Early SamoaSamoa was discovered and settled by the Samoans' Lapita ancestors (Austronesian people who spoke ). New Zealand scientists have dated the earliest human remains found in Samoa to between roughly 2900 and 3500 years ago. The remains were discovered at a site at , and the scientists' findings were published in 1974. The Samoans' origins have been studied in modern times through scientific research on Polynesian , and . Although this research is ongoing, a number of theories have been proposed. One theory is that the original Samoans were who arrived during a final period of eastward expansion of the Lapita peoples out of Southeast Asia and between 2,500 and 1,500 BCE. Intimate sociocultural and genetic ties were maintained between Samoa, Fiji, and Tonga, and the archaeological record supports oral tradition and native genealogies that indicate inter-island voyaging and intermarriage between pre-colonial Samoans, Fijians, and Tongans. Notable figures in Samoan history included the Tui Manu'a line, Queen , King Fonoti and the four tama-a-aiga: , , and Tuimalealiifano. was a famous woman warrior who was deified in ancient Samoan religion and whose patronage was highly sought after by successive Samoan rulers. Today, all of Samoa is united under its two principal royal families: the Sā Malietoa of the ancient Malietoa lineage that defeated the Tongans in the 13th century; and the Sā Tupua, Queen Salamasina's descendants and heirs who ruled Samoa in the centuries that followed her reign. Within these two principal lineages are the four highest titles of Samoa - the elder titles of Malietoa and Tupua Tamasese of antiquity as well as the newer Mata'afa and Tuimalealiifano titles who rose to prominence in 19th century wars that preceded the colonial period. These four titles form the apex of the Samoan matai system as it stands today. Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century. , a Dutchman, was the first known non-Polynesian to sight the Samoan islands in 1722. This visit was followed by French explorer , who named them the ''Navigator Islands'' in 1768. Contact was limited before the 1830s, which is when English , whalers and traders began arriving.
Samoa in the 1800sVisits by American trading and vessels were important in the early economic development of Samoa. The Salem brig ''Roscoe'' (Captain Benjamin Vanderford), in October 1821, was the first American trading vessel known to have called, and the ''Maro'' (Captain Richard Macy) of , in 1824, was the first recorded United States whaler at Samoa. The whalers came for fresh drinking water, firewood and provisions, and later, they recruited local men to serve as crewmen on their ships. The last recorded whaler visitor was the ''Governor Morton'' in 1870. Christian missionary work in Samoa began in 1830 when of the arrived in Sapapali'i from the and . According to Barbara A. West, "The Samoans were also known to engage in 'headhunting', a ritual of war in which a warrior took the head of his slain opponent to give to his leader, thus proving his bravery." In '' A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa'' (1892) , details the activities of the great powers battling for influence in Samoa – the United States, Germany and Britain – and the political machinations of the various Samoan factions within their indigenous political system.Stevenson, Robert Louis (1892).
There is but one way to defend Samoa. Hear it before it is too late. It is to make roads, and gardens, and care for your trees, and sell their produce wisely, and, in one word, to occupy and use your country... if you do not occupy and use your country, others will. It will not continue to be yours or your children’s, if you occupy it for nothing. You and your children will in that case be cast out into outer darkness".He had "seen these judgments of God," in Hawaii where abandoned native churches stood like tombstones "over a grave, in the midst of the white men’s sugar fields". The Germans, in particular, began to show great commercial interest in the Samoan Islands, especially on the island of Upolu, where German firms monopolised and processing. The United States laid its own claim, based on commercial shipping interests in Pearl River in and Pago Pago Bay in , and forced alliances, most conspicuously on the islands of and Manu'a which became . Britain also sent troops to protect British business enterprise, harbour rights, and consulate office. This was followed by an eight-year civil war, during which each of the three powers supplied arms, training and in some cases combat troops to the warring Samoan parties. The came to a critical juncture in March 1889 when all three colonial contenders sent warships into Apia harbour, and a larger-scale war seemed imminent. A massive storm on 15 March 1889 damaged or destroyed the warships, ending the military conflict. The reached a head in 1898 when , the , and the United States were locked in dispute over who should control the . The Siege of Apia occurred in March 1899. Samoan forces loyal to Prince were besieged by a larger force of Samoan rebels loyal to . Supporting Prince Tanu were landing parties from four British and American warships. After several days of fighting, the Samoan rebels were finally defeated. American and British warships shelled Apia on 15 March 1899, including the . Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States quickly resolved to end the hostilities and divided the island chain at the Tripartite Convention of 1899, signed at Washington on 2 December 1899 with ratifications exchanged on 16 February 1900.Ryden, George Herbert. ''The Foreign Policy of the United States in Relation to Samoa''. New York: Octagon Books, 1975. (Reprint by special arrangement with Yale University Press. Originally published at New Haven: Yale University Press, 1928), p. 574 The eastern island-group became a territory of the United States (the Tutuila Islands in 1900 and officially Manu'a in 1904) and was known as . The western islands, by far the greater landmass, became . The United Kingdom had vacated all claims in Samoa and in return received (1) termination of German rights in , (2) all of the Solomon Islands south of Bougainville, and (3) territorial alignments in West Africa.
