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Samuel Phillips Huntington (April 18, 1927December 24, 2008) was an American
political scientist Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power r ...
, adviser, and academic. He spent more than half a century at
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
, where he was director of Harvard's Center for International Affairs and the Albert J. Weatherhead III University Professor. During the
presidency of Jimmy Carter Jimmy Carter's tenure as the List of presidents of the United States, 39th president of the United States began with Inauguration of Jimmy Carter, his inauguration on January 20, 1977, and ended on January 20, 1981. A Democratic Party (Uni ...
, Huntington was the
White House The White House is the official residence and workplace of the president of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue Northwest, Washington, D.C., NW in Washington, D.C., and has been the residence of every U.S. preside ...

White House
Coordinator of Security Planning for the
National Security Council#REDIRECT National security council A National Security Council (NSC) is usually an executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State ...
. During the 1980s
Apartheid Apartheid (South African English South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English language dialects native to South Africans. History British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * B ...

Apartheid
era in South Africa, he served as an adviser to P. W. Botha's Security Services. He is best known for his 1993 theory, the "
Clash of Civilizations Clash or The Clash may refer to: Culture Events * ''Clash of the Champions The ''Clash of the Champions'' is a series of professional wrestling television specials that were produced by World Championship Wrestling (WCW) and Jim Crockett Pr ...
", of a post-
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
new world orderNew World Order may refer to: * New World Order (conspiracy theory), a conspiracy theory referring to the emergence of a totalitarian one-world government * New world order (politics), any period of history evidencing a dramatic change in world polit ...
. He argued that future wars would be fought not between countries, but between cultures, and that
Islamic extremism Islamic extremism, Islamist extremism, or radical Islam refer to extremist Extremism is "the quality or state of being extreme" or "the advocacy of extreme measures or views". The term is primarily used in a political or religious ...
would become the biggest threat to Western domination of the world. Huntington is credited with helping to shape American views on civilian-military relations, political development, and comparative government. According to the Open Syllabus Project, Huntington is the second most frequently cited author on college syllabi for political science courses.


Early life and education

Huntington was born on April 18, 1927, in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
, the son of Dorothy Sanborn (née Phillips), a short-story writer, and Richard Thomas Huntington, a publisher of hotel trade journals. His grandfather was publisher
John Sanborn Phillips John Sanborn Phillips (1861–1949) attended Knox College in Illinois, where he worked on the student newspaper and met S. S. McClure. In 1887 McClure hired him to manage the home office of the McClure Newspaper Syndicate McClure Newspaper Syndic ...
. He graduated with distinction from
Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
at age 18, served in the
US Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists ma ...

US Army
, earned his
master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of Profession, professio ...
from the
University of Chicago The University of Chicago (UChicago) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an abse ...
, and completed his
PhD A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known a ...
at
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
, where he began teaching at age 23.


Academic career

Huntington was a member of Harvard's department of government from 1950 until he was denied tenure in 1959. Along with
Zbigniew Brzezinski Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski ( , ; March 28, 1928 – May 26, 2017), or Zbig, was a Polish Americans, Polish-American diplomat and political scientist. He served as a counselor to President Lyndon B. Johnson from 1966 to 1968 and was President ...
, who had also been denied tenure, he moved to
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of ...

Columbia University
in New York. From 1959 to 1962 he was an associate professor of government at Columbia, where he was also deputy director of their
Institute of War and Peace Studies The Arnold A. Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies (SIWPS) is a research center that is part of Columbia University's School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, School of International and Public Affairs in New York. It ...
. Huntington was invited to return to Harvard with tenure in 1963 and remained there until his death. He was elected a Fellow of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, founded 1780, (abbreviation: AAAS) is one of the oldest learned societies A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization ...

