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The Russian Far East ( rus, Дальний Восток России, r=Dal'niy Vostok Rossii, p=ˈdalʲnʲɪj vɐˈstok rɐˈsʲiɪ) is a region in
Northeast Asia Northeast Asia or Northeastern Asia is a geographical subregion of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Eart ...
. It is the easternmost part of
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
and the
Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area of , about 30% of Earth's total lan ...

Asia
n continent; and is administered as part of the
Far Eastern Federal District The Far Eastern Federal District (russian: Дальневосто́чный федера́льный о́круг, ''Dalnevostochny federalny okrug'') is the largest of the federal districts of Russia, eight federal districts of Russia but th ...
, which is located between
Lake Baikal Lake Baikal (; russian: Oзеро Байкал, Ozero Baykal ; bua, Байгал далай, Baigal dalai; mn, Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur) is a rift lake A rift lake is a lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in ...

Lake Baikal
in eastern
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Northern Asia. Siberia has been Russian conquest of Siberia, part of modern Russia since the latter half of th ...

Siberia
and the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's five oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by the continents o ...

Pacific Ocean
. The region's largest city is
Khabarovsk Khabarovsk ( rus, Хабaровск, a=Хабаровск.ogg, r=Khabarovsk, p=xɐˈbarəfsk) is the largest city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., ...

Khabarovsk
, followed by
Vladivostok Vladivostok ( rus, Владивосто́к, a=Владивосток.ogg, p=vlədʲɪvɐˈstok) is the largest city and the administrative centre of Primorsky Krai, Russia. The city is located around the Zolotoy Rog, Golden Horn Bay on the Sea o ...

Vladivostok
. The region shares land borders with the countries of
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
, and
North Korea North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. It borders China and Russia to the north, at the Yalu River, Yalu (Amnok) and Tu ...

North Korea
to its south, as well as
maritime boundaries A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is ...
with
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
to its southeast, and with the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
along the
Bering Strait The Bering Strait (russian: Берингов пролив) is a of the , which separates and the slightly south of the at about 65° 40' N . The present Russia-US east–west boundary is at 168° 58' 37" W. The Strait is named after , a Dani ...
to its northeast. Although, the Russian Far East is often considered as a part of
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Northern Asia. Siberia has been Russian conquest of Siberia, part of modern Russia since the latter half of th ...

Siberia
abroad, it has been historically categorized separately from Siberia in Russian regional schemes (and previously during the
Soviet era The history of Soviet union and the Soviet Union reflects a period of change for both Russia and the world. Though the terms "" and "" often are synonymous in everyday speech, when referring to the foundations of the Soviet Union, "Soviet Russ ...
when it was called the Soviet Far East).


Terminology

In Russia, the region is usually referred to as just "Far East" (). What is known in English as the
Far East The Far East is a term to refer to the geographical regions that includes East and Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeaster ...
is usually referred to as "the
Asia-Pacific Region
Asia-Pacific Region
" (, abbreviated to ), or "
East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both Geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The modern State (polity), states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. ...

East Asia
" (), depending on the context.


Geographic features

*
Beyenchime-Salaatin craterBeyenchime-Salaatin is an impact crater (astrobleme) in the Russian Far East. It is in diameter and is estimated to be 40 ± 20 million years old (Eocene). The crater is exposed at the surface. References

Impact craters of R ...
*
Klyuchevskaya Sopka Klyuchevskaya Sopka (russian: Ключевская сопка; also known as Klyuchevskoi, russian: Ключевской) is a stratovolcano, the highest mountain on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia and the highest active volcano of Eurasia. It is ...

Klyuchevskaya Sopka
volcano *
Kuril–Kamchatka Trench The Kuril–Kamchatka Trench or Kuril Trench (russian: Курило-Камчатский жёлоб, ''Kurilo-Kamchatskii Zhyolob'') is an oceanic trench in the northwest Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth ...
*
Lake Baikal Lake Baikal (; russian: Oзеро Байкал, Ozero Baykal ; bua, Байгал далай, Baigal dalai; mn, Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur) is a rift lake A rift lake is a lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in ...

Lake Baikal


Fauna


Order

Galliformes Galliformes is an order (biology), order of heavy-bodied ground-feeding birds that includes turkey (bird), turkeys, chickens, Old World quail, quails, and other landfowl. Gallinaceous birds, as they are called, are important as seed dispersers a ...

