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The Safavid dynasty (; fa, دودمان صفوی, Dudmâne Safavi, ) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of
Iran from 1501 to 1736
Iran from 1501 to 1736
. The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the
Safavid order The Safavid order, also called the Safaviyya ( fa, صفویه), was a tariqa A tariqa (or ''tariqah''; ar, طريقة ') is a school or order of Sufism Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf ( ar, ٱلتَ ...
of
Sufism Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf (), is in , "characterized ... y particularvalues, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions". It is variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, ''What is Sufism? ...

Sufism
, which was established in the city of
Ardabil Ardabil (, fa, اردبیل, az, اردبیل , also romanize Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, incl ...

Ardabil
in the
Iranian Azerbaijan Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan ( fa, آذربایجان, ''Āzarbāijān'' ; az-Arab, آذربایجان, ''Āzerbāyjān'' ), also known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also ...

Iranian Azerbaijan
region. It was an Iranian dynasty of
Kurdish
Kurdish
origin, but during their rule they intermarried with Turkoman,
Georgian Georgian may refer to: Common meanings * Anything related to, or originating from Georgia (country) **Georgians, an indigenous Caucasian ethnic group **Georgian language, a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians **Georgian scripts, three scripts ...

Georgian
,
CircassianCircassian may refer to: * Pertaining to Circassia, a formerly independent country located in present-day European Russia ** Circassian coast, on the Black Sea * Circassians, also known as Adyghe people ** Circassian beauties, an idealized image of ...

Circassian
, and
Pontic Greek Pontic Greek ( el, Ποντιακή διάλεκτος, ; Pontic Greek: , or ) is a variety of Modern Greek originally spoken in the Pontus area on the southern shores of the Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ...
Anthony Bryer. "Greeks and Türkmens: The Pontic Exception", ''Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 29'' (1975), Appendix II "Genealogy of the Muslim Marriages of the Princesses of Trebizond" dignitaries. From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established control over parts of
Greater Iran ( BC) at its greatest extent () File:Achaemenid_(greatest_extent).svg, Achaemenid Empire (550 BC–330 BC) at its greatest extent () Greater Iran ( fa, ایران بزرگ, translit=Irān-e Bozorg) refers to the regions of Western Asia, ...
and reasserted the Iranian identity of the region, thus becoming the first native dynasty since the
Sasanian Empire The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (, ''Ērānshahr The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (Middle Persian Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its ...

Sasanian Empire
to establish a national state officially known as Iran. The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and, at their height, they controlled all of what is now
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
,
Azerbaijan Republic Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occu ...
,
Bahrain Bahrain ( ; ar, البحرين, al-Baḥrayn, , locally ), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain ( ar, مملكة البحرين, links=no '), is a country in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Persian Gulf. The Island country, island nation c ...

Bahrain
,
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
, eastern
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia (, ; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is a part of the Caucasus region, bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north and east by ...
, parts of the
North Caucasus The North Caucasus ( ady, Темыр Къафкъас, Temır Qafqas; kbd, Ишхъэрэ Къаукъаз, İṩxhərə Qauqaz; ce, Къилбаседа Кавказ, Q̇ilbaseda Kavkaz; rus, Северный Кавказ, r=Severnyy Ka ...
,
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
,
Kuwait Kuwait (; ar, الكويت ', or ), officially the State of Kuwait ( ar, دولة الكويت '), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regi ...

Kuwait
, and
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
, as well as parts of
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
,
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
,
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
,
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan ( or ; tk, Türkmenistan, ), also known as Turkmenia, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basin, endorheic basins. There ar ...

Turkmenistan
and
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...

Uzbekistan
. Despite their demise in 1736, the legacy that they left behind was the revival of Iran as an economic stronghold between East and
West 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A co ...