American Academy of Arts and Sciences
in 1965. Huntington and
Warren Demian Manshel Warren Demian Manshel (January 6, 1924 – February 25, 1990) was an investment banker; an editor and publisher; and a diplomat. Early life, education and career Warren Manshel was born in France and immigrated to the United States from Germany ...
co-founded and co-edited ''
Foreign Policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website, and in six print issues annually. ''Foreign Poli ...
''. Huntington stayed as co-editor until 1977. Huntington's first major book was '' The Soldier and the State: The Theory and Politics of Civil-Military Relations'' (1957), which was highly controversial when it was published, but presently is regarded as the most influential book on American civil-military relations. He became prominent with his '' Political Order in Changing Societies'' (1968), a work that challenged the conventional opinion of
modernization Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies. Modernization theory originated from the ideas of German sociologist Max Weber Maximilian Karl Emil Weber (; ; 21 April 186414 June 1920) was a German Soci ...
theorists, that economic and social progress would produce stable democracies in recently
decolonized Decolonization (American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U ...
countries. He also was co-author of '' The Crisis of Democracy: On the Governability of Democracies'', a report issued by the
Trilateral Commission The Trilateral Commission is a Non-governmental organization, nongovernmental international organization aimed at fostering closer cooperation between Japan, Western Europe and North America. It was founded in July 1973 principally by American ba ...
in 1976. In 1977, his friend Brzezinski – who had been appointed National Security Adviser in the administration of
Jimmy Carter James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician, businessman, and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Par ...

Jimmy Carter
– invited Huntington to become
White House The White House is the official residence and workplace of the president of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue Northwest, Washington, D.C., NW in Washington, D.C., and has been the residence of every U.S. preside ...

White House
Coordinator of Security Planning for the
National Security Council#REDIRECT National security council A National Security Council (NSC) is usually an executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State ...
. He served in this position until the end of 1978. Huntington continued to teach undergraduates until his retirement in 2007.


Personal life

Huntington met his wife, Nancy Arkelyan, when they were working together on a speech for 1956 presidential candidate Adlai Stevenson. They had two sons, Nicholas and Timothy. After several years of declining health, Huntington died on December 24, 2008, at age 81 on
Martha's Vineyard Martha's Vineyard (Wampanoag The Wampanoag , also rendered Wôpanâak, are a Native American people. They were a loose confederation of several tribes in the 17th century, but today Wampanoag people encompass five officially recognized t ...
, Massachusetts.


Notable arguments


''The Soldier and the State''

In ''The Soldier and the State: The Theory and Politics of Civil-Military Relations'' (1957) Huntington presents a general theory of civil–military relations. Huntington proposes a theory of objective civilian control, according to which the optimal means of asserting control over the armed forces is to professionalize them.


''Political Order in Changing Societies''

During 1968, just as the United States' war in Vietnam was becoming most intense, Huntington published ''Political Order in Changing Societies'', which was a critique of the modernization theory which had affected much US policy regarding the developing world during the prior decade. Huntington argues that as societies modernize, they become more complex and disordered. If the process of social modernization that produces this disorder is not matched by a process of political and institutional modernization—a process which produces political institutions capable of managing the stress of modernization—the result may be violence. During the 1970s, Huntington was an advisor to governments, both democratic and dictatorial. During 1972, he met with
Medici The House of Medici ( , ) was an Italian banking family and political dynasty Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social ...
government representatives in Brazil; a year later he published the report "Approaches to Political Decompression", warning against the risks of a too-rapid political liberalization, proposing gradual liberalization, and a strong party state modeled upon the image of the Mexican
Institutional Revolutionary Party The Institutional Revolutionary Party ( es, Partido Revolucionario Institucional, ; abbr. PRI) is a political party in Mexico that was founded in 1929 and held uninterrupted power in the country for 71 years, from 1929 to 2000, first as the Nati ...
. After a prolonged transition, Brazil became democratic during 1985. During the 1980s, he became a valued adviser to the South African regime, which used his ideas on political order to craft its "total strategy" to reform apartheid and suppress growing resistance. He assured South Africa's rulers that increasing the repressive power of the state (which at that time included police violence, detention without trial, and torture) can be necessary to effect reform. The reform process, he told his South African audience, often requires "duplicity, deceit, faulty assumptions and purposeful blindness." He thus gave his imprimatur to his hosts' project of "reforming" apartheid rather than eliminating it. Huntington frequently cited Brazil as a success, alluding to his role in his 1988 presidential address to the
American Political Science Association The American Political Science Association (APSA) is a professional association A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) usually seeks to further Further or Furthur may r ...
, commenting that political science ''played a modest role in this process''. Critics, such as British political scientist Alan Hooper, note that contemporary Brazil has an especially unstable party system, wherein the best institutionalized party,
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (; born Luiz Inácio da Silva; 27 October 1945) is a Brazilian politician and former union leader who served as the 35th president of Brazil The president of Brazil ( pt, Presidente do Brasil), officially the pr ...

