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Salem ( ) is a historic coastal city in
Essex County, Massachusetts Essex County is a County (United States), county in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Massachusetts. At the 2020 United States Census, 2020 census, the total population was 809,829, making it the third-most populous county in the stat ...
, located in the
North ShoreNorth Shore may refer to: Geographic features Australia *North Shore (Sydney), suburban region of Sydney **Electoral district of North Shore **North Shore railway line, Sydney *Noosa North Shore, Queensland *North Shore, a suburb of Port Macquar ...
region. Continuous settlement by Europeans began in 1626 and Salem would become one of the most significant seaports in
early American history The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of North America from the early 17th century until the incorporation of the Thirteen Colonies into the United States of America, after the American Revolu ...
. Salem is a residential and tourist area that is home to the
House of Seven Gables The House of the Seven Gables (also known as the Turner House or Turner-Ingersoll Mansion) is a 1668 colonial Colonial or The Colonial may refer to: * Colonial, of, relating to, or characteristic of a colony or colony (biology) Architecture * Am ...
,
Salem State University Salem State University (Salem State or SSU) is a public university in Salem, Massachusetts. Established in 1854, it is the oldest and largest institute of higher education on the North Shore (Massachusetts), North Shore and is part of the state ...

Salem State University
, Pioneer Village, the
Salem Maritime National Historic Site The Salem Maritime National Historic Site is a National Historic Sites (United States), National Historic Site consisting of 12 historic structures, one replica tall-ship, and about 9 acres (36,000 m2) of land along the waterfront of Salem Harbor ...

Salem Maritime National Historic Site
, Salem Willows Park, and the
Peabody Essex Museum The Peabody Essex Museum (PEM) in Salem, Massachusetts, US, is a successor to the East India Marine Society, established in 1799. It combines the collections of the former Peabody Museum of Salem (which acquired the Society's collection) and the ...

Peabody Essex Museum
. It features historic residential neighborhoods in the
Federal Street District The Federal Street District is a residential and civic historic district , Estonia Image:historic_district_street_sign.JPG, Historic district street sign in Ypsilanti, Michigan A historic district or heritage district is a section of a city which ...

Federal Street District
and the
Charter Street Historic District The Charter Street Historic District encompasses a small remnant of the oldest part of Salem, Massachusetts Salem ( ) is a historic coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts, located in the North Shore (Massachusetts), North Shore region. Con ...
.Peabody Essex announces $650 million campaign
WickedLocal.com, November 14, 2011
Peabody Essex vaults into top tier by raising $550 million
, Boston Globe, November 6, 2011.
PEM announces $650 million advancement
, Peabody Essex Museum press release, November 7, 2011.
The city's population was 44,480 at the 2020 census. Much of the city's cultural identity reflects its role as the location of the infamous
Salem witch trials The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in Province of Massachusetts Bay, colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693. More than two hundred people were accused. Thirty ...
of 1692, as featured in
Arthur Miller Arthur Asher Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright and essayist in the 20th-century American theater. Among his most popular plays are ''All My Sons ''All My Sons'' is a three-act play written in 19 ...
's ''
The Crucible ''The Crucible'' is a 1953 play by American playwright Arthur Miller Arthur Asher Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright and essayist in the 20th-century American theater. Among his most popular pla ...
''. Police cars are adorned with witch logos, a public elementary school is known as Witchcraft Heights, and the Salem High School athletic teams are named the Witches. Gallows Hill was once believed to be the site of many public hangings; it is now a park and used as a playing field for various sports.


History


Naumkeag

Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
lived in northeastern Massachusetts for thousands of years prior to
European colonization of the Americas Although the Norse had explored and colonized northeastern North America c. 1000 CE, the later and more well-known wave of European colonization of the Americas took place in the Americas The Americas (also collectively called Ameri ...
. The peninsula that would become Salem was known as ''Naumkeag'' (alternate spellings Naemkeck, Nahumkek, Neumkeage) by the native people who lived there at the time of contact in the early 1600s. Naumkeag was a major settlement for the indigenous group that controlled territory from the Merrimack to the
Mystic Rivers
Mystic Rivers
, who due to their close proximity with early English settlers in Salem would be referred to by Europeans as the
Naumkeag people Naumkeag is a historical name for the Eastern Algonquian The Eastern Algonquian languages constitute a subgroup of the Algonquian languages. Prior to European contact, Eastern Algonquian consisted of at least 17 languages, whose speakers collect ...
. There are probable indigenous settlement sites near the mouths of the North, South, and Forest Rivers in Salem. The contact period was a disastrous time for the Naumkeag. Many Naumkeag died in a war with the Tarrantines and a
virgin soil epidemic Virgin soil epidemic is a term coined by Alfred Crosby Alfred W. Crosby Jr. (January 15, 1931 – March 14, 2018) was professor of History History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the st ...
in 1617-1619, including their powerful sachem
NanepashemetNanepashemet (died 1619) was the leader, or Great Sachem, of the Pawtucket tribe, Pawtucket Confederation of Abenaki peoples in present-day New England before the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers, Pilgrims. He ruled over a large part of what is now coa ...
, reducing their strength just prior to the arrival of English settlers in modern day Salem in 1626. Then in 1633, a second epidemic struck, killing two of Nanepashemet's successors, Montowompate and
Wonohaquaham Wonohaquaham also known as Sagamore John was a Native American leader who was a Pawtucket Confederation Sachem Sachems and sagamores are paramount chiefs A paramount chief is the English-language designation for the highest-level political ...
, and leaving his remaining heir
Wenepoykin Wenepoykin (1616–1684) also known as Winnepurkett, Sagamore George, George No Nose, and George Rumney Marsh was a Native American leader who was the Sachem of the Naumkeag people when English began to settle in the area. Early life Wenepoykin w ...
scarred. So it was that English settlers met little resistance on their arrival in Salem. Although
Wenepoykin Wenepoykin (1616–1684) also known as Winnepurkett, Sagamore George, George No Nose, and George Rumney Marsh was a Native American leader who was the Sachem of the Naumkeag people when English began to settle in the area. Early life Wenepoykin w ...
would join
Metacomet Metacomet (1638 – August 12, 1676), also known as Pometacom, Metacom, and by his adopted English name King Philip,
in
King Philip's War King Philip's War (sometimes called the First Indian War, Metacom's War, Metacomet's War, Pometacomet's Rebellion, or Metacom's Rebellion) was an armed conflict in 1675–1678 between indigenous inhabitants of New England and New England coloni ...
in 1675, the English settlers at this point had the numerical superiority to defeat Metacomet's indigenous coalition. It was not until 1686, when the
Massachusetts Bay Colony The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630–1691), more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of America around the Massachusetts Bay Massachusetts Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body ...
Charter was recalled by the King in the creation of the
Dominion of New England The Dominion of New England in America (1686–1689) was an administrative union of English colonies covering New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (al ...
that Wenepoykin's heirs pressed their claim to the land of Salem, for which they were paid twenty pounds.


English Colonization

Colonists settled Naumkeag in 1626 when a company of fishermenPhippen, George D. "Old Planters of Salem" ''Hist. Coll. of the Essex Institute'' Vol. 1, 97 et seq. arrived from
Cape Ann Cape Ann is a rocky cape A cape is a sleeveless outer garment, which drapes the wearer's back, arms, and chest, and connects at the neck. History Capes were common in medieval Europe, especially when combined with a hood in the ch ...
led by Roger Conant. Conant's leadership provided the stability to survive the first two years, but
John Endecott John Endecott (also spelled Endicott; before 1600 – 15 March 1664/1665), regarded as one of the Fathers of New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (a ...
replaced him by order of the
Massachusetts Bay Company Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Connecticut to the southwest and Rhode Island ...
. Conant stepped aside and was granted of land in compensation. These "New Planters" and the "Old Planters" agreed to cooperate because of the diplomacy of Conant and Endecott. To recognize this peaceful transition to the new government, the name of the settlement was changed to Salem, the
hellenized Hellenization (other British spelling Hellenisation) or Hellenism is the adoption of Greek culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as ...
name of Shalem (שָׁלֵם), the royal city of
Melchizedek In the Bible, Melchizedek (, he, מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק, , "king of righteousness" or "my king is righteousness"; am, መልከ ጼዴቅ, ; hy, Մելքիսեդեք, ) also transliterated Melchisedech or Malki Tzedek, was the king of S ...

Melchizedek
, that is identified with
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
. In 1628, Endecott ordered that the
Great House A great house is a large house or mansion with luxurious appointments and great retinue A retinue is a body of persons "retained" in the service of a noble, royal Royal may refer to: People * Royal (name)Royal can be a surname or a g ...
be moved from Cape Ann, reassembling it on Washington Street north of Church Street.
Francis Higginson Francis Higginson (1588 – 1630) was an early Puritan minister in Colonial New England, and the first minister of Salem, Massachusetts. Biography England The son of a minister, Francis Higginson received his B.A. degree from Jesus College, ...
wrote that "we found a faire house newly built for the Governor" which was remarkable for being two stories high. A year later, the Massachusetts Bay Charter was issued creating the
Massachusetts Bay Colony The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630–1691), more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of America around the Massachusetts Bay Massachusetts Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body ...
with Matthew Craddock as its governor in
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
and Endecott as its governor in the colony.
John Winthrop John Winthrop (January 12, 1587/88 – March 26, 1649) was an English Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheist ...

John Winthrop
was elected Governor in late 1629, and arrived with the
Winthrop Fleet The Winthrop Fleet was a group of 11 ships led by John Winthrop out of a total of 16 funded by the Massachusetts Bay Company which together carried between 700 and 1,000 Puritans plus livestock and provisions from England to New England over the ...