West
, the establishment of an efficient state and
bureaucracy The term bureaucracy () may refer both to a body of non-elected governing officials (bureaucrats A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration of any organization of any size, although the term usually connotes ...

bureaucracy
based upon "
checks and balances Separation of powers refers to the division of a state (polity), state's government into branches, each with separate, independent power (social and political), powers and responsibilities, so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict ...
", their architectural innovations and their patronage for
fine arts In European academic traditions, fine art is developed primarily for aesthetics Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about e ...
. The Safavids have also left their mark down to the present era by spreading Twelver Islam in Iran, as well as major parts of the
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe and Asia. It is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (country), Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. It is home to ...
,
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
, the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
, and
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in th ...

Mesopotamia
.


Genealogy—ancestors of the Safavids and its multi-cultural identity

The Safavid Kings themselves claimed to be
sayyid ''Sayyid'' (, ; ar, سيد ; ; meaning 'Lord', 'Master'; Arabic plural: ; feminine: ; ) is an honorific title denoting people accepted as descendants of the Prophets in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad and his cousin and son-in-law Ali ( ...

sayyid
s, family descendants of the Islamic prophet
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
, although many scholars have cast doubt on this claim. There seems now to be a consensus among scholars that the Safavid family hailed from
Iranian Kurdistan Iranian Kurdistan or Eastern Kurdistan ( ku, ڕۆژھەڵاتی کوردستان ,Rojhilatê Kurdistanê) is an unofficial name for the parts of northwestern Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Re ...
,RM Savory, ''Safavids'', ''
Encyclopedia of Islam An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (British English) is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge either from all branches or from a particular field or discipline. Encyclopedias are divided into article (publishing), art ...
'', 2nd ed.
and later moved to
Iranian Azerbaijan Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan ( fa, آذربایجان, ''Āzarbāijān'' ; az-Arab, آذربایجان, ''Āzerbāyjān'' ), also known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also ...

Iranian Azerbaijan
, finally settling in the 11th century CE at
Ardabil Ardabil (, fa, اردبیل, az, اردبیل , also romanize Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, incl ...

Ardabil
. Traditional pre-1501 Safavid manuscripts trace the lineage of the Safavids to the Kurdish dignitary,
Firuz-Shah Zarrin-KolahFiruz Shah Zarrin Kolah ( fa, فیروزشاه زرین کلاه, lit=King Firuz of the Golden Crown) was a Kurdish people, Kurdish dignitary,F. Daftary, "Intellectual Traditions in Islam", I.B.Tauris, 2001. pg 147: "But the origins of the family of ...
.RM Savory. Ebn Bazzaz.
''Encyclopædia Iranica''
According to historians,É. Á. Csató, B. Isaksson, C Jahani. ''Linguistic Convergence and Areal Diffusion: Case Studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic'', Routledge, 2004, p. 228, . including
Vladimir Minorsky Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky (russian: Владимир Фёдорович Минорский;  – March 25, 1966) was a Russian people, Russian oriental studies, Orientalist best known for his contributions to the study of History of Iran, ...
and
Roger SavoryRoger Mervyn Savory, born 27 January 1925 in Peterborough Peterborough () is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders wit ...
, the Safavids were of Turkicized Iranian origin: By the time of the establishment of the Safavid empire, the members of the family were Turkicized and Turkish-speaking, and some of the Shahs composed poems in their then-native Turkish language. Concurrently, the Shahs themselves also supported Persian literature, poetry and art projects including the grand ''Shahnameh'' of Shah Tahmasp, while members of the family and some Shahs composed Persian poetry as well. The authority of the Safavids was religiously based, and their claim to legitimacy was founded on being direct male descendants of Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, and regarded by the Shiʻa as the first Imam. Furthermore, the dynasty was from the very start thoroughly intermarried with both
Pontic Greek Pontic Greek ( el, Ποντιακή διάλεκτος, ; Pontic Greek: , or ) is a variety of Modern Greek originally spoken in the Pontus area on the southern shores of the Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ...
as well as
Georgian Georgian may refer to: Common meanings * Anything related to, or originating from Georgia (country) **Georgians, an indigenous Caucasian ethnic group **Georgian language, a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians **Georgian scripts, three scripts ...