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
's
Workers' Party Workers' Party is a name used by several political party, political parties throughout the world. The name has been used by both organisations on the left and right of the political spectrum. It is currently used by followers of Marxism, Marxism-Le ...
, emerged in opposition to controlled transition. Moreover, Hooper claims that the lack of civil participation in contemporary Brazil results from that top-down process of political participation transitions.


''The Third Wave''

In his 1991 book ''The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century'', Huntington made the argument that beginning with Portugal's revolution during 1974, there has been a third wave of democratization which describes a global trend which includes more than 60 countries throughout Europe, Latin America, Asia, and Africa which have undergone some form of democratic transition. Huntington won the 1992
University of Louisville The University of Louisville (UofL) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (Engli ...
Grawemeyer Award The Grawemeyer Awards () are five awards given annually by the University of Louisville. The prizes are presented to individuals in the fields of education, ideas improving world order, music composition, religion, and psychology. The religion awa ...
for this book.


"The Clash of Civilizations"

During 1993, Huntington provoked great debate among
international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between states—such as war, diplomacy ...
theorists with the interrogatively titled "The Clash of Civilizations?", an influential, oft-cited article published in ''
Foreign Affairs ''Foreign Affairs'' is an American magazine of international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader ...

Foreign Affairs
'' magazine. In the article, he argued that, after the fall of the Soviet Union, Islam would become the biggest obstacle to Western domination of the world. The West's next big war therefore, he said, would inevitably be with Islam. Its description of post-Cold War
geopolitics Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...
and the "inevitability of instability" contrasted with the influential "
End of History The end of history is a political and philosophical concept that supposes that a particular political, economic, or social system may develop that would constitute the end-point of humanity's sociocultural evolution and the final form of human go ...

End of History
" thesis advocated by
Francis Fukuyama Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (, ; born October 27, 1952) is an American Political science, political scientist, Political economy, political economist, and writer of Japanese Americans, Japanese descent. Fukuyama is known for his book ''The End o ...

Francis Fukuyama
. Huntington expanded "The Clash of Civilizations?" to book length and published it as ''
The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order ''The'' () is a grammatical Article (grammar), article in English language, English, denoting persons or things already mentioned, under discussion, implied or otherwise presumed familiar to listeners, readers or speakers. It is the definite art ...
'' in 1996. The article and the book posit that post-Cold War conflict would most frequently and violently occur because of cultural rather than ideological differences. That, whilst in the Cold War, conflict occurred between the Capitalist West and the Communist Bloc East, it now was most likely to occur between the world's major civilizations—identifying seven, and a possible eighth: (i) Western, (ii) Latin American, (iii) Islamic, (iv) Sinic (Chinese), (v) Hindu, (vi) Orthodox, (vii) Japanese, and (viii) African. This cultural organization contrasts the contemporary world with the classical notion of sovereign states. To understand current and future conflict, cultural rifts must be understood, and culture—rather than the State—must be accepted as the reason for war. Thus, Western nations will lose predominance if they fail to recognize the irreconcilable nature of cultural tensions. Huntington argued that this post-Cold War shift in geopolitical organization and structure requires the West to strengthen itself culturally, by abandoning the imposition of its ideal of democratic universalism and its incessant military interventionism. Underscoring this point, Huntington wrote in the 1996 expansion, "In the emerging world of ethnic conflict and civilizational clash, Western belief in the universality of Western culture suffers three problems: it is false; it is immoral; and it is dangerous." The identification of Western Civilization with
Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings ...
(Catholic-Protestant) was not Huntington's original idea, it was rather the traditional Western opinion and subdivision before the Cold War era. Critics (for example articles in ''
Le Monde Diplomatique ''Le Monde diplomatique'' (meaning "The Diplomatic World" in French language, French) is a France, French monthly newspaper offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. The publication is owned by Le Monde diplomatiq ...