German Samoa (1900–1914)The German Empire governed the western part of the Samoan archipelago from 1900 to 1914. was appointed the colony's first governor. In 1908, when the non-violent Mau a Pule resistance movement arose, Solf did not hesitate to banish the Mau leader to Saipan in the German . The German colonial administration governed on the principle that "there was only one government in the islands." Thus, there was no Samoan ''Tupu'' (king), nor an ''alii sili'' (similar to a governor), but two ''Fautua'' (advisors) were appointed by the colonial government. ''Tumua'' and ''Pule'' (traditional governments of Upolu and Savai'i) were for a time silent; all decisions on matters affecting lands and titles were under the control of the colonial Governor. In the first month of , on 29 August 1914, troops of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force landed unopposed on Upolu and seized control from the German authorities, following a request by Great Britain for to perform this "great and urgent imperial service."
New Zealand rule (1914–1962)From the end of until 1962, New Zealand controlled Western Samoa as a Class C Mandate under through the , then through the United Nations. Between 1919 and 1962, Samoa was administered by the , a government department which had been specially created to oversee New Zealand's Island Territories and Samoa."External Affairs Bill", in ''New Zealand Parliamentary Debates'', Vol. 185 (3 October–5 November 1919), p.337. In 1943, this department was renamed the Department of Island Territories after a separate was created to conduct New Zealand's foreign affairs. During the period of New Zealand control, their administrators were responsible for two major incidents.
Flu pandemicIn the first incident, approximately one fifth of the Samoan population died in the influenza epidemic of 1918–1919. In 1918, during the final stages of , the had taken its toll, spreading rapidly from country to country. On Samoa, there had been no epidemic of pneumonic influenza in Western Samoa before the arrival of the SS ''Talune'' from on 7 November 1918. The NZ administration allowed the ship to berth in breach of quarantine; within seven days of this ship's arrival, influenza became epidemic in Upolu and then spread rapidly throughout the rest of the territory. Samoa suffered the most of all Pacific islands, with 90% of the population infected; 30% of adult men, 22% of adult women and 10% of children died. The cause of the epidemic was confirmed in 1919 by a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Epidemic concluded that there had been no epidemic of pneumonic influenza in Western Samoa before the arrival of the ''Talune'' from Auckland on 7 November 1918.
Mau movementThe second major incident arose out of an initially peaceful protest by the (which literally translates as "strongly held opinion"), a non-violent popular movement which had its beginnings in the early 1900s on Savai'i, led by , an orator chief deposed by Solf. In 1909, Lauaki was exiled to and died en route back to Samoa in 1915. By 1918, Western Samoa had a population of some 38,000 Samoans and 1,500 Europeans. However, native Samoans greatly resented New Zealand's colonial rule, and blamed inflation and the catastrophic 1918 flu epidemic on its misrule. By the late 1920s the resistance movement against colonial rule had gathered widespread support. One of the Mau leaders was , a half Samoan and half Swedish merchant. Nelson was eventually d during the late 1920s and early 1930s, but he continued to assist the organisation financially and politically. In accordance with the Mau's non-violent philosophy, the newly elected leader, High Chief Tupua Tamasese Lealofi, led his fellow uniformed Mau in a peaceful demonstration in downtown Apia on 28 December 1929. The New Zealand police attempted to arrest one of the leaders in the demonstration. When he resisted, a struggle developed between the police and the Mau. The officers began to fire randomly into the crowd and a , mounted in preparation for this demonstration, was used to disperse the demonstrators. Mau leader and paramount chief was shot from behind and killed while trying to bring calm and order to the Mau demonstrators. Ten others died that day and approximately 50 were injured by gunshot wounds and police batons. That day would come to be known in Samoa as Black Saturday. The Mau grew, remaining steadfastly non-violent, and expanded to include the highly influential women's branch.
