Fortaleza, El Palacio de Santa Catalina, also known as
La Fortaleza ''La Fortaleza'' (''The Fortress'') is the official residence An official residence is the House, residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, governor, Clergy, religious leader, leaders of international organizations, ...

La Fortaleza
, which serves as the governor's mansion. Other buildings of interest predating the 20th century are the ''Ayuntamiento or Alcaldía'' (City Hall), the ''Diputación Provincial'' and the ''Real Intendencia'' buildings, which house the Puerto Rico Department of State, the Casa Rosa, the San José Church (1523) and the adjacent Hotel El Convento, the former house of the Ponce de León family known as Casa Blanca (San Juan), Casa Blanca, the Teatro Tapia, the former Spanish barracks (now Museum of Ballajá), ''La Princesa'' (former municipal jail, now headquartering the Puerto Rico Tourism Company), and the Santa María Magdalena de Pazzis Cemetery, located just outside the city walls. The Catedral Metropolitana Basílica de San Juan Bautista (San Juan, Puerto Rico), Cathedral of San Juan Bautista (construction began in the 1520s) is also located in Old San Juan, and contains the tomb of the Spanish explorer and settlement founder
Juan Ponce de León Juan Ponce de León (, , , ; 1474 – July 1521) was a Spaniards, Spanish explorer and ''conquistador'' known for leading the first official European expedition to Florida and serving as the first governor of Puerto Rico. He was born in Sante ...

Juan Ponce de León
. Old San Juan, also known as the "old city", is the main cultural tourist attraction in Puerto Rico; its bayside is lined by dock slips for large cruise ships.


Other districts

East of Old San Juan lies the wealthy tourist-oriented neighborhood of Condado (Santurce), Condado, which occupies land that used to be owned by entrepreneur Pablo Ubarri Capetillo, a Spanish railroad developer and Count of San José de Santurce under the Spanish colonial period. Beaches such as nearby Ocean Park (Santurce), Ocean Park, popular with swimmers, surfers and kitesurfers, are found all along the district's Atlantic coastline which is also the locus of numerous hotels. Near Condado are two separate business districts, Santurce and Miramar (Santurce), Miramar. Miramar is mainly a residential area rising south of the Condado Lagoon. It comprises the former ''barrio'' of Miraflores, as well as drained marshland and landfill over which was built San Juan's first airport, the Isla Grande airport, which was renamed Fernando Luis Ribas Dominicci Airport in honor of Major Fernando Luis Ribas-Dominicci (USAF). Miramar now hosts the Puerto Rico Convention Center as well as some of San Juan Harbor's cruise ship piers. In 2005 Miramar was designated an historical district of Puerto Rico. Santurce, originally named ''San Mateo de Cangrejos'' (Saint Matthew of the Crabs), was a settlement for freed African slaves during the early days of the city. After Pablo Ubarri sought permission to link San Juan with Río Piedras proper via steam tramway in 1878, the time it took to travel between both points were shortened and thereby stimulated the colonization and growth of the district. At the beginning of the twentieth century an electric trolley was installed, the township was split into three parts, and its main settlement, merged with the city, was renamed using the Spanish spelling of Santurtzi (''Saint George'' in Basque), Ubarri's birthplace in Biscay, Vizcaya, Spain. The "Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico" (Puerto Rico Museum of Art) and other important cultural venues are located in Santurce. South of Santurce is Hato Rey, part of the former municipality of Río Piedras. Hato Rey was grazing ground for cattle owned by the royal government (hence its name, the ''King's Herd'' in Spanish) as early as the 16th century, and is now considered the financial center of the island. A section of this district is often referred to as ''Milla de Oro'' (actually long) due in part to the many banks and businesses located there. In the southern part of the city is the socially diversified community of Río Piedras. Founded in the mid-1850s, Río Piedras was a separate town which hosted sugar cane plantations and the estates of some of San Juan's wealthiest inhabitants (as well as their working class staff). The Spanish colonial governors also had their summer home there on land which eventually gave way to the main campus of the University of Puerto Rico. In 1951 the municipalities of San Juan and Río Piedras were merged to redefine San Juan's current city limits. Today Río Piedras comprises the largest area of the municipality of San Juan. and is home to the "Plaza del Mercado" (Río Piedras Marketplace), the main campus and the Medical Sciences campus of the University of Puerto Rico and the San Juan Botanical Garden.


