HOME

TheInfoList




Samuel de Champlain (; c. 13 August 1567 Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date nor his place of birth. – 25 December 1635) was a French colonist, navigator, cartographer, draftsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler. He made between 21 and 29 trips across the
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, and founded
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
, and
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan Franc ...

New France
, on 3 July 1608. An important figure in
Canadian history The history of Canada covers the period from the arrival of the Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day. Prior to History of colonialism, European colonization, the lands encompassing present-day Canada were inhabited for millenni ...
, Champlain created the first accurate coastal map during his explorations, and founded various colonial settlements. Born into a family of sailors, Champlain began exploring
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
in 1603, under the guidance of his uncle, François Gravé Du Pont. d'Avignon (2008) After 1603, Champlain's life and career consolidated into the path he would follow for the rest of his life. From 1604 to 1607, he participated in the exploration and creation of the first permanent European settlement north of Florida,
Port Royal Port Royal is a village located at the end of the Palisadoes Palisadoes (word apparently of Portuguese language, Portuguese origin) is the thin tombolo of sand that serves as a natural protection for Kingston Harbour, Jamaica. Norman Manley ...
,
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country pri ...

Acadia
(1605). In 1608, he established the French settlement that is now
Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec), officially Québec (), is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Quebec. As of July 2016, the city had a population of 531,902, and the Communauté métrop ...

Quebec City
.Thanks to Pierre Dugua de Mons, who fully financed—at a loss—the first years of both French settlements in North America (first Acadia, then Quebec). Champlain was the first European to describe the
Great Lakes upright=1.3, Location in North America The Great Lakes also called the Great Lakes of North America or the Laurentian Great Lakes, is a series of large interconnected freshwater lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a ...

Great Lakes
, and published maps of his journeys and accounts of what he learned from the natives and the French living among the Natives. He formed long time relationships with local Montagnais and
Innu The Innu / Ilnu ("man", "person") or Innut / Innuat / Ilnuatsh ("people"), formerly called Montagnais from the French colonial period (French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France ...
, and, later, with others farther west—tribes of the
Ottawa River The Ottawa River (french: Rivière des Outaouais, Algonquin Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of e ...
,
Lake Nipissing Lake Nipissing (; french: lac Nipissing) is a lake in the Canadian province of Ontario , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/cent ...
, and
Georgian Bay Georgian Bay (french: Baie Georgienne) is a large bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of ...

Georgian Bay
, and with
Algonquin Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of eastern North America from Canada to Virginia **Algonquin languag ...
and Wendat; he also agreed to provide assistance in the
Beaver Wars The Beaver Wars, also known as the Iroquois Wars or the French and Iroquois Wars (french: Guerres franco-iroquoises), encompass a series of conflicts fought intermittently during the 17th century in North America. They were battles for economic do ...
against the
Iroquois The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous peo ...

Iroquois
. Late in the year of 1615, Champlain returned to the Wendat and stayed with them over the winter, which permitted him to make the first ethnographic observations of this important nation, the events of which form the bulk of his book ''Voyages et Descovvertvres faites en la Novvelle France, depuis l’année 1615'' published in 1619. In 1620,
Louis XIII of France Louis XIII (; sometimes called the Just; 27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, Royaume de ...
ordered Champlain to cease exploration, return to Quebec, and devote himself to the administration of the country.According to Trudel (1979), Louis was 18 years old, an inexperienced minor (when age of majority was 25), and Champlain was lieutenant to the Prince de Condé, the viceroy of New France since 1612, who, as Trudel writes, "was liberated rom jail, where he been for 3 yearsin October 1619, and yielded his rights as viceroy to
Henri II de Montmorency Henri II de Montmorency (30 April 1595 – 30 October 1632) was a French nobleman and military commander. Biography Born at Chantilly, Oise, Henri was the son of Henri I de Montmorency. He was the godson of Henri IV of France, Henri IV and was c ...

Henri II de Montmorency
, admiral of France. The latter confirmed Champlain in his office .. On 7 May 1620, Louis XIII wrote to Champlain to enjoin him to maintain the country 'in obedience to me, making the people who are there live as closely in conformity with the laws of my kingdom as you can.' From that moment Champlain was to devote himself exclusively to the administration of the country; he was to undertake no further great voyages of discovery; his career as an explorer had ended."
In every way but formal title, Samuel de Champlain served as
Governor of New France A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (p ...
, a title that may have been formally unavailable to him owing to his non-noble status.Some say that the King of France made him his "''royal'' geographer", but it is unproven and may only come from
Marc Lescarbot Marc Lescarbot (c. 1570–1641) was a French author, poet and lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at lawAttorney at law or attorney-at-law, usually abbreviated in everyday speech to attorn ...
books: Champlain never used that title. The honorific "''de''" was only added to his name from 1610, when he was already well-known, right after his patron, King
Henry IVHenry IV may refer to: People * Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1050–1106), King of The Romans and Holy Roman Emperor * Henry IV, Duke of Limburg (1195–1247) * Henry IV, Duke of Brabant (1251/1252–1272) * Henryk IV Probus (c. 1258–1290), Duke ...

Henry IV
, was murdered. This usage by a non-noble was tolerated so that he would continue to gain access to the court during the long regency of
King Louis XIII Louis XIII (; sometimes called the Just; 27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was List of French monarchs, King of France from 1610 until his death in 1643 and List of Navarrese monarchs, King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when t ...
(who was only eight years old at the death of his father). Champlain received the official title of "lieutenant" (adjunct representative) of whichever noble was designated as Viceroy of New France, the first being
Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons Pierre Dugua de Mons (or Du Gua de Monts; c. 1558 – 1628) was a French merchant, explorer and colonizer. A Calvinist, he was born in the Château de Mons, in Royan, Saintonge (southwestern France) and founded the first permanent French settl ...
. From 1629 Champlain was named "commandant" under the authority of the King Minister, Richelieu. It was Champlain's successor,
Charles Jacques Huault de Montmagny Charles Jacques Huault de Montmagny (c. 1583 to 1599 – 4 July 1657) was governor of New France from 1636 to 1648. He was the first person to bear the title of Governor of New France and succeeded Samuel de Champlain, who governed the colony as Li ...
, who was the first to be formally named as the governor of New France, when he moved to Quebec City in 1636 and became the first noble to live there in that century.
Champlain established trading companies that sent goods, primarily fur, to France, and oversaw the growth of New France in the
St. Lawrence River The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a roughly north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes File:Location of the Great Lakes in North America.jpg, upr ...
valley until his death, in 1635. Champlain is memorialized as the "Father of New France", "Father of
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country pri ...