Le Monde Diplomatique
'') call ''The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order'' the theoretical legitimization of American-caused Western aggression against China and the world's Islamic and Orthodox cultures. Other critics argue that Huntington's taxonomy is simplistic and arbitrary, and does not take account of the internal dynamics and partisan tensions within civilizations. Furthermore, critics argue that Huntington neglects ideological mobilization by elites and unfulfilled socioeconomic needs of the population as the real causal factors driving conflict, that he ignores conflicts that do not fit well with the civilizational borders identified by him, and they charge that his new paradigm is nothing but realist thinking in which "states" became replaced by "civilizations". Huntington's influence upon US policy has been likened to that of historian
Arnold Toynbee Arnold Toynbee (; 23 August 18529 March 1883) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** British ...
's controversial religious theories about Asian leaders during the early twentieth century. The ''
New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publicatio ...
'' obituary on Huntington states that his "emphasis on ancient religious empires, as opposed to states or ethnicities, s sources of global conflictgained ... more cachet after the Sept. 11 attacks." Huntington wrote that
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
might divide along the cultural line between the more Catholic
western Ukraine Western Ukraine or West of Ukraine ( uk, Західна Україна or Захід України ''Zakhidna Ukraina'' or ''Zakhid Ukrainy'') is a geographical and historical relative term used in reference to the western territories of Ukrain ...
and Orthodox
eastern Ukraine Eastern Ukraine or East Ukraine ( uk, Східна Україна, Skhidna Ukrayina; russian: Восточная Украина, Vostochnaya Ukraina), generally refers to territories of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) ...
:
While a statist approach highlights the possibility of a Russian-Ukrainian war, a civilizational approach minimizes that and instead highlights the possibility of Ukraine splitting in half, a separation which cultural factors would lead one to predict might be more violent than that of Czechoslovakia but far less bloody than .


''Who Are We'' and immigration

Huntington's last book, ''Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity'', was published in May 2004. Its subject is the meaning of American
national identity National identity is a person's identity or sense of belonging to one or more states or to one or more nations A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the lo ...
and what he describes as a cultural threat from large-scale
immigration Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...

immigration
by
Latinos Hispanic and Latino Americans ( es, Estadounidenses hispanos y latinos; pt, Estadunidenses hispânicos e latinos) are Americans Americans are the citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which th ...

Latinos
, which Huntington says could "divide the United States into two peoples, two
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals i ...

culture
s, and two
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...

language
s". In this book, he called for America to force immigrants to "adopt English" and the US to turn to "Protestant religions" to "save itself against the threats" of Latino and Islamic immigrants. In a book review for the academic journal Perspectives on Politics, Gary M. Segura, Dean of the UCLA School of Public Affairs, asserted that the book should not be considered social science because of its divisive views and rhetoric. Segura also called Huntington's writing of the book unforgivable on account of Huntington's academic position, saying that the work was a polemic rather than a work of scholarship.