Demographics

San Juan is the largest city in Puerto Rico by population. From 1899 to 1950 the municipality of San Juan excluded the township of Río Piedras. For this reason, population data and land area for the period make reference only to the Antiguo San Juan and Santurce ''barrios'', or subdivisions, of San Juan. The old municipality of Río Piedras constituted the third most populated city of Puerto Rico at the time of its annexation in 1951. Its strategic location south of the capital served as a junction for all the principal ways of transportation of the island and as a geographical entry to San Juan, which are factors that prompted Río Piedras's dramatic urban development in the 20th century. According to the 2010 United States Census, 2010 Census, the racial composition of San Juan was as follows: * White American, White: 68.0% (Non-Hispanic Whites: 1.2%) * Black or African American: 18.3% (Non-Hispanic Blacks: 0.3%) * Native Americans in the United States, American Indian: 0.8% * Asian American, Asian: 0.4% * Native Hawaiians, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander American, Pacific Islander: 0.0% * Some other race: 8.2% * Multiracial American, Two or more races: 4.0% * Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanic or Latino (of any race): 98.2% Among the Hispanic and Latino population, Puerto Rican people, Puerto Ricans are, unsurprisingly, the largest group; they make up 87.5% of San Juan's Hispanic population. People of Dominican American, Dominican descent made up 12.2% of the Hispanic population, while those of Cuban American, Cuban descent formed 1.7% of the Hispanic populace. Other Hispanic and Latino groups collectively formed 3.2% of San Juan's Hispanic population. There are 4,822 whites of non-Hispanic origin living in San Juan; 1,187 blacks of non-Hispanic origin living in San Juan. Non-Hispanic whites and blacks form 1.2% and 0.3% of San Juan's population respectively. There are also approximately 673 Asians of non-Hispanic origin in San Juan; they make up less than 0.1% of the population. However, Asians of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin together number at 6,342. The vast majority of Asians in San Juan are of Chinese American, Chinese descent; of the 6,342 Asians, 4,928 are Chinese. Chinese comprise 1.4% of the population. The only other sizable Asian group in San Juan are Indian Americans; there are 698 people of Indian descent in the city, forming 0.2% of the population. There are very small numbers of people of Filipino American, Filipino, Japanese American, Japanese, and Vietnamese American, Vietnamese ancestry; none of these groups number more than 100 members. According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, 87.5% of San Juan's population was native and 12.5% were foreign-born. Of the native population, 86.9% were born in Puerto Rico or the U.S. proper, of which 75.6% were born in Puerto Rico and 8.9% were born in the U.S. The other 0.7% were born in a different U.S. territory or born abroad to American parents. The remaining 11.9% of the population were born outside the United States and U.S. territories. In recent years, an increasing number of Americans not of Hispanic ancestry (both of African American and of White American descent) have moved to San Juan. In addition, a large number of Stateside Puerto Ricans have settled in the city upon their return to Puerto Rico. There is also a growing West Indian population, both of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. In terms of ancestry, 23,875 people claimed American ancestry, which is equivalent to 5.8% of San Juan's population. Other sizable ancestry groups included those of Italian American, Italian descent, French American, French descent, and West Indian descent. People of Italian descent numbered at 1,694, forming 0.4% of the population; people of French descent numbered at 1,064, forming 0.2% of the population. Finally, those of West Indian descent numbered at 1,393, forming 0.3% of San Juan's population. Approximately 1,026 people claimed Sub-Saharan African ancestry; 719 claimed Irish American, Irish ancestry; 646 claimed German American, German ancestry; 431 claimed Arab American, Arab ancestry, and 346 claimed English American, English ancestry. There are many other ancestry groups in San Juan, but they are very scant.


Economy

San Juan experienced significant economic growth following World War II. During this period the city underwent an industrial revolution, although as of 1984 it had never generated its own economic region.Microsoft Encarta Biblioteca (2006), Microsoft Corporation The city's economy relies mostly on companies dedicated to the manufacture of several products, including: Chemical substances (bleach and house cleaning products); medicines; rum and other beverages; fertilizers; electric tools; Electronics, electronic devices; plastics, textiles, and food-based products. Tourism is also a key industry, based on San Juan's proximity to Puerto Rico's main airport, the Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport. The tourism focus of the city is located in the district of Condado Beach where there are luxurious hotels. Historical locations such as El Morro, Old San Juan and El Cuartel de Ballaja are promoted in tourism campaigns. The district of Hato Rey contains a corporate sector known as "La Milla de Oro", (The Golden Mile) which serves as the headquarters of local and international banks. San Juan's Hato Rey district is often referred to as the "Wall Street of the Caribbean", due to the influence of the area on Puerto Rico and the Caribbean's economy. Seaborne Airlines is headquartered on the 9th floor of the World Plaza Building in San Juan.