Acadia
", or in French "Père de la Nouvelle-France" with many places, streets, and structures in northeastern North America bearing his name, most notably
Lake Champlain , native_name_lang = , image = Champlainmap.svg , caption = Lake Champlain-River Richelieu watershed , image_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = , location = New York (state), New York/Vermont in the United States; and Quebec in Canada , ...

Lake Champlain
.


Birth year, location and family

Champlain was born to Antoine Champlain (also written "Anthoine Chappelain" in some records) and Marguerite Le Roy, in either
Hiers-Brouage Hiers-Brouage () is a former commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is wha ...
, or the port city of
La Rochelle La Rochelle (, , ; Poitevin-Saintongeais: ''La Rochéle''; oc, La Rochèla ) is a city on the south west coast of France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Charente-Maritime Departments of ...

La Rochelle
, in the province of
Aunis Aunis () is a historical Provinces of France, province of France, situated in the north-west of the department of Charente-Maritime. Its historic capital is La Rochelle, which took over from Châtelaillon-Plage, Castrum Allionis (Châtelaillon) th ...
. He was born on or before 13 August 1574, according to a recent baptism record found by Jean-Marie Germe, French genealogist. Germe, p. 2 Although in 1870, the Canadian Catholic priest Laverdière, in the first chapter of his ''Œuvres de Champlain'', accepted Pierre-Damien Rainguet's estimate of Champlain's birth in 1567 and tried to justify it, his calculations were based on assumptions now believed, or proven, to be incorrect. Although Léopold Delayant (member, secretary, then president of ''l'Académie des belles-lettres, sciences et arts de La Rochelle'') wrote as early as 1867 that Rainguet's estimate was wrong, the books of Rainguet and Laverdière have had a significant influence. The 1567 date was carved on numerous
monuments is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end o ...

monuments
dedicated to Champlain and is widely regarded as accurate. In the first half of the 20th century, some authors disagreed, choosing 1570 or 1575 instead of 1567. In 1978 Jean Liebel published groundbreaking research about these estimates of Champlain's birth year and concluded, "Samuel Champlain was born about 1580 in Brouage, France." Liebel asserts that some authors, including the Catholic priests Rainguet and Laverdière, preferred years when Brouage was under Catholic control (which include 1567, 1570, and 1575). Champlain claimed to be from Brouage in the title of his 1603 book and to be ''Saintongeois'' in the title of his second book (1613). He belonged to either a
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
family, or a tolerant
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome , established_title = ...

Roman Catholic
one, since Brouage was most of the time a Catholic city in a Protestant region, and his
Old Testament The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the , which is based primarily upon the 24 books of the or Tanakh, a collection of ancient religious Hebrew writings by the . The second division of Christian Bibles is the , w ...
first name (
Samuel Samuel ''Šəmūʾēl''; ar, إِشْمَوِيل ' or '; el, Σαμουήλ ''Samouḗl''; la, Samūēl is a figure who, in the narratives of the , plays a key role in the transition from the period of the to the institution of a under ...

Samuel
) was not usually given to Catholic children. According to many modern historians, including Alain Laberge, the 2008 Chair of the History Department at
Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec), officially Québec (), is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Quebec. As of July 2016, the city had a population of 531,902, and the Communauté métrop ...

Quebec City
's
Laval University Laval means ''The Valley'' in old French and is the name of: People * House of Laval, a French noble family originating from the town of Laval, Mayenne Laval () is a town in western France, about west-southwest of Paris, and the capital of the ...
, a specialist in the history of New France, Champlain could have been born a
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
. A guest on the 6 February 2008
CBC radio CBC Radio is the English-language radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 hertz (Hz) and 300 gigahertz (GHz). ...
programme, ''
Sounds Like Canada ''Sounds Like Canada'' was a Canada, Canadian radio program, which aired weekday mornings on CBC Radio One from 2002 to 2008. Until the end of May 2008, the program was hosted by the award-winning broadcaster Shelagh Rogers, and in the summers by a ...
'', Professor Laberge said that the fact of Champlain's Protestantism would have been downplayed or omitted from educational materials in Quebec by the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history ...

Roman Catholic Church
, who controlled
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
's education system from 1627 until 1962.
However, Champlain was born in or near a time when the city was taken by Protestants, but Brouage became a royal fortress and its governor, from 1627 until his death in 1642, was
Cardinal Richelieu Armand Jean du Plessis, Duke of Richelieu Duke of Richelieu was a title of French nobility. It was created on 26 November 1629 for Cardinal Richelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu (known as Cardinal Richelieu) who, as a Roman Catholic cl ...
, a strong anti-Protestant.
The exact location of his birth is thus also not known with certainty, but at the time of his birth his parents were living in Brouage.His family lived in Brouage at the time of his birth; the exact place and date of his birth are unknow
Britannica.com
/ref> Born into a family of mariners (both his father and uncle-in-law were sailors, or navigators), Samuel Champlain learned to navigate, draw, make
nautical chart A nautical chart is a graphic representation of a sea area and adjacent coastal regions. Depending on the scale (map), scale of the chart, it may show depths of water and heights of land (topographic map), natural features of the seabed, details ...

nautical chart
s, and write practical reports. His education did not include
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). Ancient Greek was the language of an ...
or
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
, so he did not read or learn from any ancient literature. As each French fleet had to assure its own defense at sea, Champlain sought to learn to fight with the firearms of his time: he acquired this practical knowledge when serving with the army of during the later stages of France's religious wars in
Brittany Brittany (; french: link=no, Bretagne ; br, Breizh, or ; Gallo language, Gallo: ''Bertaèyn'' ) is a peninsula and cultural region in the west of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occup ...
from 1594 or 1595 to 1598, beginning as a quartermaster responsible for the feeding and care of horses. During this time he claimed to go on a "certain secret voyage" for the king, and saw combat (including maybe the Siege of Fort Crozon, at the end of 1594). Fischer (2008), p. 65 Note: Fischer cites numerous other authorities in repeating this. By 1597 he was a "capitaine d'une compagnie" serving in a garrison near
Quimper Quimper (, ; br, Kemper ; la, Civitas Aquilonia or ) is a commune and capital of the Finistère department of Brittany in northwestern France. Administration Quimper is the prefecture (capital) of the Finistère department. Geography The c ...
.