Winthrop Fleet
in 1630, one of the many events that began the Puritan Great Migration. In 1639, Endecott, among others, signed the building contract for enlarging the meeting house in Town House Square for the first church in Salem. This document remains part of the town records at City Hall. He was active in the affairs of the town throughout his life. Samuel Skelton was the first pastor of the
First Church of Salem First Church in Salem (officially known as the First Church in Salem, Unitarian Universalist) is a Unitarian Universalism, Unitarian Universalist Church (building), church in Salem, Massachusetts, Salem, Massachusetts that was designed by Solomon W ...
, which is the original Puritan church in America. Endecott already had a close relationship with Skelton, having been converted by him, and Endecott considered him as his spiritual father. Salem's harbor was defended by Fort Miller in Marblehead from 1632 to 1865, and by
Fort Pickering Fort Pickering is a 17th-century historic fort site on Winter Island in Salem, Massachusetts. Fort Pickering operated as a strategic coastal defense and military barracks for Salem Harbor during a variety of periods, serving as a fortification f ...
on
Winter Island Winter Island is an island connected by a causeway to Salem Neck (Massachusetts), Salem Neck in Salem, Massachusetts. It is about in size, and is bounded by Smith Pool (Massachusetts), Smith Pool to the northwest, Cat Cove (Massachusetts), Cat C ...
from 1643 to 1865.


Witchcraft Trials

One of the most widely known aspects of Salem is its history of witchcraft allegations which started with Abigail Williams,
Betty Parris Elizabeth Parris (November 28, 1682 – March 21, 1760) was one of the young women who accused other people of being witches during the Salem witch trials The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused ...
, and their friends playing with a Venus glass (mirror) and egg. The infamous
Salem Witch Trials The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in Province of Massachusetts Bay, colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693. More than two hundred people were accused. Thirty ...
began in 1692, and 19 people were executed by hanging because of the false accusations;
Giles Corey Giles Corey ( August 1611 – September 19, 1692) was an English-born American farmer A farmer is a person engaged in agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the ...

Giles Corey
was
pressed to death Death by crushing or pressing is a method of capital punishment, execution that has a history during which the techniques used varied greatly from place to place, generally involving the placement of intense weight upon a person with the intent to ...
for refusing to plead innocent or guilty, thus avoiding the noose and instead dying an innocent man. Salem is also significant in legal history as the site of the Dorothy Talbye Trial, where a mentally ill woman was hanged for murdering her daughter because Massachusetts made no distinction at the time between insanity and criminal behavior.
William Hathorne William Hathorne (–1681) was a widely influential man in early New England. He arrived on the ship Arbella.Anderson, Robert, ''The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England, 1620-1633,'' Entry for William Hathorne, New England Hist ...
was a prosperous entrepreneur in early Salem and became one of its leading citizens. He led troops to victory in
King Philip's War King Philip's War (sometimes called the First Indian War, Metacom's War, Metacomet's War, Pometacomet's Rebellion, or Metacom's Rebellion) was an armed conflict in 1675–1678 between indigenous inhabitants of New England and New England coloni ...
, served as a magistrate on the highest court, and was chosen as the first speaker of the House of Deputies. He was a zealous advocate of the personal rights of freemen against royal emissaries and agents. His son Judge
John Hathorne John Hathorne (August 1641 – May 10, 1717) was a merchant and magistrate of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Salem, Massachusetts. He is best known for his early and vocal role as one of the leading judges in the Salem witch trials. Hathor ...
came to prominence in the late 17th century when witchcraft was a serious felony. Judge Hathorne is the best known of the witch trial judges, and he became known as the "Hanging Judge" for sentencing accused witches to death.


American Revolution

On February 26, 1775, patriots raised the drawbridge at the North River on North Street, preventing British Colonel
Alexander Leslie Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven (15804 April 1661) was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to ...
and his 300 troops of the
64th Regiment of Foot The 64th (2nd Staffordshire) Regiment of Foot was an infantry Infantry is an army specialization whose military personnel, personnel engage in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and armored warfare, armored ...
from seizing stores and ammunition hidden in North Salem. Both parties came to an agreement and no blood was shed that day, but war broke out at
Lexington and Concord The battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was ini ...
soon after. A group of prominent merchants with ties to Salem published a statement retracting what some interpreted as
Loyalist Loyalism, in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdo ...
leanings and professing their dedication to the American cause, including Francis Cabot, William Pynchon, Thomas Barnard, E. A. Holyoke, and William Pickman. During the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of British America in Continental Congress ...
, the town became a center for privateering. The documentation is incomplete, but about 1,700
Letters of Marque A letter of marque and reprisal (french: lettre de marque; lettre de course) was a government license in the Age of Sail Age or AGE may refer to: Time and its effects * Age, the amount of time something has been alive Alive may refer to: *Li ...
were granted during that time, issued on a per-voyage basis. Nearly 800 vessels were commissioned as privateers and are credited with capturing or destroying about 600 British ships. Privateering resumed during the
War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It ...
.


Trade with the Pacific and Africa

Following the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
, many ships used as privateers were too large for short voyages in the coasting trade, and their owners determined to open new avenues of trade to distant countries. The young men of the town, fresh from service on the armed ships of Salem, were eager to embark in such ventures. Captain Nathaniel Silsbee, his first mate Charles Derby, and second mate Richard J. Cleveland were not yet twenty years old when they set sail on a nineteen-month voyage that was perhaps the first from the newly independent America to the
East Indies The East Indies (or simply the Indies), is a term used in historical narratives of the Age of Discovery The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (sometimes also, particularly regionally, Age of Contact or Contact Period), is an inf ...
. In 1795, Captain Jonathan Carnes set sail for
Sumatra Sumatra is one of the Sunda Islands The Sunda Islands are a group of islands in the Malay Archipelago. They consist of the Greater Sunda Islands The Greater Sunda Islands are four tropical islands situated within Southeast Asia S ...

Sumatra
in the
Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago ( ceb, Kapupud-ang Malay, ms, Kepulauan Melayu, tgl, Kapuluang Malay, jv, Nusantara) is the archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection o ...

Malay Archipelago
on his secret voyage for
pepper Pepper or peppers may refer to: Food and spice * Piperaceae or the pepper family, a large family of flowering plant ** Black pepper * ''Capsicum'' or pepper, a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae ** Bell pepper ** Chili p ...

pepper
; nothing was heard from him until eighteen months later, when he entered with a cargo of pepper in bulk, the first to be so imported into the country, and which sold at the extraordinary profit of seven hundred per cent. The ''Empress of China'', formerly a privateer, was refitted as the first American ship to sail from
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
to
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
. By 1790, Salem had become the sixth largest city in the country, and a world-famous
seaport A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes, the Canadian provinces of ...
—particularly in the China Trade, along with exporting
codfish Cod is the common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is sometim ...
to Europe and the
West Indies The West Indies are a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, in ...
, importing
sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosacc ...

sugar
and
molasses Molasses () or black treacle Treacle () is any uncrystallised syrup In cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat to Outline of food preparation, prepare food for consumption. Cooking techniques and ingredi ...

molasses
from the
West Indies The West Indies are a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, in ...
,
tea Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured A cure is a completely effective treatment for a disease. Cure, or similar, may also refer to: Places * Cure (river), a river in France * Cures, Sabinum, an ...

tea
from China, and products depicted on the city seal from the
East Indies The East Indies (or simply the Indies), is a term used in historical narratives of the Age of Discovery The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (sometimes also, particularly regionally, Age of Contact or Contact Period), is an inf ...
– in particular Sumatran pepper. Salem ships also visited
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
Zanzibar Zanzibar (; ; ) is an insular autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative d ...

Zanzibar
in particular,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
,
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
, and
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
. The sail frigate was built at one of
Enos Briggs Enos Briggs (1746-1819) was an American Shipbuilding, shipbuilder. Life He was born on July 20, 1746 in Pembroke, Massachusetts. He was the son of Seth Briggs, another shipbuilder. He died in Salem, Massachusetts in 1819. Career He is most ...
' shipyards on
Winter Island Winter Island is an island connected by a causeway to Salem Neck (Massachusetts), Salem Neck in Salem, Massachusetts. It is about in size, and is bounded by Smith Pool (Massachusetts), Smith Pool to the northwest, Cat Cove (Massachusetts), Cat C ...
in 1799. The neutrality of the United States was tested during the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
. After the ''Chesapeake–Leopard'' affair, Congress passed the
Embargo Act of 1807 The Embargo Act of 1807 was a general trade embargo Economic sanctions are commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Televisio ...
.
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a chief executive officer ...

President
Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were cr ...

Thomas Jefferson
closed all ports, an economic blow to the seaport town of Salem. The embargo was the starting point on the path to the
War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It ...
. Both
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Great Britain
and
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
imposed trade restrictions to weaken each other's economies. This disrupted American trade and tested the United States' neutrality. The
British Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the Unite ...
harassed American ships, impressed American sailors, and seized their goods. ''The Salem–India Story'' by Vanita Shastri narrates the adventures of the Salem seamen who connected the far corners of the globe through trade. This period (1788–1845) marks the beginning of U.S. international relations, long before the 21st century wave of globalization. It reveals the global trade connections that Salem had established with faraway lands, which were a source of livelihood and prosperity for many. Charles Endicott,
master Master or masters may refer to: Ranks or titles *Ascended master Ascended masters in the Ascended Master Teachings of a number of movements in the theosophical tradition are believed to be spiritually enlightened beings who in past incarn ...

master
of Salem merchantman ''Friendship'', returned in 1831 to report Sumatran natives had plundered his ship, the first officer and two crewmen. Following public outcry, President
Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American lawyer, soldier, and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of ...