Independence (1962)After repeated efforts by the Samoan independence movement, the New Zealand of 24 November 1961 granted Samoa independence, effective on 1 January 1962, upon which the Trusteeship Agreement terminated. Samoa also signed a friendship treaty with New Zealand. Samoa, the first small-island country in the Pacific to become independent, joined the on 28 August 1970. While independence was achieved at the beginning of January, Samoa annually celebrates 1 June as its independence day. Travel writer Paul Theroux noted marked differences between the societies in Western Samoa and in 1992. In 2002, New Zealand's prime minister Helen Clark formally apologised for New Zealand's role in Spanish Influenza outbreak in 1918 that killed over a quarter of Samoa's population and for the Black Saturday killings in 1929.
1997 name changeOn 4 July 1997 the government amended the constitution to change the country's name from ''Western Samoa'' to ''Samoa''. However, in the United Nations, the country's name had always been ''Samoa''. protested against the move, asserting that the change diminished its own identity.
21st centuryOn 7 September 2009, the government changed the Right- and left-hand traffic, rule of the road, from right to left, in common with most other Commonwealth countries, most notably countries in the region such as Australia and , home to large numbers of Samoans. This made Samoa the first country in the 21st century to switch to driving on the left. At the end of December 2011, Samoa changed its time zone offset from UTC−11 to UTC+13, effectively jumping forward by one day, omitting Friday, 30 December from the local calendar. This also had the effect of changing the shape of the International Date Line, moving it to the east of the territory. This change aimed to help the nation boost its economy in doing business with Australia and . Before this change, Samoa was 21 hours behind Sydney, but the change means it is now three hours ahead. The previous time zone, implemented on 4 July 1892, operated in line with American traders based in California. In October 2021, Samoa ceased the daylight saving time. In 2017, Samoa signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. In June 2017, Parliament established an amendment to Article 1 of the Samoan Constitution, thereby making Christianity the state religion. In May 2021, Fiame Naomi Mataʻafa became Samoa's first female prime minister. Mataʻafa's Faʻatuatua i le Atua Samoa ua Tasi, FAST party narrowly won the 2021 Samoan general election, election, ending the rule of long-term Prime Minister Tuilaepa Sailele Malielegaoi, although the 2021 Samoan constitutional crisis, constitutional crisis complicated and delayed this. On 24 May 2021, she was sworn in as the new prime minister, though it was not until July that the Supreme Court ruled that her swearing-in was legal, thus ending the constitutional crisis and bringing an end to Tuilaʻepa's 22-year premiership.
Government and politicsThe Constitution of Samoa, 1960 constitution, which formally came into force with independence from New Zealand in 1962, builds on the British pattern of , modified to take account of Samoan customs. The national modern Government of Samoa is referred to as the ''Malo''. Fiame Mata'afa Faumuina Mulinu'u II, one of the four highest-ranking paramount chiefs in the country, became Samoa's first Prime Minister of Samoa, Prime Minister. Two other paramount chiefs at the time of independence were appointed joint head of state, heads of state for life. Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole died in 1963, leaving Malietoa Tanumafili II sole head of state until his death on 11 May 2007. The next Head of State was Tui Atua Tupua Tamasese Efi, was elected by the legislature on 17 June 2007 for a fixed five-year term, and was re-elected unopposed in July 2012. He was succeeded by Tuimalealiifano Va'aletoa Sualauvi II in 2017. The unicameral legislature (the Fono) consists of 51 members serving 5-year terms. Forty-nine are ''fa'amatai, matai'' title-holders elected from territorial districts by Samoans; the other two are chosen by non-Samoans with no chiefly affiliation on separate electoral rolls. At least, 10% of the MPs are women. Universal suffrage was adopted in 1990, but only chiefs (matai) may stand for election to the Samoan seats. There are more than 25,000 matais in the country, about 5% of whom are women. The prime minister, chosen by a majority in the Fono, is appointed by the head of state to form a government. The prime minister's choices for the 12 Cabinet of Samoa, cabinet positions are appointed by the head of state, subject to the continuing confidence of the Fono. Prominent women in Samoan politics include the late Laulu Fetauimalemau Mata'afa (1928–2007) from Lotofaga constituency, the wife of Samoa's first prime minister. Their daughter Naomi Mataʻafa, Fiame Naomi Mataʻafa is a high chief and a long-serving senior member of cabinet, who was elected Prime Minister in 2021. Other women in politics include Samoan scholar and eminent professor Aiono Fanaafi Le Tagaloa, orator-chief Matatumua Maimoana and Safuneitu'uga Pa'aga Neri ( the Minister of Communication and Technology). The judicial system incorporates English common law and local customs. The Supreme Court of Samoa is the court of highest jurisdiction. The Chief Justice of Samoa is appointed by the head of state upon the recommendation of the prime minister.