Tourism

Technological advances after World War II in the development of the airliner, coupled with the island's climate and natural setting, have transformed San Juan into the springboard for tourism around the island, and has made the rest of the Caribbean known throughout the world during the last fifty years. Today the capital features hotels, museums, historical buildings, restaurants, beaches and shopping centers. In San Juan there are tourist attractions, including: Old San Juan, Puerto Rico, Old San Juan, Ocean Park, Puerto Rico, Ocean Park, Isla Verde, Puerto Rico, Isla Verde and El Condado, Puerto Rico, Condado. Places and monuments emphasized in tourism campaigns include: Old San Juan, promoting the historic nature of its colonial buildings and narrow streets covered by adoquine, a blue stone cast from furnace slag; they were brought over as ballast on Spanish ships. This includes the city's ancient defensive wall and forts, most notably Castillo San Felipe del Morro, El Morro and the Castillo San Cristóbal (San Juan), Castillo San Cristóbal. On January 23, 1984 both of these edifices were catalogued as being part of humanity's cultural patrimony. The restaurants and art galleries in the zone are visited by tourists. The local universities are promoted as historic places, most notably the campus of University of Puerto Rico located in Río Piedras, which is the oldest university on the island being founded in 1903.


Post Hurricane Maria

An April 2019 report indicated that, by that time, repairs after Hurricane Maria were moving rapidly. Only a few hotels were still closed in San Juan and that life for tourists in and around the capital had, for the most part, returned to normal. By October 2019, nearly all of the popular amenities for tourists, in the major destinations such as San Juan, Ponce and Arecibo, were in operation on the island and tourism was rebounding. This was important for the economy, since tourism provides up 10% of Puerto Rico's GDP, according to Discover Puerto Rico. In late November 2019, reports indicated that 90 calls to San Juan by Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., Royal Caribbean ships would be cancelled during 2020 and 2021. This step would mean 360,000 fewer visitors, with a loss to the island's economy of $44 million. As well, 30 ship departures from San Juan were being canceled. The rationale for this decision was discussed in a news report, as follows:
The reason for the cancellations is the privatization of the cruise docks in San Juan due to much-needed maintenance that is needed. Around $250 million investment is needed to make sure cruise ships can continue to dock there in the years to come. There is an urge for governor Wanda Vazquez to not go ahead with the privatization so this news is fluid.


Arts and culture

San Juan is the birthplace of artists and musicians who have significantly influenced Puerto Rican culture. During the 20th century, the musical aspect of the city was influenced by performers including West Indian Americans, Afro-Caribbean dancer and choreographer Sylvia del Villard and José Enrique Pedreira who became a composer of Puerto Rican Music of Puerto Rico#Danza, ''Danzas''. International musicians such as opera singer Justino Díaz and Grammy Award winners Daddy Yankee, Ramón Ayala (Daddy Yankee) and Ricky Martin were born in the city. Other notable residents include writers Giannina Braschi and Tomás Blanco (writer), Tomas Blanco, award-winning actors Raul Julia and Benicio del Toro, and comedian José Miguel Agrelot. Rafael Cordero (educator), Rafael Cordero (1790–1868), was influential in the development of Puerto Rican education and has been once renowned as "The Father of Public Education in Puerto Rico".


Performing arts

The Luis A. Ferré Performing Arts Center (Spanish: ''Centro de Bellas Artes Luis A. Ferré'') hosts some of the most important musical and artistic events in Puerto Rico. It is home to the Puerto Rico Symphony Orchestra (PRSO) and hosts the Casals Festival, the most important classical music festival in the Caribbean. The venue also hosts theater and musical performances such as Hamilton (musical), Hamilton, which it hosted in 2019. The Conservatory of Music of Puerto Rico is a public music conservatory that hosts Puerto Rican and international students has a longstanding relationship with the classical music movement in the island. The Ateneo Puertorriqueño and the theater of the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras also host important music events.