Andrew Jackson
ordered the ''Potomac'' on the
First Sumatran Expedition The First Sumatran expedition, which featured the Battle of Quallah Battoo (Acehnese language, Aceh: Kuala Batèë, Indonesian language, Indonesian: Kuala Batu) in 1832, was a punitive expedition by the United States Navy against the village of ...
, which departed
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
on August 19, 1831. Diplomatist
Edmund Roberts Edmund is a masculine given name or surname in the English language. The name is derived from the Old English elements ''ēad'', meaning "prosperity" or "riches", and ''mund'', meaning "protector". Persons named Edmund include: People Kings and ...
negotiated a treaty with
Said bin Sultan, Sultan of Muscat and Oman Sayyid Said bin Sultan al-Busaidi ( ar, سعيد بن سلطان, , sw, Saïd bin Sultani) (5 June 1791 – 19 October 1856), was Sultan of Muscat and Oman, the fifth ruler of the House of Busaid, Busaid dynasty from 1807 to 4 June 1856. His rul ...
on September 21, 1833. In 1837, the sultan moved his main place of residence to
Zanzibar Zanzibar (; ; ) is an insular autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative d ...

Zanzibar
and welcomed Richard Waters, a resident of Salem, as a United States consul of the early years.


Legacy of the East Indies and Old China Trade

The
Old China Trade The Old China Trade () refers to the early commerce between the Qing Empire The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Di ...
left a significant mark in two historic districts,
Chestnut Street District The Chestnut Street District is a historic district bounded roughly by Bridge, Lynn, Beckford, and River Streets in Salem, Massachusetts. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places listings in Salem, Massachusetts, National Register ...
, part of the
Samuel McIntire Samuel McIntire (January 16, 1757 – February 6, 1811) was an American architect and artisan, craftsman, best known for his work in the Chestnut Street District, a classic example of Federal style architecture. Life and career Born in Salem, Mas ...

Samuel McIntire
Historic District containing 407 buildings, and the
Salem Maritime National Historic Site The Salem Maritime National Historic Site is a National Historic Sites (United States), National Historic Site consisting of 12 historic structures, one replica tall-ship, and about 9 acres (36,000 m2) of land along the waterfront of Salem Harbor ...

Salem Maritime National Historic Site
, comprising 12 historic structures and about 9 acres (36,000 m2) of land along the waterfront in Salem.
Elias Hasket Derby Elias Hasket Derby (August 16, 1739 — September 8, 1799) was a Colonial American merchant and owner of a fleet of privateers. It took over 150 prizes during the American Revolution, and his large, swift ''Grand Turk'' was the first New E ...

Elias Hasket Derby
was among the wealthiest and most celebrated of post-Revolutionary merchants in Salem. Derby was also the owner of the Grand Turk, the first New England vessel to trade with
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
and the second, after the ''Empress of China,'' to sail from the United States. Thomas H. Perkins was his supercargo and established strong ties with the Chinese and garnered the Forbes fortune through his illegal opium sales. Salem was incorporated as a city on March 23, 1836, and adopted a city seal in 1839 with the motto "''Divitis Indiae usque ad ultimum sinum''",
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
for "To the rich East Indies until the last lap."
Nathaniel Hawthorne Nathaniel Hawthorne (July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was an American novelist, dark romantic, and short story writer. His works often focus on history, morality, and religion. He was born in 1804 in Salem, Massachusetts Salem ( ) is a historic ...

Nathaniel Hawthorne
was overseer of Salem's port from 1846 until 1849. He worked in the U.S. Custom House across the street from the port near Pickering Wharf, his setting for the beginning of ''
The Scarlet Letter ''The Scarlet Letter: A Romance'' is a work of historical fiction by American author Nathaniel Hawthorne, published in 1850. Set in Puritan Massachusetts Bay Colony during the years 1642 to 1649, the novel tells the story of Hester Prynne, who co ...
''. In 1858, an
amusement park An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for entertainment purposes. A theme park is a type of amusement park that bases its structures and attractions around a central ...
was established at Juniper Point, a peninsula jutting into the harbor. Prosperity left the city with a wealth of fine architecture, including
Federal-style Federal-style architecture is the name for the classicizing architecture built in the newly founded United States between 1780 and 1830, and particularly from 1785 to 1815, which was heavily based on the works of Andrea Palladio with several inn ...
mansions designed by one of America's first
architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that h ...

architect
s, Samuel McIntire, for whom the city's largest historic district is named. These homes and mansions now make up the greatest concentrations of notable pre-1900 domestic structures in the United States. Shipping declined throughout the 19th century.
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
and
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
eclipsed Salem and its
silt Silt is granular material A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete solid, macroscopic scale, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would be friction when gra ...
ing harbor. Consequently, the city turned to manufacturing. Industries included
tanneries Tanning may refer to: *Tanning (leather) Tanning is the process of treating skins and hides of animals Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular Multicellular organisms are organism In biology, an organism (from Ancie ...
, shoe factories, and the Naumkeag Steam Cotton Company. The Great Salem Fire of 1914 destroyed over 400 homes and left 3,500 families homeless but spared the historic concentration of Federal architecture on Chestnut Street. A memorial plaque currently exists where the Korn Leather Factory once stood, on what is now a
Walgreens Walgreen Company, d/b/a A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym used by companies that do not operate under their registered company name. The term for this type of alternative name is a "fictitious" business name. Registerin ...

Walgreens
store.


Air Station and the National Guard

Coast Guard Air Station Salem Coast Guard Air Station Salem was a United States Coast Guard The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is the maritime security, search and rescue, and maritime law enforcement, law enforcement military branch, service branch of the United Sta ...
was established on February 15, 1935, when the
U.S. Coast Guard The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is the maritime security Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Marit ...
opened a new
seaplane A seaplane is a powered fixed-wing aircraft A fixed-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air flying machine Early flying machines include all forms of aircraft studied or constructed before the development of the modern aeroplane by 1910. ...
facility in Salem because there was no space to expand the Gloucester Air Station at Ten Pound Island.
Coast Guard Air Station Salem Coast Guard Air Station Salem was a United States Coast Guard The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is the maritime security, search and rescue, and maritime law enforcement, law enforcement military branch, service branch of the United Sta ...
was located on
Winter Island Winter Island is an island connected by a causeway to Salem Neck (Massachusetts), Salem Neck in Salem, Massachusetts. It is about in size, and is bounded by Smith Pool (Massachusetts), Smith Pool to the northwest, Cat Cove (Massachusetts), Cat C ...
, an extension of Salem Neck which juts out into
Salem Harbor Salem Harbor is a harbor in northeastern Massachusetts spanning an area north and south of Salem, Massachusetts, Salem. Historically the Salem Harbor was the site of one of the major international ports in the colonies. During the American Re ...
.
Search and rescue Search and rescue (SAR) is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger. The general field of search and rescue includes many specialty sub-fields, typically determined by the type of terrain the search ...

Search and rescue
, hunting for derelicts, and
medical evacuation Medical evacuation, often shortened to medevac or medivac, is the timely and efficient movement and en route care provided by medical personnel to wounded being evacuated from a battlefield, to injured patients being evacuated from the scene of a ...
s were the station's primary areas of responsibility. During its first year of operation, Salem crews performed 26 medical evacuations. They flew in all kinds of weather, and the radio direction capabilities of the aircraft were of significant value in locating vessels in distress. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
(1939–45), air crews from Salem flew
neutrality patrol On September 3, 1939, the British and French declarations of war on Germany initiated the Battle of the Atlantic The Battle of the Atlantic, the longest continuous military campaign A military campaign is large-scale long-duration signif ...
s along the coast, and the Air Station roster grew to 37 aircraft.
Anti-submarine An anti-submarine weapon (ASW) is any one of a number of devices that are intended to act against a submarine and its crew, to destroy (sink) the vessel or reduce its capability as a weapon of war. In its simplest sense, an anti-submarine weapon ...
patrols flew regularly. In October 1944, Air Station Salem was designated as the first
Air-Sea Rescue Air-sea rescue (ASR or A/SR, also known as sea-air rescue) is the coordinated search and rescue (SAR) of the survivors of emergency water landings as well as people who have survived the loss of their seagoing vessel. ASR can involve a wide varie ...
station on the eastern seaboard. The
Martin PBM Mariner The Martin PBM Mariner was an American Maritime patrol aircraft, patrol bomber flying boat of World War II and the early Cold War era. It was designed to complement the Consolidated PBY Catalina and Consolidated PB2Y Coronado, PB2Y Coronado in se ...
, a hold-over from the war, became the primary rescue aircraft. In the mid-1950s,
helicopter A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft A rotorcraft or rotary-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle or machine that is able to fly Flies are insect Insects or Insecta (from Latin Latin (, ...

helicopter
s came, as did
Grumman HU-16 Albatross The Grumman HU-16 Albatross is a large, twin–radial engine The radial engine is a reciprocating engine, reciprocating type internal combustion engine, internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinder (engine), cylinders "radi ...
amphibious
flying boat A flying boat is a fixed-winged seaplane A seaplane is a powered fixed-wing aircraft capable of taking off and landing of Ryanair makes a smoky landing at Bristol Airport (2016) lands on a moving trailer as part of an airshow. ...

flying boat
s (UFs). The air station's missions included search and rescue, law enforcement, counting migratory waterfowl for the U.S. Biological Survey, and assisting icebound islands by delivering provisions. The station's surviving facilities are part of Salem's Winter Island Marine Park. Salem Harbor was deep enough to host a seadrome with three sea lanes, offering a variety of take-off headings irrespective of wind direction unless there was a strong steady wind from the east. This produced enormous waves that swept into the mouth of the harbor and hampered water operations. When the seadrome was too rough, returning amphibian aircraft used the
Naval Auxiliary Air Facility BeverlyBeverly or Beverley may refer to: Places Australia *Beverley, South Australia, a suburb of Adelaide *Beverley, Western Australia, a town *Shire of Beverley, Western Australia Canada *Beverly, Alberta, a town that amalgamated with the City of Edm ...
. Salem Air Station moved to
Cape Cod Cape Cod is a geographic cape extending into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern corner of mainland Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Art ...
in 1970. In 2011, the City of Salem completed plans for the Winter Island Park and squared off against residents who are against bringing two power-generating windmills to the tip of Winter Island. The Renewable Energy Task Force, along with the Energy and Sustainability Manager, Paul Marquis, have recommended the construction of a 1.5-megawatt power turbine at the tip of Winter Island, which is the furthest point from residences and where the winds are the strongest. The 30-acre park has been open to the public since the early 1970s. In 2011, a master plan was developed with help from the planning and design firm, Cecil Group of Boston and Bioengineering Group of Salem. The City of Salem paid $45,000 in federal money. In the long term, the projected cost to rehabilitate just the barracks was $1.5 million. But in the short term, there are multiple lower-cost items, like a proposed $15,000 kayak dock or $50,000 to relocate and improve the bathhouse. This is a very important project since Fort Pickering guarded Salem Harbor as far back as the 17th century.