Administrative divisionsSamoa comprises eleven ''itūmālō'' (political districts). These are the traditional eleven districts which predate European arrival. Each district has its own constitutional foundation (''fa'avae'') based on the traditional order of title precedence found in each district's ''faalupega'' (traditional salutations). The capital village of each district administers and coordinates the affairs of the district and confers each district's paramount title, amongst other responsibilities. For example: A'ana has its capital at Leulumoega. The paramount ''
Human rightsMajor areas of concern include the under-representation of women, domestic violence and poor prison conditions. LGBT rights in Samoa, Homosexual acts are illegal in Samoa.
Christian revivalIn June 2017, an Act was passed changing the country's constitution to include a reference to the Trinity. As amended, Article 1 of the Samoan Constitution states that "Samoa is a Christian nation founded of God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit". According to ''The Diplomat'', "What Samoa has done is shift references to Christianity into the body of the constitution, giving the text far more potential to be used in legal processes." The preamble to the constitution already described the country as "an independent State based on Christian principles and Samoan custom and traditions."
GeographySamoa lies south of the equator, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand, in the n region of the Pacific Ocean. The total land area is , consisting of the two large islands of and Savai'i (which together account for 99% of the total land area) and eight small islets. The islets are: * the three islets in the Apolima Strait (Manono Island, and Nu'ulopa) * the four off the eastern end of Upolu ( Nu'utele, Nu'ulua, , and ) * Nu'usafe'e, which is less than in area and lies about off the south coast of Upolu at the village of ''Vaovai'' The main island of Upolu is home to nearly three-quarters of Samoa's population, and to the capital city, Apia, Samoa, Apia. The Samoan islands result geologically from volcanism, originating with the Samoa hotspot, which probably results from a mantle plume. While all of the islands have volcanic origins, only Savai'i, the westernmost island in Samoa, remains volcanically active, with the most recent eruptions at Mt Matavanu (1905–1911), Mata Ole Afi, Mata o le Afi (1902) and Mauga Afi (1725). The highest point in Samoa is Silisili, Mt Silisili, at . The Saleaula lava fields situated on the central north coast of Savai'i result from the Mt Matavanu eruptions, which left of solidified lava. Savai'i is the largest of the Samoan islands and the sixth-largest Polynesian island (after New Zealand's North Island, North, South Island, South and Stewart Island/Rakiura, Stewart Islands and the Hawaiian islands of Hawaii (island), Hawaiʻi and Maui). The population of Savai'i is 42,000 people.
ClimateSamoa has an equatorial climate, with an average annual temperature of and a main rainy season from November to April, although heavy rain may fall in any month.
EcologySamoa forms part of the Samoan tropical moist forests ecoregion. Since human habitation began, about 80% of the lowland rainforests have disappeared. Within the ecoregion about 28% of plants and 84% of land birds are endemic.
