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The S-IVB was the third stage on the
Saturn V Saturn V was an American human-rated super heavy-lift launch vehicle used by NASA between 1967 and 1973. A multistage rocket, three-stage, liquid-propellant rocket, liquid-fueled rocket, the Saturn V was developed under the Apollo program for ...

Saturn V
and second stage on the
Saturn IB The Saturn IB (pronounced "Saturn 1 B", also known as the uprated Saturn I) was an American launch vehicle File:Soyuz TMA-5 launch.jpg, Russian Soyuz TMA-5 lifts off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan heading for the International S ...
launch vehicles. Built by the
Douglas Aircraft Company The Douglas Aircraft Company was an American aerospace manufacturer Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphair ...
, it had one J-2 rocket engine. For lunar missions it was fired twice: first for Earth orbit insertion after second stage cutoff, and then for translunar injection (TLI).


History

The S-IVB evolved from the upper stage of the
Saturn I The Saturn I (pronounced "Saturn 1") was a rocket designed as the United States' first medium lift launch vehicle for up to low Earth orbit Payload (air and space craft), payloads.Terminology has changed since the 1960s; back then, 20,000 poun ...
rocket, the
S-IV The S-IV was the second stage multistage sounding rocket Image:minuteman 3 stage2.jpg">The second stage of a engines_and_ inuteman III_rocket A_multistage_rocket,_or_step_rocket,_is_a_launch_vehicle_that_uses_two_or_more_rocket_''stag ...
, and was the first stage of the
Saturn V Saturn V was an American human-rated super heavy-lift launch vehicle used by NASA between 1967 and 1973. A multistage rocket, three-stage, liquid-propellant rocket, liquid-fueled rocket, the Saturn V was developed under the Apollo program for ...

Saturn V
to be designed. The S-IV used a cluster of six engines but used the same fuels as the S-IVB – liquid
hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard temperature and pressure, standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules having the che ...

hydrogen
and liquid
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

oxygen
. It was also originally meant to be the fourth stage of a planned rocket called the C-4, hence the name S-IV. Eleven companies submitted proposals for being the lead contractor on the stage by the deadline of 29 February 1960. NASA administrator T. Keith Glennan decided on 19 April that Douglas Aircraft Company would be awarded the contract.
Convair Convair, previously Consolidated Vultee, was an American aircraft manufacturing company that later expanded into rocket A rocket (from it, rocchetto, , bobbin/spool) is a spacecraft File:Space Shuttle Columbia launching.jpg, 275px ...
had come a close second but Glennan did not want to monopolize the liquid hydrogen-fueled rocket market as Convair was already building the Centaur rocket stage. In the end the
Marshall Space Flight Center The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), located in Huntsville, Alabama Huntsville is a city in the Appalachia Appalachia () is a cultural region 's map of native American cultural areas within the territory of the United ...
decided to use the C-5 rocket (later called the Saturn V), which had three stages and would be topped with an uprated S-IV called the S-IVB which instead of using a cluster of engines would have a single J-2 engine. Douglas was awarded the contract for the S-IVB because of the similarities between it and the S-IV. At the same time it was decided to create the C-IB rocket (Saturn IB) that would also use the S-IVB as its second stage and could be used for testing the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit.


Configuration

Douglas built two distinct versions of the S-IVB, the 200 series and the 500 series. The 200 series was used by the Saturn IB and differed from the 500 in that it did not have a flared interstage and it had less helium pressurization on board since it did not have to be restarted. In the 500 series, the interstage needed to flare out to match the larger diameter of the
S-IC The S-IC (pronounced S-one-C) was the first stage Stage or stages may refer to: Acting * Stage (theatre), a space for the performance of theatrical productions * Theatre, a branch of the performing arts, often referred to as "the stage" * ''T ...
and
S-II The S-II (pronounced "S-two") was the second stage of the rocket. It was built by . Using (LH2) and (LOX) it had five in a pattern. The second stage accelerated the Saturn V through the upper atmosphere with of thrust. History The beginn ...
stages of the Saturn V. The 200 series also had three solid rockets for separating the S-IVB stage from the S-IB stage during launch. On the 500 series this was reduced to two, and two small Auxiliary Propulsion System (APS) thruster modules were added as
ullage motor Ullage motors (also known as ullage engines or ullage rockets) are relatively small, independently fueled rocket engine A rocket engine uses stored s as the for forming a high-speed propulsive of fluid, usually high-temperature gas. Rock ...
s for restarting the J-2 engine and to provide attitude control during coast phases of flight. The S-IVB carried of
liquid oxygen Liquid oxygen—abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)' ...
(LOX), massing . It carried of
liquid hydrogen Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow in which ...
(LH2), massing . Empty mass was


Auxiliary Propulsion System

Attitude control was provided by J-2 engine gimbaling during powered flight and by the two APS modules during coast. APS modules were used for
three-axis control
three-axis control
during coast phases, roll control during J-2 firings, and ullage for the second ignition of the J-2 engine. Each APS module contained two thrusters providing thrust for roll and pitch, another thruster for yaw, and one thruster for ullage. Each module contained its own propellant tanks of
dinitrogen tetroxide Dinitrogen tetroxide, commonly referred to as nitrogen tetroxide (NTO), and occasionally (usually among ex-USSR/Russia rocket engineers) as amyl, is the chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical ...

dinitrogen tetroxide
and
monomethyl hydrazine Monomethylhydrazine (mono-methyl hydrazine, MMH) is a deadly, volatility (chemistry), volatile hydrazine chemical with the chemical formula carbon, Chydrogen, H3(nitrogen, NH)NH2. It is used as a rocket propellant in bipropellant rocket engines beca ...
as well as compressed helium to pressurize its propellants.