Museums

The city is also the home of contemporary and classic art museums. The Museum of Art of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Museum of Art hosts the largest collection of contemporary art in Puerto Rico, housing over 1,100 permanent art pieces and displaying temporary exhibitions containing artwork from various locations through Latin America. The Puerto Rico Museum of Contemporary Art, located in Santurce, specializes in contemporary artwork from Latin America and the Caribbean. The paintings displayed in the permanent exhibition are either acquired by the museum's administrative personnel or donated by artists and collectors. They are judged by a panel of painters, art critics, and scholars before being displayed. Other museums such as the Pablo Casals Museum, the Book Museum, Americas Museum and the National Gallery display historic items and artwork alongside contemporary art. Miscellaneous museums such as the Children's Museum and the Bacardi Distillery (also known as the "Rum Cathedral") in nearby Cataño appeal to different audiences through interactive exhibitions.
Old San Juan Old San Juan ( es, Viejo San Juan) is a historic district located at the "northwest triangle" of the islet of San Juan. Its area roughly correlates to the Ballajá, Catedral, Marina, Mercado, San Cristóbal, Old San Juan, San Cristóbal, an ...
is also home to important art museums, such as the Puerto Rico National Gallery or Galería Nacional, and numerous private art galleries.


Government

As one of Puerto Rico's 78 Municipalities of Puerto Rico, municipalities, San Juan's government consists of two branches, the executive and the legislative. Those citizens eligible to vote directly elect the Mayor of San Juan and the municipal assembly for four-year terms. The municipal government is housed in San Juan City Hall, City Hall or ''Casa Alcaldia'', which is located at 153 San Francisco Street, facing the Plaza de Armas, San Juan, Plaza de Armas at the center of
Old San Juan Old San Juan ( es, Viejo San Juan) is a historic district located at the "northwest triangle" of the islet of San Juan. Its area roughly correlates to the Ballajá, Catedral, Marina, Mercado, San Cristóbal, Old San Juan, San Cristóbal, an ...
. City Hall was constructed based on Madrid, Spain, Madrid's City Hall starting in 1604 and finally completed in 1789. The executive branch is headed by a popularly elected mayor. The office is held by Miguel Romero, Miguel Romero Lugo who won in the Puerto Rican general election, 2020, 2020 general election. Miguel Romero, Miguel Romero Lugo took over from Carmen Yulín Cruz, who was elected at the Puerto Rican general election, 2012, 2012 general election. Before her, Jorge A. Santini held the position for 12 years. In addition to running the city's day-to-day operations and supervising associated departments, the mayor is responsible for appointing a secretary-auditor and a treasurer. San Juan's Municipal Legislature is made up of 17 municipal legislators, elected at-large, which represent the city's population. San Juan is also the seat of the Puerto Rico Senatorial district I, which is represented by two Senators.


Safety

In 2010 there were 201 homicides in San Juan, a rate of around 50 per 100,000 residents. In 2019 they were 172 homicides a rate of 53 per 100,000 residents.Law enforcement in San Juan is the joint responsibility of the Department of Police and Public Safety, also known as the San Juan Police Department and the Puerto Rico Police Department. The Municipal Police, originally known as the "San Juan Municipal Guard", was created in 1521 and had active military and law enforcement functions until 1980, when Act #77 created municipal law enforcement agencies in Puerto Rico. It employs over 1,000 sworn officers plus civilian staff.


Media


Newspapers

Most of Puerto Rico's major newspapers are published in San Juan: El Nuevo Día, Primera Hora (Puerto Rico), Primera Hora, El Vocero and the English-language The San Juan Star, San Juan Star. Other newspapers published in San Juan are Metro Newspapers, Metro Puerto Rico, Indice and Caribbean Business, Caribbean Business News.


Radio

San Juan is also home to several of Puerto Rico's major radio stations: WKAQ (AM), WKAQ 580 AM and WKAQ-FM, 105 FM, WPRM Salsoul 99.1 FM, WODA La Nueva 94 FM, Fidelity 95.7 FM, WSKN Radio Isla 1320 AM, WORO Radio Oro 92.5 FM, Salsa Hits Radio, WAPA Radio, WOYE Magic 97.3, WRTU Radio Universidad FM, WIPR 940 AM, Mix 107.7 FM, WTOK Hot 102, AZ Rock, Radio Antillas, etc.