National Guard birthplace and architecture

In 1637, the first muster was held on Salem Common, where for the first time a regiment of militia drilled for the common defense of a multi-community area, thus laying the foundation for what became the
Army National Guard The Army National Guard (ARNG), in conjunction with the Air National Guard The Air National Guard (ANG), also known as the Air Guard, is a federal military reserve force of the United States Air Force The United States Air Force (USA ...
. In 1637, the General Court of the
Massachusetts Bay Colony The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630–1691), more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of America around the Massachusetts Bay Massachusetts Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body ...
ordered the organization of the Colony's militia companies into the North, South and East Regiments. The colonists adopted the English militia system, which obligated men between the ages of 16 and 60 to own arms and take part in the community's defense. Each April, the Second Corps of Cadets gather in front of St. Peter's Episcopal Church, where the
body Body may refer to: In science * Physical body, an object in physics that represents a large amount, has mass or takes up space * Body (biology), the physical material of an organism * Body plan, the physical features shared by a group of animals ...
of their founder, Stephen Abbott, is buried. They lay a wreath, play "
Taps "Taps" is a bugle call A bugle call is a short tune, originating as a military signal In signal processing Signal processing is an electrical engineering subfield that focuses on analysing, modifying, and synthesizing signals such ...

Taps
" and fire a
21-gun salute A 21-gun salute is the most commonly recognized of the customary gun salutes that are performed by the firing of cannon A cannon is a large-caliber A 45 ACP hollowpoint (Federal Cartridge, Federal HST) with two .22 Long Rifle, 2 ...
. In another annual commemoration, soldiers gather at Old Salem Armory to honor soldiers who were in the
Battles of Lexington and Concord The battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was init ...
. On April 14, 2012, Salem celebrated the 375th anniversary of the first muster on Salem Common, with more than 1,000 troops taking part in ceremonies and a parade.
Samuel McIntire Samuel McIntire (January 16, 1757 – February 6, 1811) was an American architect and artisan, craftsman, best known for his work in the Chestnut Street District, a classic example of Federal style architecture. Life and career Born in Salem, Mas ...

Samuel McIntire
was one of the first architects in the United States, and his work is a prime example of early Federal-style architecture. The Samuel McIntire Historic District is one of the largest concentrations of 17th and 18th century domestic structures in America. It includes McIntire commissions such as the and Hamilton Hall. or Jonathan Corwin House (circa 1642) is also located in the district. Samuel McIntire's house and workshop were located at 31 Summer Street in what is now the Samuel McIntire Historic District.


Film, literature, and television in Salem

*The silent movie Java Head was filmed on location in Salem in 1922. *In June 1970, episode 205 of ''
Bewitched ''Bewitched'' is an American fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction involving Magic (supernatural), magical elements, typically set in a fictional universe and sometimes inspired by mythology and folklore. Its roots are in oral ...
'' was filmed in Salem. *''
Hocus Pocus Hocus-pocus is an exclamation used by magicians, usually the magic words spoken when bringing about some sort of change. Hocus Pocus or Hokus Pokus or ''variant'', may also refer to: Books * Hocus Pocus (novel), ''Hocus Pocus'' (novel), a 1990 n ...
'' daytime scenes were filmed in Salem. *''
Sabrina The Teenage Witch ''Sabrina the Teenage Witch'' is a comic book A comic book, also called comic book, comic magazine or (in the United Kingdom and Ireland) simply comic, is a publication that consists of comics a Media (communication), medium used t ...
'' filmed an episode in Salem and her black cat familiar was also named Salem. *In 2008, scenes from the film ''
Bride Wars ''Bride Wars'' is a 2009 American Romantic comedy, romantic Black comedy, black comedy film directed by Gary Winick and written by Greg DePaul, June Diane Raphael, and Casey Wilson. The film stars Anne Hathaway, Kate Hudson, Kristen Johnston, Bry ...
'' were filmed here. *The 2012
Rob Zombie Robert Bartleh Cummings (born January 12, 1965), known professionally as Rob Zombie, is an American singer, songwriter, filmmaker, and voice actor. He is a founding member of the heavy metal Heavy metal may refer to: *Heavy metals, a loose ca ...
movie '' The Lords of Salem'' was set and filmed in Salem. *Some interior and street scenes for 2013's ''
American Hustle ''American Hustle'' is a 2013 American black comedy crime film directed by David O. Russell. It was written by Eric Warren Singer and Russell, inspired by the FBI Abscam operation of the late 1970s and early 1980s. It stars Christian Bale and A ...
'' were filmed on Federal St. in Salem outside the Essex Superior Court House and Old Granite Courthouse. * The comedy film ''
Hubie Halloween ''Hubie Halloween'' is a 2020 American mystery film, mystery comedy film directed by Steven Brill (filmmaker), Steven Brill, written by Adam Sandler and Tim Herlihy, and starring an Ensemble cast, ensemble cast consisting of Sandler, Kevin James, ...
'' starring Adam Sandler was filmed in Salem in 2019. *The television series '' Motherland: Fort Salem'' is based in this place but in an alternate reality or history. File:Salem Depot (Boston & Maine).jpg, Salem Depot, 1910 File:George Peabody House, Salem, MA.jpg, Peabody House, c. 1905 File:Harbor from Salem Willows.jpg, Salem Harbor in 1907 File:Lafayette Street, Salem, MA.jpg, Lafayette Street in 1910 File:Naumkeag Steam Cotton Company.jpg, Naumkeag Mills, c. 1910 File:Roger Williams house in Salem MA USA.jpg, Roger Williams House () c. 1910 File:1791 sampler.jpg,
Sampler (needlework) A needlework sampler is a piece of embroidery or cross-stitching produced as a 'specimen of achievement', demonstration or a test of skill in needlework. It often includes the alphabet, figures, motifs, decorative borders and sometimes the name o ...
made in Salem in 1791.
Art Institute of Chicago The Art Institute of Chicago in Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_t ...

Art Institute of Chicago
textile collection. File:Pickering House, Salem, MA.jpg, Pickering House, c. 1905 File:Essex Street, Salem, MA.jpg, Essex Street, c. 1920 File:1891 TownHouseSq Salem Massachusetts.png, Town House Square, 1891


Geography

Salem is located at (42.516845, -70.898503). According to the
United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, ...
, the city has a total area of , of which is land and , or 55.09%, is water. Salem lies on
Massachusetts Bay Massachusetts Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers ...
between Salem Harbor, which divides the city from much of neighboring Marblehead to the southeast, and Beverly Harbor, which divides the city from Beverly along with the Danvers River, which feeds into the harbor. Between the two harbors lies Salem Neck and Winter Island, which are divided from each other by Cat Cove, Smith Pool (located between the two land causeways to Winter Island), and Juniper Cove. The city is further divided by Collins Cove and the inlet to the North River. The Forest River flows through the south end of town, along with Strong Water Brook, which feeds Spring Pond at the town's southwest corner. The town has several parks, as well as conservation land along the Forest River and Camp Lion, which lies east of Spring Pond. The city is divided by its natural features into several small neighborhoods. The Salem Neck neighborhood lies northeast of downtown, and North Salem lies to the west of it, on the other side of the North River. South Salem is south of the South River, lying mostly along the banks of Salem Harbor southward. Downtown Salem lies northeast of
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
, southwest of
Gloucester Gloucester ( ) is a cathedral city City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the ...
and
Cape Ann Cape Ann is a rocky cape A cape is a sleeveless outer garment, which drapes the wearer's back, arms, and chest, and connects at the neck. History Capes were common in medieval Europe, especially when combined with a hood in the ch ...
, and southeast of
Lawrence Lawrence may refer to: Education Colleges and universities * Lawrence Technological University Lawrence Technological University (LTU), frequently referred to as Lawrence Tech, is a private university Private universities (and private colle ...
, the other county seat of Essex County. Salem is bordered by Beverly to the north, Danvers to the northwest, Peabody to the west,
Lynn Lynn may refer to: People and fictional characters * Lynn (given name), including a list of people and fictional characters * Lynn (surname) * The Lynns, a 1990s American country music duo consisting of twin sisters Peggy and Patsy Lynn * Lynn (vo ...
to the south,
Swampscott Swampscott () is a New England town, town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States, located up the coast from Boston in an area known as the North Shore (Massachusetts), North Shore. The population was 15,111 as of the 2020 United States Cen ...
to the southeast, and Marblehead to the southeast. The town's water rights extend along a channel into Massachusetts Bay between the water rights of Marblehead and Beverly.


Transportation


Roads

The connection between Salem and Beverly is made across the Danvers River and Beverly Harbor by three bridges, the Kernwood Bridge to the west, and a railroad bridge and the Essex Bridge, from the land between Collins Cove and the North River, to the east. The Veterans Memorial Bridge carries
Massachusetts Route 1A Route 1A is a north–south state highway in Massachusetts. It is an alternate route to U.S. Route 1 in Massachusetts, U.S. 1 with three signed sections and two unsigned sections where the highway is concurrent with its parent. Due to the reco ...