Galliformes


Family

Tetraonidae Grouse are a group of birds from the order Galliformes Galliformes is an order of heavy-bodied ground-feeding bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class (biology), class Aves , characterised by feath ...

Tetraonidae

*
Hazel grouse The hazel grouse (''Tetrastes bonasia''), sometimes called the hazel hen, is one of the smaller members of the grouse Grouse are a group of birds from the order Galliformes, in the family Phasianidae. Grouse are frequently assigned to the ...
*
Siberian grouse The Siberian grouse (''Falcipennis falcipennis''), Siberian spruce grouse, Amur grouse, or Asian spruce grouse, is a short, rotund forest-dwelling grouse. A sedentary, non-migratory bird, it is similar to the spruce grouse and Franklin's grouse of ...
*
Black grouse The black grouse, northern black grouse, Eurasian black grouse, blackgame, or blackcock (''Lyrurus tetrix''), is a large Game (food), game Aves, bird in the grouse family. It is a Bird migration, sedentary species, spanning across the Palearctic ...

Black grouse
*
Black-billed capercaillie The black-billed capercaillie, eastern capercaillie, Siberian capercaillie, spotted capercaillie, or (in Russian) stone capercaillie (''Tetrao urogalloides''), is a large grouse species closely related to the more widespread western capercaillie. ...
*
Willow ptarmigan The willow ptarmigan () (''Lagopus lagopus'') is a bird in the grouse subfamily Tetraoninae of the pheasant family Phasianidae The Phasianidae are a family (biology), family of heavy, ground-living birds, which includes pheasants, partridges, ...

Willow ptarmigan
*
Rock ptarmigan The rock ptarmigan (') is a medium-sized Galliformes, game bird in the grouse family (biology), family. It is known simply as the ptarmigan in the UK and in Canada, where it is the official bird for the territory of Nunavut, and the official ga ...


Family

Phasianidae The Phasianidae are a family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of soci ...

Phasianidae

*
Daurian partridge The Daurian partridge, steppe partridge, Asian grey partridge, or bearded partridge (''Perdix dauurica''), is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae The Phasianidae are a family (biology), family of heavy, ground-living birds, which in ...
*
Japanese quail The Japanese quail, ''Coturnix japonica'', also known as the coturnix quail is a species of Old World quail found in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located ...

Japanese quail
*
Ring-necked pheasant The common pheasant (''Phasianus colchicus'') is a bird in the pheasant family ( Phasianidae). The genus name comes from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European lang ...


Order

Artiodactyla The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla , ) are ungulate Ungulates ( ) are members of the diverse Ungulata which primarily consists of large mammals with . These include s such as s, es, and s; and s such as , s, s, s, , , and es. s such as , ...

*
Moose The moose (in North America) or elk (in Eurasia) (''Alces alces'') is a member of the Capreolinae, New World deer subfamily and is the Largest cervids, largest and heaviest extant taxon, extant species in the Cervidae, deer family. Most adult ...

Moose
*
Wild boar The wild boar (''Sus scrofa''), also known as the wild swine, common wild pig, Eurasian wild pig, or simply wild pig, is a suid native to much of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and ...

Wild boar
*
Siberian roe deer The Siberian roe deer or eastern roe deer (''Capreolus pygargus'') is a species of roe deer found in northeastern Asia. In addition to Siberia and Mongolia, it is found in Kazakhstan, the Tian Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan, eastern Tibet, the Kor ...

Siberian roe deer
*
Manchurian wapiti The Manchurian wapiti (''Cervus canadensis xanthopygus'') is a subspecies of the wapiti The elk (''Cervus canadensis''), also known as the wapiti, is one of the Largest cervids, largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, and one of ...
*
Siberian musk deer The Siberian musk deer (''Moschus moschiferus'') is a musk deer found in the mountain forests of Northeast Asia Northeast Asia or Northeastern Asia is a geographical subregion of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous contin ...
Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of vulnerable.


Order

Carnivora Carnivora is an order of placental Placentalia is one of the three extant subdivisions of the class of animals Mammalia Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch ...


Family

Canidae Canidae (; from Latin, ''canis'', "dog") is a of dog-like ns. A member of this family is called a canid (). There are three found within the canid family, which are the extinct and , and the extant . The Caninae are known as canines, and in ...

*
Grey wolf The wolf (''Canis lupus''), also known as the gray wolf or grey wolf, is a large canine Canine may refer to: Zoology * dog-like mammals (i.e. members of the canid subfamily Caninae) ** ''Canis'', a genus including dogs, wolves, coyotes, an ...