Early travels

In year 3 his uncle-in-law, a navigator whose ship ''Saint-Julien'' was to transport Spanish troops to
Cádiz Cádiz (, also , ; see more below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the Province of Cádiz, one of eight that make up the autonomous community of Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost ...

Cádiz
pursuant to the
Treaty of Vervins The Peace of Vervins or Treaty of Vervins was signed between the representatives of Henry IV of France , house = House of Bourbon, Bourbon , father = Antoine of Navarre , mother = Jeanne III of Navarre , religion =Pro ...
, gave Champlain the opportunity to accompany him. After a difficult passage, he spent some time in Cádiz before his uncle, whose ship was then chartered to accompany a large Spanish fleet to the
West Indies The West Indies are a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inh ...
, again offered him a place on the ship. His uncle, who gave command of the ship to Jeronimo de Valaebrera, instructed the young Champlain to watch over the ship. This journey lasted two years, and gave Champlain the opportunity to see or hear about Spanish holdings from the Caribbean to
Mexico City Mexico City ( es, link=no, Ciudad de México, ; abbreviated as CDMX; nah, Āltepētl Mēxihco) is the and largest city of , as well as the in , and is one of the country's . Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial center ...

Mexico City
. Along the way he took detailed notes, and wrote an illustrated report on what he learned on this trip, and gave this secret report to King Henry,Three different handwritten copies of this report still exist. One of them is at the
John Carter Brown Library The John Carter Brown Library is an independently funded research library of history and the humanities on the campus of Brown University Brown University is a private university, private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Isla ...

John Carter Brown Library
at
Brown University Brown University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two de ...

Brown University
.
who rewarded Champlain with an annual pension. This report was published for the first time in 1870, by Laverdière, as ''Brief Discours des Choses plus remarquables que Sammuel Champlain de Brouage a reconneues aux Indes Occidentalles au voiage qu'il en a faict en icettes en l'année 1599 et en l'année 1601, comme ensuite'' (and in English as ''Narrative of a Voyage to the West Indies and Mexico 1599–1602''). The authenticity of this account as a work written by Champlain has frequently been questioned, due to inaccuracies and discrepancies with other sources on a number of points; however, recent scholarship indicates that the work probably was authored by Champlain.For a detailed treatment of claims against Champlain's authorship, see the chapter by François-Marc Gagnon in Litalien (2004), pp. 84ff. Fischer (2008), pp. 586ff, also addresses these claims, and accepts Champlain's authorship. On Champlain's return to Cádiz in August 1600, his uncle Guillermo Elena (Guillaume Allene), who had fallen ill, asked him to look after his business affairs. This Champlain did, and when his uncle died in June 1601, Champlain inherited his substantial estate. It included an estate near
La Rochelle La Rochelle (, , ; Poitevin-Saintongeais: ''La Rochéle''; oc, La Rochèla ) is a city on the south west coast of France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Charente-Maritime Departments of ...

La Rochelle
, commercial properties in Spain, and a 150-ton merchant ship. This inheritance, combined with the king's annual pension, gave the young explorer a great deal of independence, as he did not need to rely on the financial backing of merchants and other investors. From 1601 to 1603 Champlain served as a geographer in the court of King Henry IV. As part of his duties he travelled to ports and learned much about
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
from the fishermen that seasonally travelled to coastal areas from
Nantucket Nantucket is an island about by ferry south from Cape Cod, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. Together with the small islands of Tuckernuck Island, Tuckernuck and Muskeget, it constitutes the Town and County of Nantucket, a Consolidated city ...

Nantucket
to
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
to capitalise on the rich fishing grounds there. He also made a study of previous French failures at colonization in the area, including that of Pierre de Chauvin at
Tadoussac Tadoussac () is a village in Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saguenay River, Saguenay and Saint Lawrence River, Saint Lawrence rivers. The indigenous Innu called the place ''Totouskak'' (plural for ''totouswk'' or ''totochak'') meaning "b ...

Tadoussac
. When Chauvin forfeited his monopoly on fur trade in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
in 1602, responsibility for renewing the trade was given to Aymar de Chaste. Champlain approached de Chaste about a position on the first voyage, which he received with the king's assent. Champlain's first trip to
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
was as an observer on a fur-trading expedition led by François Gravé Du Pont. Du Pont was a navigator and merchant who had been a ship's captain on Chauvin's expedition, and with whom Champlain established a firm lifelong friendship. He educated Champlain about navigation in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
, including the
Saint Lawrence River The St. Lawrence River is a large river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its c ...
, and in dealing with the natives there (and in
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country pri ...

Acadia
after). The ''Bonne-Renommée'' (the ''Good Fame'') arrived at Tadoussac on March 15, 1603. Champlain was anxious to see for himself all of the places that
Jacques Cartier Jacques Cartier ( , also , , ; br, Jakez Karter; 31 December 14911 September 1557) was a French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republ ...

Jacques Cartier
had seen and described about sixty years earlier, and wanted to go even further than Cartier, if possible. Champlain created a map of the Saint Lawrence on this trip and, after his return to
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...

France
on 20 September, published an account as ''Des Sauvages: ou voyage de Samuel Champlain, de Brouages, faite en la France nouvelle l'an 1603'' ("Concerning the Savages: or travels of Samuel Champlain of Brouages, made in New France in the year 1603"). Champlain did not begin using the honorific ''de'' in his name until at least 1610, when he married, the year King Henry was murdered. A reprint of this book in 1612 was credited to "sieur ''de'' Champlain
civilization.ca
/ref> Included in his account were meetings with Begourat, a chief of the Montagnais at Tadoussac, in which positive relationships were established between the French and the many Montagnais gathered there, with some
Algonquin Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of eastern North America from Canada to Virginia **Algonquin languag ...
friends. Promising to King Henry to report on further discoveries, Champlain joined a second expedition to New France in the spring of 1604. This trip, once again an exploratory journey without women and children, lasted several years, and focused on areas south of the St. Lawrence River, in what later became known as
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country pri ...