Georgian
lines. In addition, from the official establishment of the dynasty in 1501, the dynasty would continue to have many intermarriages with both
CircassianCircassian may refer to: * Pertaining to Circassia, a formerly independent country located in present-day European Russia ** Circassian coast, on the Black Sea * Circassians, also known as Adyghe people ** Circassian beauties, an idealized image of ...

Circassian
as well as again Georgian dignitaries, especially with the accession of
Tahmasp I Tahmasp I (; , fa, شاه تهماسپ یکم) (22 February 1514 – 14 May 1576) was an influential Shah of Safavid Iran, Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty. He was the son and successor of Ismail I. He cam ...

Tahmasp I
.


Safavid Shahs of Iran

*
Ismail I Ismail I ( fa, اسماعیل, Esmāʿīl, ; July 17, 1487 – May 23, 1524), also known as Shah Ismail I (), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty The Safavid dynasty (; fa, دودمان صفوی, Dudmâne Safavi, ) was one of the m ...

Ismail I
1501–1524 *
Tahmasp I Tahmasp I (; , fa, شاه تهماسپ یکم) (22 February 1514 – 14 May 1576) was an influential Shah of Safavid Iran, Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty. He was the son and successor of Ismail I. He cam ...

Tahmasp I
1524–1576 *
Ismail II Ismail Mirza ( fa, اسماعیل میرزا) later known by his first dynastic name of Ismail II () (31 May 1537– 24 November 1577) was the third Safavid Safavid Iran or Safavid Persia (), also referred to as the Safavid Empire, '. was on ...
1576–1578 *
Mohammad Khodabanda Mohammad Khodābandeh or Khudābanda, also known as Mohammad Shah or Sultan Mohammad ( fa, شاه محمد خدابنده, born 1532; died 1595 or 1596), was Shah of Persia from 1578 until his overthrow in 1587 by his son Abbas I. He was the fou ...
1578–1587 *
Abbas I
Abbas I
1587–1629 * Safi 1629–1642 *
Abbas II
Abbas II
1642–1666 *
Suleiman I
Suleiman I
1666–1694 * Sultan Husayn I 1694–1722 *
Tahmasp II Tahmasp II (1704? – 11 February 1740) was one of the last Safavid Safavid Iran or Safavid Persia (), also referred to as the Safavid Empire, '. was one of the greatest Iranian peoples, Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest o ...
1722–1732 *
Abbas III Abbas III (January 1732 – February 1740) ( fa, شاه عباس سوم) reigned 1732–1736; was a son of Shah Tahmasp II Tahmasp II (1704? – 11 February 1740) was one of the last Safavid rulers of Persian Empire, Persia (Iran). Biography ...

Abbas III
1732–1736


Mothers of Safavid Shahs


Culture

The Safavid family was a literate family from its early origin. There are extant Tati and Persian poetry from Shaykh Safi ad-din Ardabili as well as extant Persian poetry from Shaykh Sadr ad-din. Most of the extant poetry of Shah Ismail I is in
Azerbaijani Azerbaijani may refer to: * Something of, or related to Azerbaijan * Azerbaijanis * Azerbaijani language See also