EconomyThe United Nations has classified Samoa as an developing country, economically developing country since 2014. Samoa's gross domestic product in purchasing-power parity was estimated at $1.13 billion United States dollar, U.S. dollars, ranking the country 204th in the world. The tertiary sector of the economy, services sector accounted for 66% of GDP, followed by Industrial sector, industry and agriculture at 23.6% and 10.4% respectively. For the same year, the Samoan workforce, labour force was estimated at 50,700. The Central Bank of Samoa issues and regulates Samoa's currency, the Samoan tala, Samoan tālā. The economy of Samoa has traditionally depended on agriculture and fishing at the local level. In modern times, development aid, private family remittances from overseas, and agricultural exports have become key factors in the nation's economy. Agriculture employs two-thirds of the labour force and furnishes 90% of exports, featuring coconut cream, coconut oil, noni (juice of the ''nonu'' fruit, as it is known in Samoan), and . Sixty percent of Samoa's electricity comes from renewable hydroelectricity, hydro, solar, and wind sources, with the remainder produced by diesel generators. The Electric Power Corporation set a goal of 100% renewable energy by 2021. See the main article for more detail of the Economy of Samoa
AgricultureIn the period before German colonisation (from the late 19th century), Samoa produced mostly copra. German merchants and settlers were active in introducing large-scale plantation operations and in developing new industries, notably cocoa beans and rubber, relying on imported labourers from China and . When the value of natural rubber fell drastically, about the end of the Great War ( ) in 1918, the government encouraged the production of bananas, for which there is a large market in . Because of variations in altitude, Samoa can cultivate a large range of tropical and subtropical crops. Land is not generally available to outside interests. Of the total land area of , about 24.4% is in permanent crops and another 21.2% is arable. About 4.4% is Western Samoan Trust Estates Corporation (WSTEC). The staple products of Samoa are copra (dried coconut meat), s (for chocolate), rubber, and bananas. The annual production of both bananas and copra has been in the range of 13,000 to 15,000 metric tons (about 14,500 to 16,500 short tons). If the Asiatic rhinoceros beetle in Samoa were eradicated, Samoa could produce in excess of 40,000 metric tons (44,000 short tons) of copra. Samoan cocoa beans are of very high quality and are used in fine New Zealand chocolates. Most are Criollo (cocoa bean), Criollo-Forastero hybrids. Coffee grows well, but production has been uneven. WESTEC is the biggest coffee producer. Other agricultural industries have proven less successful. Sugarcane production, was originally established by Germans in the early 20th century. Old train tracks for transporting cane can be seen at some plantations east of . Pineapples grow well in Samoa, but have not moved beyond local consumption to become a major export.
DemographicsSamoa reported a population of 194,320 in its 2016 census. About three-quarters of the population live on the main island of .
HealthA measles outbreak began in October 2019. As of 7 December, there have been 68 deaths (0.31 per 1,000, based on a population of 201,316) and over 4,460 cases (2.2% of the population) of measles in Samoa, mainly children under four years old, and 10 reported cases in . It is expected that 70 people will die and up to 6,500 people will be infected.
Ethnic groupsThe population is 92.6% Samoans, 7% Euronesian (people of mixed Europeans, European and Polynesians, Polynesian ancestry) and 0.4% Europeans, according to the The World Factbook, CIA World Factbook.
LanguagesSamoan (''Gagana Fa'asāmoa'') and English are the official languages. Including second-language speakers, there are more speakers of Samoan than English in Samoa. Samoan Sign Language is also commonly used among the Hearing loss, deaf population of Samoa. To emphasize the importance of full inclusion with sign language, elementary Samoan Sign Language was taught to members of the Samoa Police Service, Red Cross Society, and public during the 2017 International Week of the Deaf.
ReligionSince 2017, Article 1 of the Samoan Constitution states that "Samoa is a Christian nation founded of God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit". Religion in Samoa, Samoans' religious adherence includes the following: Christian Congregational Church of Samoa 31.8%, Roman Catholic Church, Roman Catholic 19.4%, Methodist 15.2%, Samoan Assemblies of God, Assembly of God 13.7%, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Samoa, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 7.6%, Seventh-day Adventist Church, Seventh-day Adventist 3.9%, Worship Centre 1.7%, other Christian 5.5%, other 0.7%, none 0.1%, unspecified 0.1% (2011 estimate). The Head of State until 2007, Malietoa Tanumafili II of Samoa, Malietoa Tanumafili II, was a Baháʼí Faith, Baháʼí. Samoa hosts the seventh (of nine current) Baháʼí House of Worship, Baháʼí Houses of Worship in the world; completed in 1984 and dedicated by the Head of State, it is located in Tiapapata, from
EducationThe Samoan government provides eight years of primary and secondary education that is tuition-free and is compulsory through age 16. Samoa's main post-secondary educational institution is the National University of Samoa, established in 1984. The country is also home to several branches of the multi-national University of the South Pacific and the Oceania University of Medicine. Education in Samoa has proved to be effective as a 2012 UNESCO report stated that 99 per cent of Samoan adults are literate.