Acadia
. It was led by Pierre Dugua de Mons, a noble and Protestant merchant who had been given a fur trading monopoly in New France by the king. Dugua asked Champlain to find a site for winter settlement. After exploring possible sites in the
Bay of Fundy The Bay of Fundy (french: Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine. It has an extremely high tidal range. The name is likely a corruption of the F ...

Bay of Fundy
, Champlain selected Saint Croix Island in the St. Croix River as the site of the expedition's first winter settlement. After enduring a harsh winter on the island the settlement was relocated across the bay where they established
Port Royal Port Royal is a village located at the end of the Palisadoes Palisadoes (word apparently of Portuguese language, Portuguese origin) is the thin tombolo of sand that serves as a natural protection for Kingston Harbour, Jamaica. Norman Manley ...
. Until 1607, Champlain used that site as his base, while he explored the Atlantic coast. Dugua was forced to leave the settlement for France in September 1605, because he learned that his monopoly was at risk. His monopoly was rescinded by the king in July 1607 under pressure from other merchants and proponents of free trade, leading to the abandonment of the settlement. In 1605 and 1606, Champlain explored the North American coast as far south as
Cape Cod Cape Cod is a extending into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern corner of mainland , in the northeastern United States. Its historic, maritime character and ample beaches attract heavy tourism during the summer months. As defined by th ...

Cape Cod
, searching for sites for a permanent settlement. Minor skirmishes with the resident
Nauset The Nauset people, sometimes referred to as the Cape Cod Indians, lived in what is present-day Cape Cod Cape Cod is a geographic cape extending into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern corner of mainland Massachusetts Massachusetts ...
s dissuaded him from the idea of establishing one near present-day
Chatham, Massachusetts Chatham (IPA: ˈ ʃætəm is a New England town, town in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, United States. Chatham is located at the southeast tip of Cape Cod, and has historically been a fishing community. Firs ...
. He named the area Mallebar ("bad bar"). Vermont Map


Founding of Quebec

In the spring of 1608, Dugua wanted Champlain to start a new French colony and fur trading centre on the shores of the St. Lawrence. Dugua equipped, at his own expense, a fleet of three ships with workers, that left the French port of
Honfleur Honfleur () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs ...

Honfleur
. The main ship, called the ''Don-de-Dieu'' (French for the ''Gift of God''), was commanded by Champlain. Another ship, the ''Lévrier'' (the ''Hunt Dog''), was commanded by his friend Du Pont. The small group of male settlers arrived at
Tadoussac Tadoussac () is a village in Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saguenay River, Saguenay and Saint Lawrence River, Saint Lawrence rivers. The indigenous Innu called the place ''Totouskak'' (plural for ''totouswk'' or ''totochak'') meaning "b ...
on the lower St. Lawrence in June. Because of the dangerous strength of the
Saguenay River __NOTOC__ The Saguenay River () is a major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its ...
ending there, they left the ships and continued up the "Big River" in small boats bringing the men and the materials.Only at his last arrival (in 1633), Champlain did not leave the ships at Tadoussac but sailed them directly to Quebec City. Trudel (1979) Upon arriving in Quebec, Champlain later wrote: "I arrived there on the 3rd of July, when I searched for a place suitable for our settlement; but I could find none more convenient or better suited than the point of Quebec, so called by the savages, which was covered with nut-trees." Champlain ordered his men to gather lumber by cutting down the nut-trees for use in building habitations. Some days after Champlain's arrival in Quebec, Jean du Val, a member of Champlain's party, plotted to kill Champlain to the end of securing the settlement for the Basques or Spaniards and making a fortune for himself. Du Val's plot was ultimately foiled when an associate of Du Val confessed his involvement in the plot to Champlain's pilot, who informed Champlain. Champlain had a young man deliver Du Val, along with 3 co-conspirators, two bottles of wine and invite the four worthies to an event on board a boat. Soon after the four conspirators arrived on the boat, Champlain had them arrested. Du Val was strangled and hung in Quebec and his head was displayed in the "most conspicuous place" of Champlain's fort. The other three were sent back to France to be tried.


Relations and war with Native Americans

During the summer of 1609, Champlain attempted to form better relations with the local native tribes. He made alliances with the Wendat (derogatorily called ''Huron'' by the French) and with the
Algonquin Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of eastern North America from Canada to Virginia **Algonquin languag ...
, the Montagnais and the Etchemin, who lived in the area of the
St. Lawrence River The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a roughly north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes File:Location of the Great Lakes in North America.jpg, upr ...
. These tribes sought Champlain's help in their war against the
Iroquois The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous pe ...
, who lived farther south. Champlain set off with nine French soldiers and 300 natives to explore the ''Rivière des Iroquois'' (now known as the
Richelieu River The Richelieu River () is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course wit ...
), and became the first European to map
Lake Champlain , native_name_lang = , image = Champlainmap.svg , caption = Lake Champlain-River Richelieu watershed , image_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = , location = New York (state), New York/Vermont in the United States; and Quebec in Canada , ...

Lake Champlain
. Having had no encounters with the Haudenosaunee at this point many of the men headed back, leaving Champlain with only 2 Frenchmen and 60 natives. On 29 July, somewhere in the area near Ticonderoga and
Crown Point, New York Crown Point is a town in Essex County, New York (state), New York, United States, located on the west shore of Lake Champlain. The population was 2,024 at the 2010 census. The name of the town is a direct translation of the original French name, " ...
(historians are not sure which of these two places, but
Fort Ticonderoga Fort Ticonderoga (), formerly , is a large 18th-century built by the at a narrows near the south end of , in northern , in the . It was constructed by Canadian-born French military engineer between October 1755 and 1757, during the action i ...