Television

Some of the television states based in San Juan are WKAQ-TV Telemundo/NBC, NBC Puerto Rico, Univision Puerto Rico, WORA Univision Puerto Rico, WAPA-TV, WIPR-TV, Mega TV (American TV network), WTCV Mega TV, WJPX América TeVé, etc.


Movies and filming

San Juan has been the setting of numerous movies and the city has also been used as a stand-in or substitute for other cities and countries where filming is more expensive, more dangerous or more restrictive. Some of the most popular movies filmed in San Juan are: Woody Allen's Bananas (film), Bananas (1971), Captain Ron (1992), Assassins (1995 film), Assassins (1995), Amistad (film), Amistad (1997), Bad Boys II (2003) standing-in as Havana, Dirty Dancing: Havana Nights (2004) also as Havana, The Men Who Stare at Goats (film), The Men Who Stare at Goats (2009) standing-in as Iraq, The Losers (film), The Losers (2010), Fast Five (2011) stading-in as Miami and Rio de Janeiro, Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides (2011) standing-in as Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain, The Rum Diary (film), The Rum Diary (2011), 22 Jump Street (2014) standing-in as a Mexican resort, Captain America: Civil War (2016) standing-in as Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria, and the controversial film Force of Nature (2020 film), Force of Nature (2020).


Education


Colleges and universities

San Juan is home to many of Puerto Rico's institutions of higher learning. The UPRRP, University of Puerto Rico Río Piedras Campus is located in San Juan, along with the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico's Medical Sciences Campus. Other colleges located in San Juan are the University of the Sacred Heart (Puerto Rico), University of the Sacred Heart, the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico, the Ana G. Méndez University System's Metropolitan University (Puerto Rico), Metropolitan University, the Metropolitan Campus of the Inter American University of Puerto Rico, the Carlos Albizu University, the Evangelic Seminary of Puerto Rico and the Center for Advanced Studies on Puerto Rico and the Caribbean. There are smaller colleges located in the city, including the ICPR Junior College, the ''Instituto de Banca y Comercio'' and the International Junior College, located in Santurce. There are also several technical schools based in San Juan, including the Technological College of San Juan, the ''Liceo de Artes y Ciencias'', Ramirez College of Business and Technology, and the Puerto Rico Technical Junior College. The Puerto Rico Conservatory of Music and the Escuela de Artes Plásticas y Diseño de Puerto Rico, School of Fine Arts in Old San Juan specialize in education that promotes the fine arts and music.


Public and private schools

Also, San Juan is home to 136 public schools operated by the Puerto Rico Department of Education. Most of the specialized schools operated by the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are located in San Juan. These schools emphasize topics such as Science and Math, Radio and Television, Arts, Trade, Music, and Sports, but also include other subjects such as Spanish, English, and Social Studies in their curriculum. In addition to dozens of state-run elementary, intermediate, and high schools, the government of the city of San Juan operates two bilingual schools, including one sports-magnet school, the first municipal-run schools in Puerto Rico. Several private schools are located in San Juan, including Robinson and St. John's schools in the Condado (Santurce), Condado, Perpetuo Socorro in Miramar, Puerto Rico, Miramar, St. John's Episcopal, Santa Mónica and Academia San Jorge in Santurce, Commonwealth High School, La Merced and Espíritu Santo in Hato Rey, Escuela Josefita Monserrate de Selles, San Antonio, Colegio San Ignacio de Loyola, San José in Río Piedras and Cupeyville School, Cupeyville, St. Mary's, Boneville and Cupey Maria Montesory School in Cupey.


Transportation

The Port of San Juan is the fourth busiest seaport in the Western Hemisphere, ranked among the top 17 in the world in terms of container movement. It is also the largest home-based cruise port in the world with over a dozen cruise ships. It is the second busiest port in cruise volume after Miami. The Metropolitan Area is served by two airports. The Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport, San Juan's primary commercial airport, is located eight miles () from Old San Juan in the neighboring municipality of Carolina. The airport accommodates more than 30 domestic and international airlines and is the busiest airport in the Caribbean. It is often referred to as "The Gateway to the Caribbean" because it serves as the main connection to the island and the rest of the Caribbean for the United States and vice versa. The area's secondary airport is the Fernando Ribas Dominicci Airport, which is located directly across the San Antonio Creek or ''Cano San Antonio'' from Old San Juan in the Isla Grande district. Dominicci Airport is used mainly by general aviation aircraft, charter flights, and some domestic commercial flights. It used to be the city's and also the island of Puerto Rico's main international gateway until the opening of Luis Muñoz Marin International Airport. It is now also widely used by the Isla Grande Flight School and Caribbean Flight Center, the only flight school on the island. There are 193 bridges in San Juan.