Uses

A surplus S-IVB tank, serial number 212, was converted into the hull for the
Skylab Skylab was the first United States space station A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft File:Space Shuttle Columbia launching.jpg, 275px, The US Space Shuttle flew 135 times from ...

Skylab
, the first American
space station A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. A type of artificial satellite alt=, A full-size model of the Ear ...

space station
. Skylab was launched on a Saturn V on May 14, 1973, and it eventually reentered the atmosphere on July 11, 1979. A second S-IVB, serial number 515, was also converted into a backup Skylab, but this one never flew. During the missions of
Apollo 13 Apollo 13 was the seventh crewed mission in the Apollo space program The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight Human spaceflight (also referred to as manned spaceflight or cr ...
,
Apollo 14 Apollo 14 (January 31, 1971February 9, 1971) was the eighth crewed mission in the United States Apollo program The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the N ...
,
Apollo 15 Apollo 15 was the ninth crewed mission in the United States' Apollo program The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the NASA, National Aeronautics and Spa ...

Apollo 15
,
Apollo 16 Apollo 16 (April 16–27, 1972) was the tenth crewed mission in the United States Apollo space program The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight Human spaceflight (also referred ...
, and
Apollo 17 Apollo 17 (December 7–19, 1972) was the final Moon landing mission of NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the Federal govern ...

Apollo 17
, the S-IVB stages were crashed into the
Moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continent), Australia), it is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System relative to the size of its plane ...

Moon
to perform seismic measurements used for characterizing the lunar interior. File:As7-3-1545.jpg,
Apollo 7 Apollo 7 (October 11–22, 1968) was the first crewed flight in NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Pu ...
S-IVB in orbit over
Cape Canaveral , image = cape canaveral.jpg , image_size = 300 , caption = View of Cape Canaveral from space in 1991 , map = Florida#USA , map_width = 300 , map_caption = Location in Florida , location = Florida, United S ...
. File:Saturn IB Second Stage with open LM adapter.jpg, Distant view of Apollo 7 S-IVB stage File:As08-16-2584.jpg,
Apollo 8 Apollo 8 was the first crewed spacecraft A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. A type of artificial satellite alt=, A full-size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2 ">ERS_2.html" ;"title= ...
S-IVB, shortly after separation


Stages built

(* See
List of artificial objects on the Moon This is a partial list of artificial materials left on the Moon, many during the missions of the Apollo program. The table below does not include lesser Apollo mission artificial objects, such as a hammer and other tools, List of retroreflectors o ...
for location.)


Derivatives

The second stage of the
Ares I Ares I was the crew launch vehicle A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket engine, rocket-propelled vehicle used to carry a payload from Earth's surface to spaceflight, space, usually to Earth orbit or escape velocity, beyond. A ...

Ares I
rocket and the proposed
Earth Departure Stage The Earth Departure Stage (EDS) is the name given to the proposed second stage Stage or stages may refer to: Acting * Stage (theatre), a space for the performance of theatrical productions * Theatre, a branch of the performing arts, often refe ...
(EDS) would have had some of the characteristics of the S-IVB stage, as both would have had an uprated J-2 engine, called the J-2X, with the latter performing the same functions as that of the Series 500 version of the stage (placing the payload into orbit, and later firing the spacecraft into trans-lunar space). The MS-IVB was a proposed modification of the S-IVB that would have been used on a Mars flyby, but it was never produced.


See also

*
S-IC The S-IC (pronounced S-one-C) was the first stage Stage or stages may refer to: Acting * Stage (theatre), a space for the performance of theatrical productions * Theatre, a branch of the performing arts, often referred to as "the stage" * ''T ...
*
S-II The S-II (pronounced "S-two") was the second stage of the rocket. It was built by . Using (LH2) and (LOX) it had five in a pattern. The second stage accelerated the Saturn V through the upper atmosphere with of thrust. History The beginn ...
*
S-IV The S-IV was the second stage multistage sounding rocket Image:minuteman 3 stage2.jpg">The second stage of a engines_and_ inuteman III_rocket A_multistage_rocket,_or_step_rocket,_is_a_launch_vehicle_that_uses_two_or_more_rocket_''stag ...
*
Saturn IB The Saturn IB (pronounced "Saturn 1 B", also known as the uprated Saturn I) was an American launch vehicle File:Soyuz TMA-5 launch.jpg, Russian Soyuz TMA-5 lifts off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan heading for the International S ...
*
Saturn V Saturn V was an American human-rated super heavy-lift launch vehicle used by NASA between 1967 and 1973. A multistage rocket, three-stage, liquid-propellant rocket, liquid-fueled rocket, the Saturn V was developed under the Apollo program for ...

Saturn V
*
Apollo (spacecraft) The Apollo spacecraft was composed of three parts designed to accomplish the American Apollo program's goal of landing astronauts on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning them safely to Earth. The expendable (single-use) spacecraft con ...
*
List of artificial objects on the Moon This is a partial list of artificial materials left on the Moon, many during the missions of the Apollo program. The table below does not include lesser Apollo mission artificial objects, such as a hammer and other tools, List of retroreflectors o ...


References

* Marshall Space Flight Center,
Apollo Systems Description Volume II - Saturn Launch Vehicles
', 1 February 1964.
Archived copy, pdf


External links


NASA New Reference: Saturn third stage
{{DEFAULTSORT:S-Ivb Apollo program Rocket stages Impactor spacecraft