Grey wolf
* Tundra wolf *
Arctic fox The Arctic fox (''Vulpes lagopus''), also known as the white fox, polar fox, or snow fox, is a small fox Foxes are small to medium-sized, s belonging to several of the family . They have a flattened skull, upright triangular ears, a ...

Arctic fox
*
Red fox The red fox (''Vulpes vulpes'') is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanlin ...

Red fox


Family

Felidae Felidae () is a Family (biology), family of mammals in the Order (biology), order Carnivora, colloquially referred to as cats, and constitutes a clade. A member of this family is also called a felid (). The term "cat" refers both to felids in ge ...

*
Amur leopard The Amur leopard (''Panthera pardus orientalis'') is a leopard subspecies In Taxonomy (biology), biological classification, the term subspecies refers to one of two or more populations of a species living in different subdivisions of the ...

Amur leopard
*
Siberian tiger The Siberian tiger is a tiger from a specific population of the ''Panthera tigris tigris'' subspecies native to the Russian Far East, Northeast China, and possibly North Korea. It once ranged throughout the Korean Peninsula, north China, and ea ...

Siberian tiger


Family

*
Asian black bear The Asian black bear (''Ursus thibetanus''), also known as the Asiatic black bear, moon bear and white-chested bear, is a medium-sized native to Asia that is largely adapted to an lifestyle. It lives in the , southeastern , the northern parts ...

Asian black bear
*
Brown bear The brown bear (''Ursus arctos'') is a large species found across and . In North America, the populations of brown bears are called s, while the subspecies that inhabits the of Alaska is known as the . It is one of the largest living terrest ...

Brown bear
*
Polar bear The polar bear (''Ursus Ursus is Latin for bear. It may also refer to: Animals *Ursus (mammal), ''Ursus'' (mammal), a genus of bears People * Ursus of Aosta, 6th-century evangelist * Ursus of Auxerre, 6th-century bishop * Ursus of Solothu ...

Polar bear


Flora

*
Picea obovata ''Picea obovata'', the Siberian spruce, is a spruce A spruce is a tree of the genus ''Picea'' , a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal ecosystem, boreal (ta ...
*
Pinus pumila ''Pinus pumila'', commonly known as the Siberian dwarf pine, dwarf Siberian pine, dwarf stone pine, Japanese stone pine, or creeping pine, is a tree in the family Pinaceae native plant, native to northeastern Asia and the Japan, Japanese isles. I ...

Pinus pumila


History


Russian expansion

Russians , native_name_lang = ru , image = , caption = Wedding ceremony in the national Russian tradition. , population = 134 million , popplace = 117,319,000 , region1 = , pop1 = 7,170,00 ...

Russians
reached the Pacific coast in 1647 with the establishment of
Okhotsk Okhotsk ( rus, Охотск, p=ɐˈxotsk) is an urban locality (a work settlement) and the administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the low ...

Okhotsk
, and the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical that extended across and from 1721, succeeding the following the that ended the . The Empire lasted until the was proclaimed by the that took power after the ...
consolidated its control over the Russian Far East in the 19th century, after the
annexation Annexation (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, ...
of part of Chinese
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...

Manchuria
(1858-1860). Primorskaya Oblast was established as a separate administrative division of the Russian Empire in 1856, with its administrative center at
Khabarovsk Khabarovsk ( rus, Хабaровск, a=Хабаровск.ogg, r=Khabarovsk, p=xɐˈbarəfsk) is the largest city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., ...

Khabarovsk
.


Administrative history

Several entities with the name "Far East" existed in the first half of the 20th century, all with rather different boundaries: * 1920–1922: the
Far Eastern Republic The Far Eastern Republic ( rus, Дальневосто́чная Респу́блика, ДВР, r=Dalnevostochnaya Respublika, DVR, p=dəlʲnʲɪvɐˈstotɕnəjə rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə), officially the Far Eastern Soviet Republic, sometimes calle ...

Far Eastern Republic
, which included
Transbaikal Transbaikal, Trans-Baikal, Transbaikalia ( rus, Забайка́лье, r=Zabaykalye, p=zəbɐjˈkalʲjɪ), or Dauria (, ''Dauriya'') is a mountainous region to the east of or "beyond" (trans-) in . The steppe and wetland landscapes of Dauria a ...
,
Amur The Amur (russian: река́ Аму́р, ), or Heilong Jiang (, "Black Dragon A dragon is a large, snake, serpentine, legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures worldwide. Beliefs about dragons vary considerably t ...