CultureThe fa'a Samoa, or traditional Samoan way, remains a strong force in Samoan life and politics. As one of the oldest Polynesian cultures, the fa'asamoa developed over a period of 3,000 years, withstanding centuries of European influence to maintain its historical customs, social and political systems, and Samoan language, language. Cultural customs such as the Samoa 'ava ceremony are significant and solemn rituals at important occasions including the bestowal of ''fa'amatai, matai'' chiefly titles. Items of great cultural value include the finely woven '''ie toga''. Samoan mythology includes many gods with creation stories and figures of legend such as Tagaloa and the goddess of war , the daughter of Saveasi'uleo, ruler of the spirit realm Pulotu. Other legends include the well known story of Sina and the Eel which explains the origins of the first coconut tree. Some Samoans are spiritual and religious, and have subtly adapted the dominant religion of Christianity to 'fit in' with fa'a Samoa and vice versa. Ancient beliefs continue to co-exist side by side with Christianity, particularly in regard to the traditional customs and rituals of fa'a Samoa. The Samoan culture is centred around the principle of vāfealoa'i, the relationships between people. These relationships are based on respect, or fa'aaloalo. When Christianity was introduced in Samoa, most Samoan people converted. Currently 98% of the population identify themselves as Christian. Some Samoans live a communal way of life, participating in activities collectively. Examples of this are the traditional Samoan ''Architecture of Samoa, fale'' (houses) which are open with no walls, using blinds made of coconut palm fronds during the night or bad weather. The Samoan ''siva Samoa, siva'' dance has unique gentle movements of the body in time to music and tells a story, although the Samoan male dances can be more snappy. The ''sasa (dance), sasa'' is also a traditional dance where rows of dancers perform rapid synchronization, synchronised movements in time to the rhythm of wooden drums ''(pate (musical instrument), pate)'' or rolled mats. Another dance performed by males is called the ''fa'ataupati'' or the slap dance, creating rhythmic sounds by slapping different parts of the body. This is believed to have been derived from slapping insects on the body. The form and construction of traditional architecture of Samoa was a specialised skill by ''Tufuga fai fale'' that was also linked to other cultural artforms.
TattooingAs with other Polynesian cultures (Hawaiian culture, Hawaiian, Tahitians, Tahitian and Māori culture, Māori) with significant and unique tattoos, Samoans have two gender specific and culturally significant tattoos. For males, it is called the Pe'a and consists of intricate and geometrical patterns tattooed that cover areas from the knees up towards the ribs. A male who possesses such a tatau is called a soga'imiti. A Samoan girl or ''teine'' is given a malu, which covers the area from just below her knees to her upper thighs.
Contemporary cultureAlbert Wendt is a significant Samoan writer whose novels and stories tell the Samoan experience. In 1989, his novel ''Flying Fox in a Freedom Tree'' was made into a feature film in New Zealand, directed by Martyn Sanderson. Another novel ''Sons for the Return Home'' had also been made into a feature film in 1979, directed by Paul Maunder. The late John Kneubuhl, born in American Samoa, was an accomplished playwright and screenwriter and writer. Sia Figiel won the 1997 Commonwealth Writers' Prize for fiction in the south-east Asia/South Pacific region with her novel "Where We Once Belonged". Momoe Malietoa Von Reiche is an internationally recognised poet and artist. Tusiata Avia is a performance poet. Her first book of poetry ''Wild Dogs Under My Skirt'' was published by Victoria University Press in 2004. Dan Taulapapa McMullin is an artist and writer. Other Samoan poets and writers include Sapa'u Ruperake Petaia, Eti Sa'aga and Savea Sano Malifa, the editor of the Samoa Observer. In music, popular local bands include The Five Stars, Penina o Tiafau and Punialava'a. The Yandall Sisters' cover of the song ''Sweet Inspiration'' reached number one on the New Zealand charts in 1974. King Kapisi was the first hip hop artist to receive the prestigious New Zealand Australasian Performing Right Association, APRA Silver Scroll Award in 1999 for his song ''Reverse Resistance''. The music video for ''Reverse Resistance'' was filmed in Savai'i at his villages. Other successful Samoan hip hop artists include rapper Scribe (rapper), Scribe, Dei Hamo, Savage (rapper), Savage and Tha Feelstyle whose music video ''Suamalie'' was filmed in Samoa. Lemi Ponifasio is a director and choreographer who is prominent internationally with his dance Company MAU. Neil Ieremia's company Black Grace has also received international acclaim with tours to Europe and New York. Hip hop has had a significant impact on Samoan culture. According to Katerina Martina Teaiwa, PhD from the University of Hawaii at Manoa, "Hip hop culture in particular is popular amongst Samoan youth."Dances of Life , American Samoa