Public transport

At 4,300 vehicles per paved mile, San Juan has by far the highest density of vehicles on the road of any city in the world. The city is served by five limited-access expressways and highways and numerous arterial avenues and boulevards, but continues to suffer from severe traffic congestion. The Puerto Rico Metropolitan Bus Authority, Metropolitan Bus Authority (''Autoridad Metropolitana de Autobuses'' or ''AMA'' in Spanish) provides daily bus transportation to residents of San Juan, Guaynabo, Bayamón, Toa Baja, Trujillo Alto, Cataño and Carolina through 30 fixed routes. Its fleet consists of 277 regular buses and 35 handicap-accessible buses. AMA's ridership is estimated at 112,000 on weekdays. There is also a daily ferry service, known as the Cataño Ferry (''La Lancha de Cataño''), which operates between Old San Juan and the town of Cataño. In an attempt to decrease vehicle dependency and road congestion, the city built a rapid transit, metro system dubbed "Tren Urbano" ("Urban Train"). The line connects to 16 stations. The project, which opened in late 2004, cost $2.25 billion and was more than $1 billion over budget and four years late. The Tren Urbano has received less ridership than was originally projected and has not significantly reduced the city's automobile traffic, despite a reported 7.5% ridership increase in 2006 over 2005. There is a planned project to build an "interurban light rail system" connecting the cities of San Juan-Caguas Rail, San Juan and Caguas. Increased investment in public transportation, however, has not changed the fact that San Juan is an Automobile dependency, automobile-reliant city and its fast growth has sparked urban sprawl. As of mid-2010, the government has approved plans for a redesign of this Puerto Rican city, featuring a new mass transit system, new roads and intersections, and more beach-access points. Road space rationing, No cars will be allowed inside the oldest part of city (Old San Juan). The plans hope to remedy previous poor urban planning in the oldest section of the city, the Isleta, while curbing reliance on motor vehicles. The plans for redevelopment also hope to make the city more appealing in order to attract new residents, as San Juan has suffered from a shrinking population over the past 60 years.


Health and utilities

San Juan has an elaborate system of triage, hospital, and preventive care health services. The municipal government sponsors regular health fairs in different areas of the city focusing on health care for the elderly and the disabled. There are 20 hospitals in San Juan, half of them operated by the government. The largest hospital in San Juan and most important of Puerto Rico and the Caribbean is the Rio Piedras Medical Center, or ''Centro Medico de Rio Piedras'' in Spanish. This hospital, founded in 1956, is operated by the Medical Services Administration of the Department of Health of Puerto Rico. It is made up of eight other hospitals. * San Juan Municipal Hospital: This hospital is operated by the San Juan municipal government. * Industrial Hospital: This is the hospital for Puerto Rico government employees, whether municipal or Commonwealth government employees. Normally, injured police officers and firefighters are cared for here. * San Juan Pediatric Hospital - Also operated by the San Juan municipal government. * Pediatric Hospital: Operated by the government of the Commonwealth, this is the main trauma hospital for pediatric cases. * Centro Médico: This is the main hospital for trauma cases for Puerto Rico and the Caribbean. * Centro Cardiovascular del Caribe (Caribbean Cardiovascular Center): This is the main hospital for open heart surgery in the Caribbean. It features a hotel for the patients' families. * Psychiatric Hospital: The main psychiatric hospital in Puerto Rico. Operated by the government of Puerto Rico. * Psychiatric Correctional Hospital: It is both a hospital and correctional facility. It is operated jointly by the Puerto Rico Department of Corrections and the Medical Services Administration. The city of San Juan operates 10 hospitals. Of these, nine are Diagnostic and Treatment Centers located in communities throughout San Juan. The main hospital is located at Centro Medico. These 10 hospitals are: * La Perla, San Juan, Puerto Rico, La Perla * Puerta de Tierra, Puerto Rico, Puerta de Tierra * Llorens Torres * Puerto Nuevo * San José * Rio Piedras * Sabana Llana * Hoare * Santurce Parada 19 * General Hospital (Centro Medico) Also, there are 10 private hospitals in San Juan. These are: * Hospital Metropolitano * Hospital Auxilio Mutuo * Hospital Auxilio Mutuo Expreso * Hospital de Veteranos: The main Veterans hospital in the Caribbean. Operated by the U.S. Veteran Healthcare System. * Ashford Presbyterian Hospital * Hospital Pavia Hato Rey * Hospital Pavia Santurce * San Jorge Children's Hospital: The most well known children's hospital in the San Juan Metropolitan Area. * Hospital San Gerardo: Located at the Cupey neighborhood, is a small hospital but is also specialized in psychiatry and elderly. * Hospital del Maestro (Teachers Hospital): Located in Hato Rey, this hospital is operated by the Puerto Rico Teachers Association.