Fort Ticonderoga
historians claim that it occurred near its site), Champlain and his party encountered a group of Haudenosaunee. In a battle that began the next day, two hundred and fifty Haudenosaunee advanced on Champlain's position, and one of his guides pointed out the three chiefs. In his account of the battle, Champlain recounts firing his
arquebus An arquebus ( ) is a form of long gun A long gun is a category of firearm A firearm is any type of gun A gun is a ranged weapon designed to use a shooting tube ( gun barrel) to launch typically solid projectiles, but can also proj ...

arquebus
and killing two of them with a single shot, after which one of his men killed the third. The Haudenosaunee turned and fled. This action set the tone for poor French-Iroquois relations for the rest of the century.In 1701, The Great Peace Treaty was signed in Montreal, involving the French and every Indigenous nation coming or living on the shores of the Saint Lawrence River except maybe in wintertime. The occurred on 19 June 1610, with Samuel de Champlain supported by the
Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the Middle Ages ...
and his allies, the Wendat people,
Algonquin people Algonquin people are an Indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are na ...
and
Innu people The Innu / Ilnu ("man", "person") or Innut / Innuat / Ilnuatsh ("people"), formerly called Montagnais from the French colonial period (French language, French for "mountain people", English pronunciation: ), are the Indigenous peoples in Canad ...
against the
Mohawk people The Mohawk people ( moh, Kanienʼkehá꞉ka) are the most easterly section of the Haudenosaunee The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an Indigenous peoples of the Americas, indigenous Confederation#Indigen ...
in New France at present-day
Sorel-Tracy Sorel-Tracy (; ) is a city in southwestern Quebec ) , image_map = Quebec in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = Quebec French, French , capital ...
,
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
. Champlain's forces armed with the
arquebus An arquebus ( ) is a form of long gun A long gun is a category of firearm A firearm is any type of gun A gun is a ranged weapon designed to use a shooting tube ( gun barrel) to launch typically solid projectiles, but can also proj ...

arquebus
engaged and slaughtered or captured nearly all of the Mohawks. The battle ended major hostilities with the Mohawks for twenty years.


Marriage

One route Champlain may have chosen to improve his access to the court of the regent was his decision to enter into marriage with the twelve-year-old Hélène Boullé. She was the daughter of Nicolas Boullé, a man charged with carrying out royal decisions at court. The marriage contract was signed on 27 December 1610 in presence of Dugua, who had dealt with the father, and the couple was married three days later. The terms of the contract called for the marriage to be consummated two years later. Champlain's marriage was initially quite troubled, as Hélène rallied against joining him in August 1613. Their relationship, while it apparently lacked any physical connection, recovered and was apparently good for many years. Hélène lived in Quebec for several years, but returned to Paris and eventually decided to enter a convent. The couple had no children, and Champlain adopted three Montagnais girls named Faith, Hope, and Charity in the winter of 1627–28.


Exploration of New France

On 29 March 1613, arriving back in New France, he first ensured that his new royal commission be . Champlain set out on May 27 to continue his exploration of the Huron country and in hopes of finding the "northern sea" he had heard about (probably
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay ( iu, text=ᑲᖏᖅᓱᐊᓗᒃ ᐃᓗᐊ, translit=Kangiqsualuk ilua or iu, text=ᑕᓯᐅᔭᕐᔪᐊᖅ, translit=Tasiujarjuaq; french: baie d'Hudson), sometimes called Hudson's Bay (usually historically), is a large body of sal ...
). He travelled the
Ottawa River The Ottawa River (french: Rivière des Outaouais, Algonquin Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of e ...
, later giving the first description of this area.In 1953, a rock was found at a location now known as the Champlain lookout, which bore the inscription "Champlain juin 2, 1613". What about this finding? Along the way, he apparently dropped or left behind a cache of silver cups, copper kettles, and a brass astrolabe dated 160
(Champlain's Astrolabe)
which was later found by a farm boy named Edward Lee near
Cobden, Ontario Cobden is a small community in the Township of Whitewater Region, in Renfrew County, Ontario , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location ea ...
. It was in June that he met with
Tessouat Tessouat (''Anishinaabe language, Anishinaabe'': Tesswehas) (Circa, c. ??? – 1636/1654) was an Algonquin people, Algonquin chief from the Kitchesipirini nation ("Kitche"=Great, "sipi"=river, "rini"=people: the people from the great river, the ...
, the Algonquin chief of Allumettes Island, and offered to build the tribe a fort if they were to move from the area they occupied, with its poor soil, to the locality of the Lachine Rapids. By 26 August, Champlain was back in
Saint-Malo Saint-Malo (, , ; Gallo language, Gallo: ''Saent-Malô''; ) is a historic French port in Ille-et-Vilaine, Brittany (administrative region), Brittany on the English Channel coast. The walled city had a long history of piracy, earning much wealth ...

Saint-Malo
. There, he wrote an account of his life from 1604 to 1612 and his journey up the Ottawa river, his ''Voyages'' and published another map of New France. In 1614, he formed the "Compagnie des Marchands de Rouen et de Saint-Malo" and "Compagnie de Champlain", which bound the Rouen and Saint-Malo merchants for eleven years. He returned to New France in the spring of 1615 with four
Recollects The Recollects (french: Récollets) were a French reform branch of the , a order. Denoted by their gray habits and pointed hoods, the Recollects took vows of poverty and devoted their lives to prayer, penance, and spiritual reflection. Today, ...
in order to further religious life in the new colony. The
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history ...

Roman Catholic Church
was eventually given '' en seigneurie'' large and valuable tracts of land, estimated at nearly 30% of all the lands granted by the
French Crown The monarchs of the Kingdom of France ruled from the establishment of the West Francia, Kingdom of the West Franks in 843 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions. Between the period from King Charles the ...
in New France. Dalton (1968) In 1615, Champlain reunited with
Étienne Brûlé Étienne Brûlé (; – ) was the first European explorer to journey beyond the St. Lawrence River The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a roughly north-easter ...
, his capable interpreter, following separate four-year explorations. There, Brûlé reported
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
n explorations, including that he had been joined by another French interpreter named Grenolle with whom he had travelled along the north shore of ''la mer douce'' (the calm sea), now known as
Lake Huron Lake Huron is one of the five Great Lakes File:Location of the Great Lakes in North America.jpg, upright=1.3, Location in North America The Great Lakes, also called the Great Lakes of North America or the Laurentian Great Lakes, are a ser ...