Massachusetts Route 1A
across the river. Route 1A passes through the eastern side of the city, through South Salem towards Swampscott. For much of its length in the city, it is coextensive with
Route 114 The following highways are numbered 114: Canada * New Brunswick Route 114 * Prince Edward Island Route 114 Costa Rica * National Route 114 (Costa Rica), National Route 114 Germany * Bundesautobahn 114 (A114) India * National Highway 114 (India ...

Route 114
, which goes north from Marblehead before merging with Route 1A, and then heading northwest from downtown towards Lawrence. also passes through town, entering from Lynn in the southwest corner of the city before heading towards its intersection with Route 114 and terminating at Route 1A. There is no highway access within the city; the nearest highway access to
Route 128 The following highways are numbered 128: Canada * New Brunswick Route 128 * Ontario Highway 128 (former) * Prince Edward Island Route 128 Costa Rica * National Route 128 (Costa Rica), National Route 128 India * National Highway 128 (India) Ja ...

Route 128
is along Route 114 in neighboring Peabody.


Rail

Salem has a
station Station may refer to: Agriculture * Station (Australian agriculture) In Australia, a station is a large landholding used for producing livestock, predominantly cattle or sheep, that need an extensive range of grazing land. The owner of a s ...
on the
Newburyport/Rockport Line The Newburyport/Rockport Line is a branch of the MBTA Commuter Rail system, running northeast from downtown Boston, Massachusetts towards Cape Ann and the Merrimack Valley, serving the North Shore (Massachusetts), North Shore. The first leg, ope ...
of the
MBTA Commuter Rail The MBTA Commuter Rail system serves as the commuter rail arm of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority's transportation coverage of Greater Boston in the United States. Trains run over of track to 141 different stations, with 58 statio ...
. The railroad lines are also connected to a semi-abandoned portion of freight lines which lead into Peabody, and a former line into Marblehead has been converted into a bike path.


Bus

Several
MBTA Bus The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority operates 170 bus routes (List of MBTA bus routes, list of routes) in the Greater Boston area, many of which were formerly part of a Boston-area streetcar lines, large streetcar system. Some routes ar ...
routes pass through the city.


Airports

The nearest
general aviation General aviation (GA) is defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialized and funding agency of the United Nations. It changes the principles and techniques o ...
airport is Beverly Municipal Airport, and the nearest commercial airline service for national and international flights is at Boston's
Logan International Airport General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport , also known as Logan International Airport and commonly as Boston Logan, Logan Airport or simply Logan, is an international airport An international airport is an airport An a ...
.


The Salem Ferry

The ''Nathaniel Bowditch'' is a high-speed
catamaran A Formula 16 beachable catamaran Powered catamaran passenger ferry at Salem, Massachusetts, United States A catamaran () (informally, a "cat") is a multi-hulled watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, a ...

catamaran
that travels from Salem to Boston in 50 minutes from May to October and had its maiden voyage on June 22, 2006. The Salem Ferry is named after
Nathaniel Bowditch Nathaniel Bowditch (March 26, 1773 – March 16, 1838) was an early American mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ...
, who was from Salem and wrote the ''
American Practical Navigator ''The American Practical Navigator'' (colloquially often referred to as ''Bowditch''), originally written by Nathaniel Bowditch, is an encyclopedia of navigation. It serves as a valuable handbook on oceanography and meteorology, and contains usefu ...
''. Ridership increased every year from 2006 to 2010, when it peaked with 89,000, but in 2011 service was cut back because of the dramatic rise in fuel prices. The Salem Ferry is docked at the Derby Waterfront District. The ferry was purchased by the City of Salem with the use of grant money that covered 90 percent of the $2.1 million purchase price. Because of the cutback in service during the 2011 season, Mayor Kim Driscoll is now seeking a new operator who can run the ferry seven days a week from May to October. For the 2012 season Boston Harbor Cruises took over the running of the Salem Ferry with seven-day service and a Monday to Friday 7 a.m. commuter ferry to Boston. The Salem Ferry will be running seven days a week for the 2012 season starting the first weekend in June and going through to Halloween. Boston Harbor Cruises, the contractor that operates the city's commuter ferry to Boston, runs their largest and fastest vessel between Salem and Hingham, Massachusetts, Hingham for the last two weekends in October. The company's high-speed ferry service to Provincetown, Massachusetts, Provincetown concludes in October, freeing up its 600-passenger boat for service between Salem and Hingham. The ferry ride between Hingham and Salem takes one hour. With traffic, especially around Halloween, the drive between Salem and Hingham could be three hours or more. For the 2013 season, service was expected to start in the last week of May. The Salem City councilors approved a five-year contract with Boston Harbor Cruises to operate the city's commuter ferry from 2013 to 2017. Also new for the 2013 season, Boston Harbor Cruises will offer a 20 percent discount to Salem residents for non-commuter tickets. The City of Salem has approved a seasonal restaurant with a liquor license at The Salem Ferry dock to be operated by Boston Harbor Cruises. The plan is to build a building plus patio seating. The latest data from 2015 point to 61,000 riders, with around 11,000 being commuters, according to Boston Harbor Cruises, which runs the Salem Ferry.


Salem bike sharing program

In Salem, there is a program called Salem Spins, that offers bicycles, free of charge, for use around the city. The program started in 2011 with a fleet of 20 bicycles and is split between two hubs, at Salem State University and downtown, near the Hawthorne Hotel. In 2011, Salem was awarded $25,000 from the Green Communities grant program, which went toward the purchase of the bike fleet. Fees are charged to a participant's credit card only if they return the bike late or damaged. Right now, Salem Spins is open only to people over the age of 18. But the city is considering changing that, Marquis said, as well as producing a bike map for participants and offering a "seasonal pass" where bikes could be used for more than one day at a time. In July 2020, the Salem bike share program was ended when Zagster pulled out. The company cited the Covid-19 pandemic as a factor in the decision.


Electric car charge program

Salem has eight stations where drivers can charge their electric cars. Four are located at the Museum Place Mall near the Peabody Essex Museum and the other four are in the South Harbor garage across the street from the Salem Waterfront Hotel. The program started in January 2013 and will be free of charge for two years, allowing people to charge their electric cars and other electric vehicles for up to six hours. This program was paid for by a Grant money, grant from the state of Massachusetts due to Salem's status as a Massachusetts Green Community.


Healthcare


North Shore Medical Center (NSMC)

North Shore Medical Center (NSMC) is located in Salem and is the second largest community hospital system in Massachusetts. It offers comprehensive medical and surgical services and includes emergency/trauma departments, advanced cardiac surgery, and a birthplace. It includes NSMC Salem Hospital and NSMC Union Hospital, as well as outpatient care and urgent care. NSMC's medical staff includes nearly 600 affiliated physicians representing primary care, family practice and 50 additional sub-specialties. The Salem NSMC is a general medical and surgical hospital, which has 395 beds. The hospital had 19,467 admissions in the latest year for which data are available. It performed 4,409 annual inpatient and 7,955 outpatient surgeries. Its emergency department had 90,149 visits in 2012. The helipad at North Shore Medical Center is a
helicopter A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft A rotorcraft or rotary-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle or machine that is able to fly Flies are insect Insects or Insecta (from Latin Latin (, ...

helicopter
transportation hub, with multiple daily flights to hospitals all over
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
. Captain John Bertram (Massachusetts businessman), John Bertram (1796–1882) lived in Salem and is the founder of Salem Hospital, which was later renamed North Shore Medical Center (NSMC). In 1873, Captain John Bertram gave a gift of $25,000 in cash, plus a brick mansion on Charter Street to create Salem Hospital. From the original building on Charter Street, Salem Hospital moved to the current location on Highland Avenue in 1917. After John Bertram died in March 1882, his widow donated Chestnut Street District#John Bertram Mansion, their home, a mansion built in the Italianate architecture, High Style Italianate with brick and brownstone for materials at 370 Essex Street, and this became the Salem Public Library. In addition, the Salem Common Historic District (Salem, Massachusetts)#John Bertram House, John Bertram House is now a home for the elderly.


Waterfront redevelopment

The first step in the redevelopment was in 2006, when the State of Massachusetts gave Salem $1,000,000. The bulk of the money - $750,000 - was earmarked for acquisition of the Blaney Street landing, the private, site off Derby Street used by the ferry, and
Salem Harbor Salem Harbor is a harbor in northeastern Massachusetts spanning an area north and south of Salem, Massachusetts, Salem. Historically the Salem Harbor was the site of one of the major international ports in the colonies. During the American Re ...
. Another $200,000 was approved for the design of the new Salem wharf, a large pier planned for the landing, which officials said could be used by small cruise ships, commercial vessels and fishing boats. In June 2012, the $1.75 million was awarded by the state of Massachusetts and will launch a first phase of dredging and construction of a extension of the pier; a harborwalk to improve pedestrian access; and other lighting, landscaping and paving improvements. Dredging will allow the city to attract other ferries, excursion vessels and cruise ships of up to . In October 2010, Mayor Driscoll announced that the city would formally acquire the Blaney Street parcel from Dominion Energy, paving the way for the Salem Wharf project. The City of Salem secured $1.25 million from the Massachusetts Seaport Advisory Council and $2.5 million in federal grant dollars to move forward with the construction of the project. The city acquired the parcel with the help of a $1.7 million grant received from the Seaport Advisory Council. The City of Salem's plans call for a total build-out of the current Blaney Street pier, known as the Salem Wharf project. When finished, the Blaney Street pier will be home to small to medium-sized cruise ships, commercial vessels and the Salem Ferry. This project is fully engineered and permitted. In 2010, in early phase work to be finished for the 2011 season, a contractor was running underground utility cables and erecting an interim terminal building that will be used by the Salem Ferry, replacing the current trailer. The building will have an indoor bathroom — a first at the ferry landing — along with a waiting room and possibly an outdoor area with awnings. Also new for 2011 is a paved lot with about 140 parking spaces replacing the existing dirt parking lot. Also in 2011, construction crews were building a long seawall at the Blaney Street landing, which runs from the edge of the ferry dock back toward Derby Street and along an inner harbor. This is one of the early and key pieces of the Salem Pier, which the city hopes to have completed by 2014 and is the key to eventually bring cruise ships to Salem. At the end of the 2011 season of the Salem Ferry, in the late fall of 2011, after the ferry season ended, contractors were to start building the first section of the T-shaped, pier. Work on that phase was scheduled to be completed by the fall of 2012. As of April 2011, the City of Salem had secured half of the $20 million and still needed to secure about $10 million in state and federal funds to complete this waterfront pier.