Other

Huntington is credited with inventing the phrase ''
Davos Man The World Economic Forum (WEF), based in Cologny, Geneva Canton, Switzerland, is an International non-governmental organization, international NGO, founded on 24 January 1971. The WEF's mission is stated as "committed to improving the state of ...
'', referring to
global elite In political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the di ...
s who "have little need for national loyalty, view national boundaries as obstacles that thankfully are vanishing, and see national governments as residues from the past whose only useful function is to facilitate the elite's global operations". The phrase refers to the
World Economic Forum The World Economic Forum (WEF) is an international non-governmental organization, international non-governmental and Lobbying organization, lobbying organisation based in Cologny, canton of Geneva, Switzerland. It was founded on 24 January 197 ...

World Economic Forum
in
Davos , neighboring_municipalities= Arosa , neighboring_municipalities= Alvaneu Alvaneu (''Romansh language, Romansh: Alvagni'') is a former municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the district of Albula (district), Albula in the Cantons of S ...

Davos
, Switzerland, where leaders of the
global economy Global means of or referring to a globe A globe is a spherical physical model, model of Earth, of some other astronomical object, celestial body, or of the celestial sphere. Globes serve purposes similar to maps, but unlike maps, they do not dis ...
meet. During the 1980s, the
South African apartheid Apartheid (South African English: ; , segregation; lit. "aparthood") was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa and South West Africa (now Namibia) from 1948 until the early 1990s. Apartheid wa ...
government of P. W. Botha became increasingly preoccupied with security. On Huntington's advice, Botha's government established a powerful state security apparatus to "protect" the state against an anticipated upsurge in political violence that the reforms were expected to cause. The 1980s became a period of considerable political unrest, with the government becoming increasingly dominated by Botha's circle of generals and police chiefs (known as securocrats), who managed the various States of Emergencies.Fox, William; Fourie, Marius; Van Wyk, Belinda (1998). Police Management in South Africa. Juta and Company Limited. p. 167.


National Academy of Sciences controversy

In 1986, Huntington was nominated for membership to the
National Academy of Sciences The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a ...
. The nomination was opposed by
Serge Lang Serge Lang (; May 19, 1927 – September 12, 2005) was a French-American mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Serge Lang
, a
Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces ...

mathematician
inspired by the writings of mathematician
Neal Koblitz Neal I. Koblitz (born December 24, 1948) is a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Washington. He is also an adjunct professor with the Centre for Applied Cryptographic Research at the University of Waterloo. He is the creator of hypere ...
, who had accused Huntington of misusing mathematics and engaging in
pseudo-science Pseudoscience consists of statements, belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology include ...
. Lang claimed that Huntington distorted the historical record and used pseudo-mathematics to make his conclusions seem convincing. Lang's campaign succeeded; Huntington was twice nominated and twice rejected. A detailed description of these events was published by Lang in "Academia, Journalism, and Politics: A Case Study: The Huntington Case" which occupies the first 222 pages of his 1998 book ''Challenges''. Huntington's prominence as a Harvard professor and director of Harvard's Center for International Affairs led to significant media coverage of his defeated nomination to the NAS, including by ''The New York Times'' and ''The New Republic''. His supporters included Herbert A. Simon, a 1978 laureate of the
Nobel Prize in Economics The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics award administered ...
. The ''
Mathematical Intelligencer ''The Mathematical Intelligencer'' is a mathematical journal published by Springer Verlag that aims at a conversational and scholarly tone, rather than the technical and specialist tone more common among academic journals. Volumes are released quart ...
'' offered Simon and Koblitz an opportunity to engage in a written debate, which they accepted.