Lake Huron
, to the great rapids of
Sault Ste. MarieSault Ste. Marie is a cross-border region in Canada and the United States. Formerly a single settlement from 1668 to 1817, it was subsequently divided by the establishment of the Canada–US border in the area. The name may refer to: * Sault Ste. Ma ...
, where
Lake Superior Lake Superior is the largest and northernmost of the Great Lakes of North America, and among freshwater lakes, it is the world's List of lakes by area, largest by surface area and the List of lakes by volume, third-largest by volume.The Caspian ...

Lake Superior
enters Lake Huron, some of which was recorded by Champlain.(online
archive.orgLibrary of Congress
Champlain continued to work to improve relations with the natives, promising to help them in their struggles against the Iroquois. With his native guides, he explored further up the
Ottawa River The Ottawa River (french: Rivière des Outaouais, Algonquin Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of e ...
and reached
Lake Nipissing Lake Nipissing (; french: lac Nipissing) is a lake in the Canadian province of Ontario , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/cent ...
. He then followed the French River until he reached
Lake Huron Lake Huron is one of the five Great Lakes File:Location of the Great Lakes in North America.jpg, upright=1.3, Location in North America The Great Lakes, also called the Great Lakes of North America or the Laurentian Great Lakes, are a ser ...

Lake Huron
. In 1615, Champlain was escorted through the area that is now
Peterborough, Ontario Peterborough ( ) is a city on the Otonabee River in Ontario, Canada. According to the 2016 Census, the population of the City of Peterborough was 81,032. The population of the Peterborough Census Metropolitan Area (CMA), which includes the surro ...
by a group of Wendat. He used the ancient portage between
Chemong Lake Chemong Lake, or Lake Chemong, (pronounced "shi-MONG, from the Ojibwe, anisnaabemowin gchi-maang, meaning "big lake")" is a lake northwest of Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, near the town of Bridgenorth, Ontario, Bridgenorth. The lake extends from ...
and Little Lake (Peterborough), Little Lake (now Chemong Road) and stayed for a short period of time near what is now Bridgenorth.


Military expedition

On 1 September 1615, at Cahiagué (a Wendat community on what is now called Lake Simcoe), he and the northern tribes started a military expedition against the Iroquois. The party passed Lake Ontario at its eastern tip where they hid their canoes and continued their journey by land. They followed the Oneida River until they arrived at the main Onondaga fort on October 10. The exact location of this place is still a matter of debate. Although the traditional location, Nichols Pond, is regularly disproved by professional and amateur archaeologists, many still claim that Nichols Pond is the location of the battle, south of Canastota, New York.#Weiskotten1998, Weiskotten (1998) Champlain attacked the stockaded Oneida village. He was accompanied by 10 Frenchmen and 300 Wendat. Pressured by the Huron Wendat to attack prematurely, the assault failed. Champlain was wounded twice in the leg by arrows, one in his knee. The conflict ended on October 16 when the French Wendat were forced to flee. Although he did not want to, the Wendat insisted that Champlain spend the winter with them. During his stay, he set off with them in their great deer hunt, during which he became lost and was forced to wander for three days living off game and sleeping under trees until he met up with a band of First Nations people by chance. He spent the rest of the winter learning "their country, their manners, customs, modes of life". On 22 May 1616, he left the Wendat country and returned to Quebec before heading back to France on 2 July.


Improving administration in New France

Champlain returned to New France in 1620 and was to spend the rest of his life focusing on administration of the territory rather than exploration. Champlain spent the winter building Fort Saint-Louis on top of Cape Diamond. By mid-May, he learned that the fur trading monopoly had been handed over to another company led by the Caen brothers. After some tense negotiations, it was decided to merge the two companies under the direction of the Caens. Champlain continued to work on relations with the natives and managed to impose on them a chief of his choice. He also negotiated a peace treaty with the Iroquois. Champlain continued to work on the fortifications of what became Quebec City, laying the first stone on 6 May 1624. On 15 August he once again returned to France where he was encouraged to continue his work as well as to continue looking for a passage to China, something widely believed to exist at the time. By July 5 he was back at Quebec and continued expanding the city. In 1627 the Caen brothers' company lost its monopoly on the fur trade, and
Cardinal Richelieu Armand Jean du Plessis, Duke of Richelieu Duke of Richelieu was a title of French nobility. It was created on 26 November 1629 for Cardinal Richelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu (known as Cardinal Richelieu) who, as a Roman Catholic cl ...
(who had joined the Royal Council in 1624 and rose rapidly to a position of dominance in French politics that he would hold until his death in 1642) formed the Compagnie des Cent-Associés (the Hundred Associates) to manage the fur trade. Champlain was one of the 100 investors, and its first fleet, loaded with colonists and supplies, set sail in April 1628. Champlain had overwintered in Quebec. Supplies were low, and English merchants sacked Cap Tourmente in early July 1628. Anglo-French War (1627–1629), A war had broken out between France and England, and Charles I of England had issued letters of marque that authorized the capture of French shipping and its colonies in North America. Champlain received a summons to surrender on July 10 from the David Kirke, Kirke brothers, two Scottish brothers who were working for the Kingdom of England, English government. Champlain refused to deal with them, misleading them to believe that Quebec's defenses were better than they actually were (Champlain had only 50 pounds of gunpowder to defend the community). Successfully bluffed, they withdrew, but encountered and captured the French supply fleet, cutting off that year's supplies to the colony. By the spring of 1629 supplies were dangerously low and Champlain was forced to send people to Gaspé Peninsula, Gaspé and into Indian communities to conserve rations. On July 19, the Kirke brothers arrived before Quebec after intercepting Champlain's plea for help, and Champlain was forced to surrender the colony. Many colonists were transported first to England and then to France by the Kirkes, but Champlain remained in London to begin the process of regaining the colony. A Treaty of Susa, peace treaty had been signed in April 1629, three months before the surrender, and, under the terms of that treaty, Quebec and other prizes that were taken by the Kirkes after the treaty were to be returned. It was not until the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1632), 1632 Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, however, that Quebec was formally given back to France. (David Kirke was rewarded when Charles I knighted him and gave him a charter for
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
.) Champlain reclaimed his role as commander of New France on behalf of Richelieu on 1 March 1633, having served in the intervening years as commander in New France "in the absence of my Lord the Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, Cardinal de Richelieu" from 1629 to 1635. Trudel (1979) In 1632 Champlain published ''Voyages de la Nouvelle-France'', which was dedicated to Cardinal Richelieu, and ''Traitté de la marine et du devoir d'un bon marinier'', a treatise on leadership, seamanship, and navigation. (Champlain made more than twenty-five round-trip crossings of the Atlantic in his lifetime, without losing a single ship.)