Salem Harbor Power Station

In May 2011, after years of legal battles, protests, and one recent fatal accident, the owner of the Salem Harbor Power Station announced it will close down the facility permanently. Salem Harbor Station was a 60-year-old power plant that was owned by Dominion of Virginia. With the approval of ISO New England, the 60-year-old coal and oil-fired plant closed for good in June 2014. The City of Salem was awarded a $200,000 grant from the Clean Energy Center prior to the closure of the plant. This grant money is being used to plan for the eventual re-use of the property. The City of Salem reached out to state and federal officials to ask for their cooperation and assistance in planning for the future and to provide money, in an effort to clean up the 62-acre site. Footprint Power, a startup New Jersey-based energy company, announced on June 29, 2012, that it had signed an agreement to acquire Salem Harbor Station from Dominion Energy of Virginia. Footprint Power planned to demolish the 63-acre waterfront site that has towering smokestacks, a coal pile, and oil tanks. A city study estimated cleanup costs at more than $50 million. The final plan was to develop a new state-of-the-art natural gas plant on one-third of the original site, reportedly along the Fort Avenue side near the city's ferry landing. The remainder of the waterfront property eventually will be used for commercial and industrial redevelopment, the company said. "The transition will not only stabilize our property tax base, but also provide cleaner, more efficient and reliable energy." Footprint said its plans are consistent with the recommendations of a city study completed earlier that year on the future use of the power plant site. The City of Salem required Footprint to demolish the existing plant and stacks. "We will restore some 30 to 40 acres of our waterfront to its vibrant and prosperous past." Mayor Kim Driscoll said she had not "detailed" talks yet with Footprint, but is encouraged by discussions so far. Beginning in December 2013, there were many appeals under way from various groups who did not want the plant rebuilt. The main opponent that fought in court was the Conservation Law Foundation, a leading environmental advocacy group intent on blocking the plant from being built.


Demographics

As of the census of 2010, there were 41,340 people, 19,130 households, and 9,708 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,986.0 people per square mile (1,926.1/km). There were 18,175 housing units at an average density of 2,242.7 per square mile (866.3/km). The racial makeup of the city was 81.5% White (U.S. Census), White, 4.9% African American (U.S. Census), African American, 0.22% Native American (U.S. Census), Native American, 2.6% Asian (U.S. Census), Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander (U.S. Census), Pacific Islander, 6.74% from Race (United States Census), other races, and 2.47% from two or more races. Hispanic (U.S. Census), Hispanic or Latino (U.S. Census), Latino of any race were 15.6% of the population (9.1% Dominican American, Dominican, 2.9% Puerto Ricans in the United States, Puerto Rican, 0.5% Mexican American, Mexican, 0.3% Guatemalan American, Guatemalan). Non-Hispanic Whites were 75.9% of the population in 2010, compared to 95.9% in 1980. There were 17,492 households, out of which 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.8% were Marriage, married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.5% were non-families. Of all households 34.9% were made up of individuals, and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city, the population was spread out, with 20.2% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 33.4% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, and 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $44,033, and the median income for a family was $55,635. Males had a median income of $38,563 versus $31,374 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,857. About 6.3% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.2% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over.


Government

Salem is represented in the Massachusetts General Court, state legislature by officials elected from the following districts: * Massachusetts Senate's 2nd Essex district * Massachusetts House of Representatives' 7th Essex district


Education


Salem State University

Salem State University Salem State University (Salem State or SSU) is a public university in Salem, Massachusetts. Established in 1854, it is the oldest and largest institute of higher education on the North Shore (Massachusetts), North Shore and is part of the state ...

Salem State University
is the largest of the nine schools comprising the state university system in Massachusetts (the five University of Massachusetts campuses are a separate system), with 7,500 undergraduates and 2,500 graduate students; its five campuses encompass and include 33 buildings. The Salem State Foundation hosts an annual lecture series, featuring high-profile speakers from around the world. was originally built in the 1950s and in January 2014 a $18,600,000 project was announced with development. The university was founded in 1854 as the Salem Normal School (for teacher training) based on the educational principles espoused by Horace Mann, considered to be the "Father of American Public Education." Salem State University enrolls over 10,000 undergraduate and graduate students representing 27 states and 57 foreign countries, and is one of the largest state universities in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The university also offers Continuing Education courses for credit or non-credit. Situated on five campuses totaling . Currently, the university houses 2,000 students in its five residence facilities. In 2013 the $74 million, 122,000-square-foot library is going to open on the Salem State University campus. The new library will have more than 150 public computers and 1,000 seats of study space, from tables and desks to lounge chairs scattered throughout the building. On July 28, 2010 Governor of Massachusetts Deval Patrick signed into law a bill that transforms Salem State College into
Salem State University Salem State University (Salem State or SSU) is a public university in Salem, Massachusetts. Established in 1854, it is the oldest and largest institute of higher education on the North Shore (Massachusetts), North Shore and is part of the state ...

Salem State University
. Salem State University plans to build a $36 to $42 million dorm for 350 to 400 students. Construction starts in the spring of 2014. In April 2014, Salem State University announced a $25,000,000 fund, and at the time of the announcement, there was already $15,000,000 committed from donations and the money will be used for a variety of things from expanding international study programs, more faculty, brand new computers, scholarships and continued support of professional development for the staff.


Primary and secondary education

Public elementary schools include the Bates, Carlton, Horace Mann, Saltonstall and Witchcraft Heights schools. Collins Middle School is located on Highland Avenue. Horace Mann and Salem High School are located on Wilson Street. The Nathaniel Bowditch School closed in 2018 and the Horace Mann School relocated to their previous location. Salem Academy Charter School and Bentley Academy Charter School are also public schools. Private schools are also located in the city, including two independent, alternative schools, The Phoenix School and the Greenhouse School. In late 2007 and early 2008, the city's public school system garnered regional and even national attention after officials announced a $4.7 million budget shortfall that threatened the jobs of teachers and other staff members. The Massachusetts General Court passed legislation, and residents raised enough money, that averted teacher layoffs. Several dozen support workers were still laid off. Police were investigating what happened to the money in a search for criminal violations of the law. Salem also once had a very strong Catholic school, Roman Catholic school system. Once home to almost a dozen schools, the last school in the city, St. Joseph School, closed in July 2009 after over 100 years of providing Catholic education. St. James High School, St. Chretienne Academy, St. Chretienne Grammar School and St. Mary's School closed in 1971, St. James Grammar School closed in 1972, St. Thomas the Apostle School closed in 1973, St. Anne School closed in 1976, St. John the Baptist School closed in 1977 and St. Joseph High School closed in 1980.


Tourism


Historic homes

The Pickman House, built circa 1664, abuts the Witch Memorial and Burying Point Cemetery, the second oldest burying ground in the United States. The Gedney House is a historic house museum built circa 1665 and is the 2nd oldest house in Salem. One of the most popular houses in Salem is , the only structure in Salem with direct ties to the
Salem witch trials The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in Province of Massachusetts Bay, colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693. More than two hundred people were accused. Thirty ...
of 1692. The Witch House is owned and operated by the City of Salem as a historic house museum. Hamilton Hall is located on Chestnut Street, where many grand mansions can be traced to the roots of the
Old China Trade The Old China Trade () refers to the early commerce between the Qing Empire The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Di ...
. Hamilton Hall was built in 1805 by Samuel McIntire and is considered one of his best pieces. It was declared a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service in 1970.


Witch-related tourism

In recent years, tourism has been an occasional source of debate in the city, with some residents arguing the city should downplay witch tourism and market itself as a more upscale cultural center. In 2005, the conflict came to a head over plans by the cable television network TV Land to erect a bronze statue of Elizabeth Montgomery, who played the comic witch "Samantha" in the 1960s series ''Bewitched''. A few special episodes of the series were actually filmed in Salem, and TV Land said that the statue commemorated the 35th anniversary of those episodes. The statue was sculpted by StudioEIS under the direction of brothers Elliott and Ivan Schwartz. Many felt the statue was good fun and appropriate to a city that promotes itself as "The Witch City", and contains a street named "Witch Way". Others objected to the use of public property for what was transparently commercial promotion. There is also a memorial to the victims of the infamous Witch Trials at Proctor's Ledge, the execution site from that time. The memorial is "meant to be a place of reflection" for the city, a reminder that we are capable of these things. This according to


Other tourist attractions

In 2000, the replica tall ship ''Friendship of Salem'' was finished and sailed to Salem Harbor, where she sits today. The ''Friendship of Salem'' is a reconstruction of a three-masted East Indiaman trading ship, originally built in 1797, which traveled the world over a dozen times and returned to Salem after each voyage with goods from all over the world. The original was taken by the British during the War of 1812, then stripped and sold in pieces. In 2006, with the assistance of a 1.6 million dollar grant and additional funds provided by the City of Salem, Mayor Driscoll launched ''The Nathaniel Bowditch'', a 92-foot catamaran with a top speed of 30 knots which makes the trip between Salem and Boston in just under an hour. Waterfront redevelopment - The first step in the redevelopment was in 2006, when the State of Massachusetts gave Salem $1,000,000. Nathaniel Bowditch, Bowditch, who was born in Salem and had a home on North Street, is considered the founder of modern maritime navigation. His book, ''Bowditch's American Practical Navigator'', first published in 1802, is still carried on board every commissioned U.S. naval vessel. The original ''Fame'' was a fast Chebacco fishing schooner that was reborn as a privateer when war broke out in the summer of 1812. She was arguably the first American privateer to bring home a prize, and she made 20 more captures before being wrecked in the Bay of Fundy in 1814. The new ''Fame'' is a full-scale replica of this famous schooner. Framed and planked of white oak and trunnel-fastened in the traditional manner, the replica of Fame was launched in 2003. She is now based at Salem's Pickering Wharf Marina, where she takes the paying public for cruises on Salem Sound. Salem Harborwalk opened in July 2010 to celebrate the rebirth of the Salem waterfront as a source of recreation for visitors as well as the local community. The walkway extends from the area of the Salem Fire Station to the Salem Waterfront Hotel. The
Peabody Essex Museum The Peabody Essex Museum (PEM) in Salem, Massachusetts, US, is a successor to the East India Marine Society, established in 1799. It combines the collections of the former Peabody Museum of Salem (which acquired the Society's collection) and the ...