Sports

Teams based in San Juan have been notably successful in athletic competition. The Santurce Crabbers (basketball), Santurce Crabbers won the National Superior Basketball League championship in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2003 during this period being recognized as a dynasty. The San Juan Senators and the Santurce Crabbers (baseball), Santurce Crabbers were the two major baseball teams in the city, winning the championship of the Puerto Rican Professional Baseball League a total of 17 times. The Santurce Crabbers are located third among teams with more championships in the
Caribbean Series The Caribbean Series (''Spanish'': ''Serie del Caribe''), also called Caribbean World Series, is the highest tournament for professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents and ar ...
, winning championships in the 1951, 1953, 1955, 1993 and 2000 editions of the tournament. The city has also been the host of events within the sports community; some examples include: * Host of the 1966 Central American and Caribbean Games. * Host of the 1979 Pan American Games. * Hosted the Caribbean World Series nine times. * Major League Baseball's Montreal Expos played 22 home games at Hiram Bithorn Stadium between 2003 and 2004. The team also briefly considered moving permanently to San Juan before relocating to Washington, D.C. * Hosted the 2006 World Baseball Classic, 2006, 2009 World Baseball Classic, 2009 and 2013 World Baseball Classic at the Hiram Bithorn Stadium. * Host of the 1974 FIBA World Championship (basketball). * Host of the FIBA Americas Championship five times (1980, 1993, 1999, 2003, 2009). * Hosted the very first edition of World Wrestling Entertainment's pay per view New Year's Revolution was held at the José Miguel Agrelot Coliseum in January 2005. * The Latin American Regional
Special Olympics Special Olympics is the world's largest sports organization for children and adults with intellectual disabilities Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability and formerly mental retardation (MR), Rosa's Law, Pub. L ...
in February 2010. * Host of Major League Baseball's 2010 "San Juan Series", three games of the Mets at Marlins held on June 28–30, 2010 at Hiram Bithorn Stadium. The $28 million San Juan Natatorium attracts island-wide and regional swim meets, as well as winter training by top-rated mainland U.S. colleges and universities, including the United States Military Academy at West Point and the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis. In July 2007, the San Juan Golf Academy and its driving range began operating atop the city's former sanitary landfill in Puerto Nuevo (Hato Rey), Puerto Nuevo, and will eventually include the city's first and only 9-hole golf course.


Professional teams


International relations


Diplomatic missions


Twin towns – Sister cities

San Juan is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with:


Notable people from San Juan


See also

* History of Puerto Rico * List of former national capitals * List of national capitals * List of people from San Juan, Puerto Rico * List of streets in San Juan, Puerto Rico * Military history of Puerto Rico * Spanish Colonial style


Notes


References


Bibliography


External links


City of San Juan

National Park Service – San Juan

Historic Places in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary

National Weather Service – San Juan, Puerto Rico

San Juan Puerto Rico
{{DEFAULTSORT:San Juan, Puerto Rico San Juan, Puerto Rico, Municipalities of Puerto Rico Bermuda Triangle Capitals in North America Capitals in the Caribbean Capitals of political divisions in the United States Populated coastal places in Puerto Rico Populated places established in 1508 Port cities in Puerto Rico San Juan–Caguas–Guaynabo metropolitan area 1508 establishments in the Spanish Empire 1508 establishments in North America