Last return, and last years working in Quebec

Champlain returned to Quebec on 22 May 1633, after an absence of four years. Richelieu gave him a commission as Lieutenant General of New France, along with other titles and responsibilities, but not that of Governor of New France, governor. Despite this lack of formal status, many colonists, French merchants, and Indians treated him as if he had the title; writings survive in which he is referred to as "our governor". On 18 August 1634, he sent a report to Richelieu stating that he had rebuilt on the ruins of Quebec, enlarged its fortifications, and established two more habitations. One was 15 leagues upstream, and the other was at Trois-Rivières. He also began French and Iroquois Wars, an offensive against the Iroquois, reporting that he wanted them either wiped out or "brought to reason".


Death and burial

Champlain had a severe stroke in October 1635, and died on 25 December, leaving no immediate heirs. Jesuit records state he died in the care of his friend and confessor Charles Lallemant. Although his will (drafted on 17 November 1635) gave much of his French property to his wife Hélène Boullé, he made significant bequests to the Catholic missions and to individuals in the colony of Quebec. However, Marie Camaret, a cousin on his mother's side, challenged the will in Paris and had it overturned. It is unclear exactly what happened to his estate. Samuel de Champlain was temporarily buried in the church while a standalone chapel was built to hold his remains in the upper part of the city. Unfortunately, this small building, along with many others, was destroyed by a large fire in 1640. Though immediately rebuilt, no traces of it exist anymore: his exact burial site is still unknown, despite much research since about 1850, including several archaeological digs in the city. There is general agreement that the previous Champlain chapel site, and the remains of Champlain, should be somewhere near the Notre-Dame de Québec Cathedral. The search for Champlain's remains supplies a key plot-line in the crime writer Louise Penny's 2010 novel, ''Bury Your Dead''.


Legacy

Many sites and landmarks have been named to honour Champlain, who was a prominent figure in many parts of
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country pri ...

Acadia
, Ontario,
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
, New York (state), New York, and Vermont. Memorialized as the "Father of New France" and "Father of
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country pri ...

Acadia
", his historic significance endures in modern times.
Lake Champlain , native_name_lang = , image = Champlainmap.svg , caption = Lake Champlain-River Richelieu watershed , image_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = , location = New York (state), New York/Vermont in the United States; and Quebec in Canada , ...

Lake Champlain
, which straddles the border between northern New York (state), New York and Vermont, extending slightly across the border into Canada, was named by him, in 1609, when he led an expedition along the
Richelieu River The Richelieu River () is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course wit ...
, exploring a long, narrow lake situated between the Green Mountains of present-day Vermont and the Adirondack Mountains of present-day New York (state), New York. The first European to map and describe it, Champlain claimed the lake as his namesake. Memorials include: *
Lake Champlain , native_name_lang = , image = Champlainmap.svg , caption = Lake Champlain-River Richelieu watershed , image_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = , location = New York (state), New York/Vermont in the United States; and Quebec in Canada , ...

Lake Champlain
, Champlain Valley, the Champlain Trail Lakes. * Champlain Sea: a past inlet of the Atlantic Ocean in North America, over the Saint Lawrence River, St. Lawrence, the Saguenay River, Saguenay, and the Richelieu River, Richelieu rivers, to over
Lake Champlain , native_name_lang = , image = Champlainmap.svg , caption = Lake Champlain-River Richelieu watershed , image_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = , location = New York (state), New York/Vermont in the United States; and Quebec in Canada , ...

Lake Champlain
, which inlet disappeared many thousands years before Champlain was born. * Champlain Mountain, Acadia National Park – which he first observed in 1604. * A Champlain (town), New York, town and Champlain (village), New York, village in New York, as well as a Champlain, Ontario, township in Ontario and a Champlain, Quebec, municipality in Quebec. * The provincial electoral district of Champlain (provincial electoral district), Champlain,
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
, and several defunct electoral districts elsewhere in Canada. * Samuel de Champlain Provincial Park, a provincial park in northern Ontario near the town of Mattawa, Ontario, Mattawa. * Champlain Bridge (Montreal), Champlain Bridge, which connects the island of Montreal to Brossard, Quebec across the St. Lawrence. * Champlain Bridge (Ottawa), Champlain Bridge, which connects the cities of Ottawa, Ontario and Gatineau, Quebec. * Champlain College, one of six colleges at Trent University in
Peterborough, Ontario Peterborough ( ) is a city on the Otonabee River in Ontario, Canada. According to the 2016 Census, the population of the City of Peterborough was 81,032. The population of the Peterborough Census Metropolitan Area (CMA), which includes the surro ...
, is named in his honour. * Fort Champlain, a dormitory at the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario; named in his honour in 1965, it houses the 10th cadet squadron. * A French school in Saint John, New Brunswick; École Champlain, an elementary school in Moncton, New Brunswick and one in Brossard; Champlain College, in Burlington, Vermont; and Champlain Regional College, a CEGEP with three campuses in Quebec. * Château Champlain, Marriott Château Champlain hotel, in Montreal. * Streets named Champlain in numerous cities, including Quebec, Shawinigan, the city of Dieppe, New Brunswick, Dieppe in the province of New Brunswick, in Plattsburgh, and no less than eleven communities in northwestern Vermont. * A garden called Jardin Samuel-de-Champlain in Paris, France. * A memorial statue on Cumberland Avenue in Plattsburgh (city), New York, Plattsburgh, New York on the shores of
Lake Champlain , native_name_lang = , image = Champlainmap.svg , caption = Lake Champlain-River Richelieu watershed , image_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = , location = New York (state), New York/Vermont in the United States; and Quebec in Canada , ...