* Azerbaijan (disambiguation) * Azeri (disambiguation) * Azerbaijani cuisine * Culture of Azerbaijan * {{Disambig Language a ...
pen-name of Khatai.V. Minorsky, "The Poetry of Shāh Ismā‘īl I", ''Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies'', University of London 10/4 (1942): 1006–53. Sam Mirza, the son of Shah Ismail as well as some later authors assert that Ismail composed poems both in Turkish and Persian but only a few specimens of his Persian verse have survived."Ismail Safavi" ''Encyclopædia Iranica'' A collection of his poems in Azeri were published as a Divan. Shah Tahmasp who has composed poetry in Persian was also a painter, while Shah Abbas II was known as a poet, writing Azerbaijani verses.E. Yarshater
Language of Azerbaijan
vii., Persian language of Azerbaijan", ''
Encyclopædia Iranica ''Encyclopædia Iranica'' is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language ...
'', v, pp. 238–45, Online edition.
Sam Mirza, the son of Ismail I was himself a poet and composed his poetry in Persian. He also compiled an anthology of contemporary poetry.Emeri "van" Donzel, ''Islamic Desk Reference'', Brill Academic Publishers, 1994, p. 393. Safavid Dynasty, Horse and Groom, by Haydar Ali, early 16th century.jpg Safavid Dynasty, Woman with a Spray of Flowers, circa 1575 AD.jpg Safavid Dynasty, Joseph Enthroned from a Falnama (Book of Omens), circa 1550 AD.jpg Shirin bathing, being approached by Khusraw, Safavid miniature painting, Iran.jpg


See also

*
Khanates of the Caucasus The khanates of the Caucasus, or Azerbaijani khanates or Persian khanates, or Iranian khanates, were various provinces and principalities established by Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Repub ...
*
List of Shi'a Muslim dynastiesThe following is a list of Shia Islam, Shia List of Muslim dynasties, Muslim Dynasty, dynasties. North Africa and Europe *Idrisid dynasty (788–985 CE) — (Morocco) - Zaidiyyah, Zaidi *Fatimid Caliphate (909–1171 CE) — (Kabylia) - Isma'ilis ...
* Persianate states *
Safavid art Safavid art is the art of the Iranian Safavid dynasty The Safavid dynasty (; fa, دودمان صفوی, Dudmâne Safavi, ) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Safavid Iran, Iran from 1501 to 1736. The Safavid dynasty had its ...
*
Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam The Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam was a process that took place roughly over the 16th through 18th centuries and turned Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جم ...
* Trade in Iran's Safavid era


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * *


Further reading

* Christoph Marcinkowski (tr.),''Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey'', Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, . * Christoph Marcinkowski (tr., ed.),''Mirza Rafi‘a's
Dastur al-Muluk ''Dastūr al-Mulūk'' ( fa, دستور الملوک) by Moḥammad Rafiʿ Anṣāri known as Mirzā Rafiʿā
: A Manual of Later Safavid Administration. Annotated English Translation, Comments on the Offices and Services, and Facsimile of the Unique Persian Manuscript'', Kuala Lumpur, ISTAC, 2002, . * Christoph Marcinkowski,''From Isfahan to Ayutthaya: Contacts between Iran and Siam in the 17th Century'', Singapore, Pustaka Nasional, 2005, .
"The Voyages and Travels of the Ambassadors"
Adam Olearius, translated by John Davies (1662),


External links


History of the Safavids on Iran Chamber"Safavid dynasty"
''Encyclopædia Iranica'' by Rudi Matthee * The History Files
BBC History of Religion"Georgians in the Safavid administration"
''Encyclopædia Iranica''

* ttp://www.art-arena.com/safavidart.htm History of Safavid artbr>A Study of the Migration of Shiʻi Works from Arab Regions to Iran at the Early Safavid Era.Why is Safavid history important?
(Iran Chamber Society)
Historiography During the Safawid Era"IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (2) Islam in Iran (2.3) Shiʿism in Iran Since the Safavids: Safavid Period"
''Encyclopædia Iranica'' by Hamid Algar {{DEFAULTSORT:Safavid Dynasty Safavid Iran Iranian dynasties Iranian Muslim dynasties Monarchy in Persia and Iran Early Modern history of Georgia (country) Early Modern history of Armenia Early Modern history of Azerbaijan History of Dagestan Early Modern history of Iraq 1501 establishments in Asia