SportThe main sports played in Samoa are rugby union, Samoan cricket and netball. Rugby union is the national football code of Samoa. In Samoan villages, volleyball is also popular. Rugby union is the national sport in Samoa and the Samoa national rugby union team, national team, nicknamed the Manu Samoa, is consistently competitive against teams from vastly more populous nations. Samoa has competed at every Rugby World Cup since 1991 Rugby World Cup, 1991, and made the quarter finals in 1991, 1995 Rugby World Cup, 1995 and the second round of the 1999 Rugby World Cup, 1999 World Cup. At the 2003 world cup, Manu Samoa came close to beating eventual world champions, England. Samoa also played in the Pacific Nations Cup and the Pacific Tri-Nations. The sport is governed by the Samoa Rugby Football Union, who are members of the Pacific Islands Rugby Alliance, and thus, also contribute to the international Pacific Islanders rugby union team. At club level, there is the Samoa National Provincial Championship, National Provincial Championship and Pacific Rugby Cup. They also took home the cup at Wellington and the Hong Kong Rugby Sevens in 2007—for which the Prime Minister of Samoa, also Chairman of the national rugby union, Tuila’epa Sa’ilele Malielegaoi, declared a national holiday. They were also the IRB World Sevens Series Champions in 2010 capping a year of achievement for the Samoans, following wins in the US, Australia, Hong Kong and Scotland Sevens tournaments. Prominent Samoan players include Pat Lam and Brian Lima. In addition, many Samoans have played for or are playing for New Zealand national rugby union team, New Zealand. Rugby league is mostly played by Samoans living in New Zealand and Australia. Samoa national rugby league team, Samoa reached the quarter finals of the 2013 Rugby League World Cup, the team comprising players from the NRL and Super League plus domestic players. Many Samoans and New Zealanders or Australians of Samoan descent play in the Super League and National Leagues in Britain, including Francis Meli, Ta'ane Lavulavu of Workington Town, Maurie Fa'asavalu of St Helens, David Fatialofa of Whitehaven and Setaimata Sa, who signed with London Irish rugby club. Other noteworthy players from NZ and Australia have represented the Samoa national rugby league team, Samoan National team. The 2011 domestic Samoan rugby league competition contained 10 teams with plans to expand to 12 in 2012. Samoans have been very visible in boxing, kickboxing, Professional wrestling, wrestling, and sumo; some Samoan sumo wrestlers, most famously Musashimaru and Konishiki, have reached the highest rank of ''Oozeki, Ozeki'' and ''Yokozuna (sumo), yokozuna''. American football is occasionally played in Samoa, reflecting its wide popularity in , where the sport is played under high school sanction. About 30 ethnic Samoans, many from American Samoa, currently play in the National Football League. A 2002 article from ''ESPN'' estimated that a Samoan male (either an American Samoan or a Samoan living in the mainland United States) is 40 times more likely to play in the NFL than a non-Samoan American.
See also* Outline of Samoa
Further reading* Watson, R M, ''History of Samoa'' (Wellington, 1918) * Meleisea, Malama. ''The Making of Modern Samoa: Traditional Authority and Colonial Administration in the Modern History of Western Samoa''. (Suva, 1987) Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. * Schnee, Dr. Heinrich (former Deputy Governor of and last Governor of German East Africa). 1926. ''German Colonization, Past and Future: The Truth about the German Colonies.'' London: George Allen & Unwin. * Eustis, Nelson.  1980. ''Aggie Grey of Samoa.'' Adelaide, South Australia: Hobby Investments. . * * Mead, Margaret. 1928, ''Coming of Age in Samoa: A Study of Adolescence and Sex in Primitive Societies''. * Freeman, Derek. 1983. ''Margaret Mead in Samoa: the Making and Unmaking of an Anthropological Myth''. * Urmenyhazi Attila. 2013 ''Samoan & Marquesan Life in Oceania: a probing travelogue''. – National Library of Australia, Bib ID: 6377055. * Mallon, Sean. 2002. ''Samoan Art and Artists''. O Measina a Samoa. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. *
External links* Government