Lake Champlain
in a park named for Champlain. * A memorial statue in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada in Queen Square (Saint John, New Brunswick), Queen Square that commemorates his discovery of the Saint John River (New Brunswick), Saint John River. * A memorial statue in Isle La Motte, Vermont, on the shore of
Lake Champlain , native_name_lang = , image = Champlainmap.svg , caption = Lake Champlain-River Richelieu watershed , image_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = , location = New York (state), New York/Vermont in the United States; and Quebec in Canada , ...

Lake Champlain
. * The lighthouse at
Crown Point, New York Crown Point is a town in Essex County, New York (state), New York, United States, located on the west shore of Lake Champlain. The population was 2,024 at the 2010 census. The name of the town is a direct translation of the original French name, " ...
features a statue of Champlain by Carl Augustus Heber. * A commemorative stamp issue in May 2006 jointly by the United States Postal Service and Canada Post. * A statue in Ticonderoga, New York, unveiled in 2009 to commemorate the 400th anniversary of Champlain's exploration of Lake Champlain. * A statue in Orillia, Ontario at Couchiching Beach Park on Lake Couchiching. This statue was removed by Parks Canada, and is not likely to be returned, as it incorporated offensive depictions of First Nations peoples. * HMCS Champlain (1919), HMCS ''Champlain'' (1919), a S class destroyer that served in the Royal Canadian Navy from 1928 to 1936. * HMCS Champlain, HMCS ''Champlain'', a Canadian Forces Naval Reserve division based in Chicoutimi, Quebec since activation in 1985. * Champlain Place, a shopping centre located in Dieppe, New Brunswick, Canada. * The Champlain Society, a Canadian historical and text publication society, chartered in 1927. * A memorial statue in Ottawa at Nepean Point, by Hamilton MacCarthy. The statue depicts Champlain holding an astrolabe (upside-down, as it happens). It did previously include an "Indian Scout" kneeling at its base. In the 1990s, after lobbying by Indigenous people, it was removed from the statue's base, renamed and placed as "Anishinaabe Scout" in Major's Hill Park.


Bibliography

These are works that were written by Champlain: * ''Brief Discours des Choses plus remarquables que Sammuel Champlain de Brouage a reconneues aux Indes Occidentalles au voiage qu'il en a faict en icettes en l'année 1599 et en l'année 1601, comme ensuite'' (first French publication 1870, first English publication 1859 a
''Narrative of a Voyage to the West Indies and Mexico 1599–1602''
* ''Des Sauvages: ou voyage de Samuel Champlain, de Brouages, faite en la France nouvelle l'an 1603'' (first French publication 1604, first English publication 1625) * ''Voyages de la Nouvelle-France'' (first French publication 1632) * ''Traitté de la marine et du devoir d'un bon marinier'' (first French publication 1632)


Notes and references

Notes Citations


References

* * * * * Note: Mathieu d'Avignon (Ph.D. in history,
Laval University Laval means ''The Valley'' in old French and is the name of: People * House of Laval, a French noble family originating from the town of Laval, Mayenne Laval () is a town in western France, about west-southwest of Paris, and the capital of the ...
, 2006) is an affiliate researcher into the ''Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, University of Quebec at Chicoutimi'' Research Group on History. He is preparing a special new full edition, in modern French, of Champlain's Voyages in New France. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* * Dix, Edwin Asa. (1903).
Champlain, the Founder of New France
', IndyPublish * * * Morison, Samuel Eliot, (1972). ''Samuel de Champlain: Father of New France'' Little Brown, *


External links

* * * *From Marcel Trudel
Champlain, Samuel de
(at The Canadian Encyclopedia)
Champlain in AcadiaBiography at the ''Museum of Civilization''Samuel de Champlain Biography by Appleton and Klos
*[https://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/02/books/review/Boot-t.html They Didn't Name That Lake for Nothing, Sunday Book Review, The New York Times, October 31, 2008]
Dead Reckoning – Champlain in America, PBS documentary 2009
*World Digital Library presentation o
''Descripsion des costs, pts., rades, illes de la Nouuele France faict selon son vray méridien''or ''Description of the Coasts, Points, Harbours and Islands of New France''.
Library of Congress. Primary source portolan style chart on vellum with summary description, image with enhanced view and zoom features, text to speech capability. French. Links to related content. Content available as TIF. One of the major cartographic resources, this map offers the first thorough delineation of the New England and Canadian coasts from Cape Sable to Cape Cod.
A book from 1603 of Champlain's first voyage to New France
from the World Digital Library
Champlain's tomb: State of the Art Inquiry
* From Samuel de Champlain

(at Rare Book Room)
Baptismal parish register, August 13, 1574, protestant temple Saint.Yon, La Rochelle
*(in French) iarchive:dessauuagesouvoy00cham/page/n5, Digitized copy of Champlain's ''Des Sauvages'' from the
John Carter Brown Library The John Carter Brown Library is an independently funded research library of history and the humanities on the campus of Brown University Brown University is a private university, private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Isla ...

John Carter Brown Library
{{DEFAULTSORT:Champlain, Samuel De Samuel de Champlain, French explorers of North America French explorers French geographers Governors of New France People of New France 17th-century explorers City founders 1574 births 1635 deaths People from Charente-Maritime 1600s in Canada 1610s in Canada 1620s in Canada 1630s in Canada 17th century in Quebec Acadia Acadian history Colonial United States (French) Explorers of Canada Explorers of the United States Pre-statehood history of Maine Pre-statehood history of Massachusetts Pre-Confederation New Brunswick people Pre-statehood history of New York (state) Pre-Confederation Nova Scotia people Pre-Confederation Ontario people Pre-Confederation Quebec people Pre-statehood history of Vermont Persons of National Historic Significance (Canada) Quebec City 17th-century Canadian politicians