Peabody Essex Museum
is a leading museum of Asian art and culture and early American maritime trade and whaling; its collections of Indian, Japanese, Korean, and Chinese art, and in particular Chinese export porcelain, are among the finest in the country. Founded in 1799, it is one of the oldest continuously operating museums in the United States. The museum owns and exhibits a number of historic houses in downtown Salem. In 2003, it completed a massive $100 million renovation and expansion, designed by architect Moshe Safdie, and moved a 200-year-old 16-room Chinese home from Xiuning County in southeastern China to the grounds of the museum. In 2011, the Peabody Essex Museum announced it had raised $550 million with plans to raise an additional $100 million by 2016. The Boston Globe reported this was the largest capital campaign in the museum's history vaulting the Peabody Essex into the top tier of major art museums. The Peabody Essex Museum trustees co-chairs CrossHarbor Capital Partners#Sam Byrne, Sam Byrne and Affiliated Managers Group#Sean M. Healey, Sean Healey with board president Robert Shapiro led the campaign.$200 to $250 million will fund the museum's 175,000-square-foot expansion bringing the total square footage to 425,000 square feet. The Misery Islands is a nature reserve located in Salem Sound that was established in 1935. It is managed by the Trustees of Reservations. The islands' name come from shipbuilder Robert Moulton who was stranded on the islands during a winter storm in the 1620s. The islands, in the past, have been home to a club with a golf course and about two dozen cottages. The islands are now uninhabited. The Pioneer Village, created in 1930, was America's first living-history museum. The site features a three-acre re-creation of a Puritan village and allows visitors the opportunity to participate in activities from the lives of Salem's earliest English settlers. The Old Salem Jail, an active correctional facility until 1991, once housed captured British soldiers from the War of 1812. It contains the main jail building (built in 1813, renovated in 1884), the jail keeper's house (1813) and a barn (also about 1813). The jail was shuttered in 1991 when Essex County opened its new facility in Middleton. In 2010, a $12 million renovation was completed. One feature of the reconstruction is the jail keeper's house, a three-story brick, Federal-period building originally built in 1813. The project went into a long phase of stagnation when in 1999 the county government was dissolved, resulting in the sale of Salem Jail by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to the City of Salem for $1. The Old Salem Jail complex was renamed 50 Saint Peter Street and is now private property, with private residences. Salem Willows is an oceanfront neighborhood and amusement park. It is named for the European white willow trees planted there in 1801 to form a shaded walk for patients convalescing at a nearby smallpox hospital. The area became a public park in 1858, and in the twentieth century became a summer destination for residents of Boston's
North ShoreNorth Shore may refer to: Geographic features Australia *North Shore (Sydney), suburban region of Sydney **Electoral district of North Shore **North Shore railway line, Sydney *Noosa North Shore, Queensland *North Shore, a suburb of Port Macquar ...
, many of whom escaped the heat of the city on newly popular streetcars. The beaches are also a common place to watch the 4th of July fireworks since you can see three sets of fireworks; Salem, Beverly, and Marblehead. The Willows also has a famous popcorn stand, Hobbs, which is known around the North Shore as one of the best places to get popcorn and ice cream. In 1855, located on 210 Essex Street, was founded the Salem Five Cents Bank, one of the oldest still functioning American banks.


Points of interest

* Crowninshield-Bentley House (c. 1727–30) * Gedney House (c. 1665), one of the oldest homes in Salem; located on High Street and Summer Street * House of the Seven Gables (1668) * John Tucker Daland House (1851) * Joseph Story House * White-Lord House (1811) 31 Washington Square *Gardner-Pingree House (1804) Built by Samuel McIntire. Owned by Captain Joseph White who was murdered in the home in 1830 by his nephew Stephen White. *
Chestnut Street District The Chestnut Street District is a historic district bounded roughly by Bridge, Lynn, Beckford, and River Streets in Salem, Massachusetts. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places listings in Salem, Massachusetts, National Register ...
, also known as the McIntire Historic District, greatest concentration of 17th and 18th century domestic structures in the U.S. * First Church in Salem, Unitarian Universalist, founded in 1629. * John Hodges House (1788) Built for the founder of the Salem East India Marine Society who founded what is now the Peabody Essex Museum. * Derby House (1762) First brick house built in Salem after another man had died of a cold who lived in a brick home. Home of America's first millionaire ranked the 10th richest in history. * Misery Islands * Nathaniel Bowditch House (c. 1805), home of the founder of modern navigation * Nathaniel Hawthorne Birthplace (c. 1730–45) *
Peabody Essex Museum The Peabody Essex Museum (PEM) in Salem, Massachusetts, US, is a successor to the East India Marine Society, established in 1799. It combines the collections of the former Peabody Museum of Salem (which acquired the Society's collection) and the ...

Peabody Essex Museum
(1799), oldest continually operated museum in America * , home of Jerathmiel Peirce, owner of the Friendship of Salem. Designed by noted architect Samuel McIntire. * Phillips Library (Salem, Massachusetts), Phillips Library * Pickering House (Salem, Massachusetts), Pickering House (c. 1651), Broad Street * Pioneer Village (c. 1930), Forest River Park * Ropes Mansion (late 1720s) * Salem Athenaeum * Salem Common *
Salem Maritime National Historic Site The Salem Maritime National Historic Site is a National Historic Sites (United States), National Historic Site consisting of 12 historic structures, one replica tall-ship, and about 9 acres (36,000 m2) of land along the waterfront of Salem Harbor ...

Salem Maritime National Historic Site
, the only remaining intact waterfront from the U.S. age of sail * Salem Willows Park (1858), a small oceanfront amusement park * Stephen Phillips House (1800 & 1821) *
Winter Island Winter Island is an island connected by a causeway to Salem Neck (Massachusetts), Salem Neck in Salem, Massachusetts. It is about in size, and is bounded by Smith Pool (Massachusetts), Smith Pool to the northwest, Cat Cove (Massachusetts), Cat C ...
, park and historic point of the U.S. Coast Guard in WW2 for U-boat patrol * , the home of the
Salem witch trials The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in Province of Massachusetts Bay, colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693. More than two hundred people were accused. Thirty ...
investigator Jonathan Corwin, and the only building still standing in Salem with direct ties to the witch trials


Salem points of interest

File:House of the Seven Gables (front angle) - Salem, Massachusetts.jpg, The House of the Seven Gables Image:GallowsHillPark Salem Massachusetts.jpg, Gallows Hill Park. Popular legend places the execution of the Salem Witches near this site. Image:PickmanHouse Salem Massachusetts.jpg, The Pickman House, built circa 1664, believed to be Salem's oldest surviving building File:Gedney House (exterior) - Salem, Massachusetts.JPG, The Gedney House (1665) on High Street File:2005 Common SalemMA 5198644909.jpg, Salem Common bandshell in 2005 File:Hamilton Hall (Salem).jpg, Hamilton Hall (1805), 9 Chestnut Street File:Peirce-Nichols House.jpg, (1782), 80 Federal Street District, Federal Street File:Stephen Phillips House.jpg, Stephen Phillips House, Phillips House (1800), 34 Chestnut Street District, Chestnut Street File:John Ward House.jpg, John Ward House (1684) File:Kitchen, Governor's Faire House, The Pioneers' Village, Salem, Mass (83010).jpg, Pioneer Village, a recreation of the first Puritan settlement in 1630.


Notable people

* Nehemiah Adams (1806–1878), clergyman and author * Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922), inventor of the telephone * Frank Weston Benson (1862–1951), impressionist artist#Bedford2000, Bedford (2000), p. 13.About John Benson.#Bedford2000, Bedford (2000), pp. 16-17. * John Prentiss Benson (1865–1947), architect and maritime artist * William Bentley (1759–1819), Unitarian minister, Salem diarist *
Nathaniel Bowditch Nathaniel Bowditch (March 26, 1773 – March 16, 1838) was an early American mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ...
(1773–1838), mathematician and navigator; Nathaniel Bowditch School is named in his honor * Rick Brunson, NBA player and coach * William Mansfield Buffum (1832-1905), member of Arizona Territorial Legislature * Timothy Burgess, entomologist and zoologist * Laurie Cabot, Witchcraft high priestess and author * Robert Ellis Cahill (1934–2005), sheriff, historian and author * Joseph Hodges Choate (1832-1917), lawyer and diplomat * Lucy Hiller Lambert Cleveland (1780-1866), writer and folk artist * Roger Conant (c.1592–1679), founder of Salem * Crowninshield family, Boston Brahmins who later helped settle Salem :* Benjamin Crowninshield (December 27, 1772 – February 3, 1851) Congressman from Massachusetts, Secretary of the Navy * Frederick M. Davenport (1866-1956), US Congressman *
Elias Hasket Derby Elias Hasket Derby (August 16, 1739 — September 8, 1799) was a Colonial American merchant and owner of a fleet of privateers. It took over 150 prizes during the American Revolution, and his large, swift ''Grand Turk'' was the first New E ...