Selected publications

* “National Policy and the Transoceanic Navy.” United Stats Naval Institute ''Proceedings'' 80, 5 (May 1954): 483-493
online
* '' The Soldier and the State: The Theory and Politics of Civil-Military Relations'' (1957) * ''The Common Defense: Strategic Programs in National Politics'' (1961) * '' Political Order in Changing Societies'' (1968) * '' The Crisis of Democracy: On the Governability of Democracies'' with
Michel Crozier Michel Crozier (6 November 1922, Sainte-Menehould, Marne (department), Marne – 24 May 2013, Paris) was a France, French sociologist and member of the ''Académie des sciences morales et politiques'' from 1999 until his death. He also was a fello ...
and Joji Watanuki (1976) * ''Political Power: USA USSR - Similarities and contrasts, Convergence or evolution'' with
Zbigniew Brzezinski Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski ( , ; March 28, 1928 – May 26, 2017), or Zbig, was a Polish Americans, Polish-American diplomat and political scientist. He served as a counselor to President Lyndon B. Johnson from 1966 to 1968 and was President ...
(1977) * ''American Politics: The Promise of Disharmony'' (1981) * "Democracy's third wave." ''Journal of democracy'' 2.2 (1991): 12–34
online
* '' The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century'' (1991) * ''
The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order ''The'' () is a grammatical Article (grammar), article in English language, English, denoting persons or things already mentioned, under discussion, implied or otherwise presumed familiar to listeners, readers or speakers. It is the definite art ...
'' (1996) * "After twenty years: the future of the third wave." ''Journal of democracy'' 8.4 (1997): 3–12
online
* '' Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity'' (2004), based on the articl
''The Hispanic Challenge''
''Foreign Policy'', March/April 2004Previous location, archived link
/ref> As editor: * ''Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress'' with Lawrence E. Harrison (2000) * ''Many Globalizations : Cultural Diversity in the Contemporary World'' with Peter L. Berger (2002)


See also

*
Clash of civilizations The Clash of Civilizations is a thesis that people's cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and B ...
*
Historical institutionalismHistorical institutionalism (HI) is a new institutionalist social science approach that emphasizes how timing, sequences and path dependence Path dependence is when the decisions presented to people are dependent on previous decisions or experience ...
*
Historical sociology Historical Sociology is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other ...
* Intermediate Region *
International relations theory International relations theory is the study of international relations (IR) from a theoretical perspective. It seeks to explain Causality, causal and constitutive effects in international politics. Ole Holsti describes international relations th ...
*
Modernization theory Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies. Modernization theory originated from the ideas of German sociologist Max Weber Maximilian Karl Emil Weber (; ; 21 April 186414 June 1920) was a German Soci ...
*
New institutionalism New institutionalism (also referred to as neo-institutionalist theory or institutionalism) is an approach to the study of institutions that focuses on the constraining and enabling effects of formal and informal rules on the behavior of individuals ...
*
Political geography Political geography is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms ...
*
Western civilization Western culture, also known as Western civilization, Occidental culture, or Western society, is the heritage Heritage may refer to: History and society * In history History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired ...
*
Oswald Spengler Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (; 29 May 1880 – 8 May 1936) was a German historian and Philosophy of history, philosopher of history whose interests included mathematics, science, and art and their relation to his organic theory of history. H ...

Oswald Spengler
*
The Decline of the West ''The Decline of the West'' (german: Der Untergang des Abendlandes), or more literally, ''The Downfall of the Occident'', is a two-volume work by Oswald Spengler. The first volume, subtitled ''Form and Actuality'', was published in the summer of ...


References


Further reading

*Interview by Richard Snyder: "Samuel P. Huntington: Order and Conflict in Global Perspective," pp. 210–233, in Gerardo L. Munck and Richard Snyder, ''Passion, Craft, and Method in Comparative Politics'' (Baltimore, Md.: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007).


External links


Samuel Huntington explaining himself his book and thesis about the clash of civilization in a 1997 interview with Charlie Rose

''The Crisis of Democracy''
Trilateral Commission report *
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James Kurth James Kurth (born 1938) is the Claude C. Smith Professor Emeritus of Political Science at Swarthmore College Swarthmore College ( , ) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in ...

''Samuel Huntington, a prophet for the Trump era''
by Carlos Lozada, ''Washington Post'', July 18, 2017 {{DEFAULTSORT:Huntington, Samuel P. 1927 births 2008 deaths American people of Dutch descent American people of English descent
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