Elias Hasket Derby
(1739–1799), merchant, first millionaire *
Elias Hasket Derby Elias Hasket Derby (August 16, 1739 — September 8, 1799) was a Colonial American merchant and owner of a fleet of privateers. It took over 150 prizes during the American Revolution, and his large, swift ''Grand Turk'' was the first New E ...

Elias Hasket Derby
Jr. (1766-1826) General of Second Corp Cadets, inventor of first broadcloth loom in America *Joseph Dixon (inventor), Joseph Dixon (1799–1869) Inventor of the SLR, high temperature crucibles, the Dixon-Ticonderoga Pencil, and anti-counterfeiting methods. * Joseph Horace Eaton (1815–1896), artist and military officer * Ephraim Emerton (1851–1935), medievalist historian and Harvard chair *
John Endecott John Endecott (also spelled Endicott; before 1600 – 15 March 1664/1665), regarded as one of the Fathers of New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (a ...
(1588–1665), governor * Thomas Gardner (planter), Thomas Gardner (c.1592–1674), co-founder of Salem *
John Hathorne John Hathorne (August 1641 – May 10, 1717) was a merchant and magistrate of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Salem, Massachusetts. He is best known for his early and vocal role as one of the leading judges in the Salem witch trials. Hathor ...
(1641–1717), the "Hanging Judge" in Salem witch trials *
William Hathorne William Hathorne (–1681) was a widely influential man in early New England. He arrived on the ship Arbella.Anderson, Robert, ''The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England, 1620-1633,'' Entry for William Hathorne, New England Hist ...
(c. 1576–1650), early businessman and political leader *
Nathaniel Hawthorne Nathaniel Hawthorne (July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was an American novelist, dark romantic, and short story writer. His works often focus on history, morality, and religion. He was born in 1804 in Salem, Massachusetts Salem ( ) is a historic ...

Nathaniel Hawthorne
(1804–1864), iconic author of ''
The Scarlet Letter ''The Scarlet Letter: A Romance'' is a work of historical fiction by American author Nathaniel Hawthorne, published in 1850. Set in Puritan Massachusetts Bay Colony during the years 1642 to 1649, the novel tells the story of Hester Prynne, who co ...
'' and ''The House of the Seven Gables'' *Sophia Amelia Peabody Hawthorne (1809-1871), painter, illustrator, writer * Mary Tileston Hemenway (1820 – 1894) Sponsor of the Hemenway Southwestern Archaeological Expedition. * Harriet Hemenway, Harriet Lawrence Hemenway (1858–1960) Founder of Massachusetts Audubon Society. * Jeff Juden, Major League Baseball pitcher * Frederick W. Lander (1821–1862), Civil War general, wagon trail and railroad surveyor, poet * John Larch (1914–2005), actor * Dudley Leavitt (minister), Dudley Leavitt (1720–1762), early Harvard-educated Congregational minister, Leavitt Street named for him * Mary Lou Lord, singer-songwriter; grew up in Salem *
Samuel McIntire Samuel McIntire (January 16, 1757 – February 6, 1811) was an American architect and artisan, craftsman, best known for his work in the Chestnut Street District, a classic example of Federal style architecture. Life and career Born in Salem, Mas ...

Samuel McIntire
(1757–1811), architect and woodcarver * Rob Oppenheim (born 1980), professional golfer * Charles Grafton Page (1812–1868), electrical inventor * George Swinnerton Parker (1866–1952), founder of Parker Brothers * Samuel Parris (1653–1720), minister *Elizabeth Palmer Peabody (1804-1894), educator, writer, prominent Transcendentalist, advocate for women and Native Americans. * Benjamin Peirce (1809–1880), mathematician and logician, director of U.S. Coast Survey from 1867–74 * Jerathmiel Peirce (1747-1827), half-owner of the Friendship of Salem and owner of the * Annie Stevens Perkins (born 1868), writer * Thomas Handasyd Perkins Haitian slave trader up to Slave Revolt, opium dealer, owned Perkins & Co. * Samuel Phillips (reverend), Samuel Phillips (1690–1771), first pastor of the South Church, Andover, Massachusetts, South Church in Andover. * Timothy Pickering (1745–1829), secretary of state to Washington and Adams, aide de camp to Washington * Benjamin Pickman Jr. (1763–1843), early Salem merchant for whom Pickman Street is named * Dudley Leavitt Pickman (1779–1846), state legislator * Ernest R. Redmond (1883-1966), United States Army, Army officer and Chief of the National Guard Bureau, Chief of National Guard; educated in Salem and became real estate agent; served on Mexico–United States border, Mexican border in 1916 during Pancho Villa Expedition * Sarah Parker Remond (1826–1894), abolitionistDorothy Sterling, ''Ahead of Her Time: Abby Kelley and the Politics of Antislavery'', W. W. Norton & Company, 1994, p. 276 * Aaron Richmond (1895–1965), impresario and artist manager * Brian St. Pierre, quarterback, Boston College Eagles football, Boston College and National Football League, NFL * Samuel Sewall (1652–1730), magistrate * Samuel Skelton (c. 1584–1634), first pastor of First Church in Salem, original Puritan church in North America * Joseph Story (September 18, 1779 – September 10, 1845) Associate Superior Court Justice * Steve Thomas (television), Steve Thomas, former host of PBS's ''This Old House'' * Lydia Louisa Anna Very (1823–1901), American author and illustrator * Bob Vila, craftsman * Thomas A. Watson (1854-1934), assistant to Alexander Graham Bell; his name was the first phrase ever uttered over a telephone * Daniel Webster, politician and orator * Jack Welch, former chairman and CEO of General Electric; grew up in Salem and attended Salem High School * Roger Williams (theologian), Roger Williams (1603–1683), theologian File:Frank W Benson artist headshot-crop.jpg, Frank Weston Benson File:Nathaniel Bowditch (1773-1838), American mathematician and actuary.jpeg,
Nathaniel Bowditch Nathaniel Bowditch (March 26, 1773 – March 16, 1838) was an early American mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ...
File:Frothingham EliasHasketDerby.jpg,
Elias Hasket Derby Elias Hasket Derby (August 16, 1739 — September 8, 1799) was a Colonial American merchant and owner of a fleet of privateers. It took over 150 prizes during the American Revolution, and his large, swift ''Grand Turk'' was the first New E ...

Elias Hasket Derby
File:JohnEndecottPortrait.jpg,
John Endecott John Endecott (also spelled Endicott; before 1600 – 15 March 1664/1665), regarded as one of the Fathers of New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (a ...
File:Nathaniel Hawthorne.jpg,
Nathaniel Hawthorne Nathaniel Hawthorne (July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was an American novelist, dark romantic, and short story writer. His works often focus on history, morality, and religion. He was born in 1804 in Salem, Massachusetts Salem ( ) is a historic ...

Nathaniel Hawthorne
File:Jonesvery-edited.jpg, Jones Very File:FWLander.jpg, Frederick W. Lander File:CGPageportrait.jpg, Charles Grafton Page File:Timothy Pickering, Peale.jpg, Timothy Pickering File:Sarah Parker Remond.jpg, Sarah Parker Remond File:Samuel McIntire.jpg,
Samuel McIntire Samuel McIntire (January 16, 1757 – February 6, 1811) was an American architect and artisan, craftsman, best known for his work in the Chestnut Street District, a classic example of Federal style architecture. Life and career Born in Salem, Mas ...

Samuel McIntire


Sister cities

*Oroville, California (United States) 2007 *Ōta, Tokyo (Japan) 1991


See also

* Town of Salem *


Notes


References

* Perley, Sidney
''History of Salem, Massachusetts in Three Volumes''
Full images at University of Virginia eText Center and the Salem Witch Trial Documentary Archive and Transcription Project.
1795 Map of Salem
* Saunders, Jonathan P
1832 Map of Salem
* Beer, D. G. 1872 Atlas of Essex Count
Map of Salem. Plate 118
* Walker, George H. 1884 Atlas of Essex Count
Salem South. Plate 16. Salem-Jail-to-hold-first-open-house
https://web.archive.org/web/20110518121935/http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0017.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&pageprefix= Salem North. Plate 17]. * Variou
Salem Atlases
* Hopkins, C. M
Atlas of Salem, Massachusetts
Published in 1874. * Sanborn Map Co
Map of Salem Showing Area Destroyed by Fire June 25, 1914
* Atlas of Salem for 1890–190
Index MapPage selection
* 1897 Atlas of Salem Massachusett
Index Map
* Walker
1911 Atlas of Salem, Massachusetts

Salem 1906-1938 Index or Key Map

Vital Records of Salem, Massachusetts to 1849
Published 1916, 1918, 1924, 1925. Transcribed and put online by John Slaugher.


Further reading

* * Goff, John
"Looking at Salem's beginnings: The White and Gardner family contributions"
''Salem Gazette'', GateHouse Media, GateHouse News Service story, December 29, 2007 * * National Park Service
"Salem Maritime Salem Maritime National Historic Site: Official Map and Guide"
United States Department of the Interior * * * * * Smith-Dalton, Maggi (Salem History Society) "Stories & shadows from Salem's past : Naumkeag notations,"American Chronicles Series, Charleston, SC : History Press, 2010.https://www.worldcat.org/title/stories-shadows-from-salems-past-naumkeag-notations/oclc/642511300&referer=brief_results * Vickers, Daniel, and Vince Walsh. "Young men and the sea: The sociology of seafaring in eighteenth‐century Salem, Massachusetts," ''Social history'' (1999) 24#1 pp: 17–38. * Wagner, E.J.
"A Murder in Salem"
''Smithsonian (magazine), Smithsonian'' magazine, November 2010


External links

*
salemweb.com



The Cabot Family
* {{Authority control Salem, Massachusetts, 1626 establishments in Massachusetts Cities in Essex County, Massachusetts Cities in Massachusetts County seats in Massachusetts Populated coastal places in Massachusetts Populated places established in 1626 Salem witch trials American witchcraft