Amur
, Primorskaya, and
Kamchatka Oblast Kamchatka Oblast (russian: Камча́тская о́бласть, ''Kamchatskaya oblast'') was, until being incorporated into Kamchatka Krai on July 1, 2007, a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of Russia (an oblast). To the north ...
s and northern
Sakhalin Sakhalin; ja, 樺太 ''Karafuto'') is the largest island of Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. The ...

Sakhalin
; * 1922–1926: , which included
Amur The Amur (russian: река́ Аму́р, ), or Heilong Jiang (, "Black Dragon A dragon is a large, snake, serpentine, legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures worldwide. Beliefs about dragons vary considerably t ...
,
Transbaikal Transbaikal, Trans-Baikal, Transbaikalia ( rus, Забайка́лье, r=Zabaykalye, p=zəbɐjˈkalʲjɪ), or Dauria (, ''Dauriya'') is a mountainous region to the east of or "beyond" (trans-) in . The steppe and wetland landscapes of Dauria a ...
and
Kamchatka The Kamchatka Peninsula (, ''Poluostrov Kamchatka'', ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it e ...
Guberniyas and others; * 1926–1938: Far-Eastern Krai, which included the present-day Primorsky and
Khabarovsk Krai Khabarovsk Krai ( rus, Хаба́ровский край, r=Khabarovsky kray, p=xɐˈbarəfskʲɪj kraj) is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъект ...
s. Until 2000 the Russian Far East lacked officially-defined boundaries. A single term "Siberia and the Far East" () often referred to Russia's regions east of the
Urals The Ural Mountains (; rus, Ура́льские го́ры, r=Uralskiye gory, p=ʊˈralʲskʲɪjə ˈgorɨ; ba, Урал тауҙары, ''Ural tauźarı'') or simply the Urals, are a Mountain range, mountain range that runs approximately fr ...
without drawing a clear distinction between "Siberia" and "the Far East". In 2000 Russia's
federal subjects The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (russian: ...
were grouped into larger
federal districts
federal districts
, one of which, the
Far Eastern Federal District The Far Eastern Federal District (russian: Дальневосто́чный федера́льный о́круг, ''Dalnevostochny federalny okrug'') is the largest of the federal districts of Russia, eight federal districts of Russia but th ...
, comprised
Amur Oblast Amur Oblast ( rus, Аму́рская о́бласть, r=Amurskaya oblast, p=ɐˈmurskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ) is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъек ...

Amur Oblast
, the
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Chukotka Autonomous Okrug,; , ''Chukotkaken avtonomnyken okrug'', ) or Chukotka () is the easternmost federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of Russia. It is an autonomous okrug situated in the Russian Far East, and shares a border with the ...
, the
Jewish Autonomous Oblast The Jewish Autonomous Oblast (JAO; russian: Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть, ; yi, ייִדישע אװטאָנאָמע געגנט, ; )In standard Yiddish: , ''Yidishe Oytonome Gegnt'' is a federal subject The fed ...

Jewish Autonomous Oblast
,
Kamchatka Oblast Kamchatka Oblast (russian: Камча́тская о́бласть, ''Kamchatskaya oblast'') was, until being incorporated into Kamchatka Krai on July 1, 2007, a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of Russia (an oblast). To the north ...
with the
Koryak Autonomous Okrug Koryak may refer to: *Koryaks, a people of northeastern Siberia *Koryak language, language of the Koryaks *Koryak Okrug, an administrative division of Kamchatka Krai, Russia *Koryak, the son of Aquaman, a fictional character in DC Comics See also< ...
,
Khabarovsk Krai Khabarovsk Krai ( rus, Хаба́ровский край, r=Khabarovsky kray, p=xɐˈbarəfskʲɪj kraj) is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъект ...
,
Magadan Oblast Magadan Oblast ( rus, Магаданская область, r=Magadanskaya oblast, p=məgɐˈdanskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ) is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: ...
,
Primorsky Krai Primorsky Krai ( rus, links=no, Приморский край, r=Primorsky kray, p=prʲɪˈmorskʲɪj kraj), informally known as Primorye (, ) and translated in full as Maritime Territory, is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia ...
, the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, and
Sakhalin Oblast Sakhalin Oblast ( rus, Сахали́нская о́бласть, r=Sahalínskaya óblast', p=səxɐˈlʲinskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ) is a federal subject of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a ...
. In November 2018
Zabaykalsky Krai Zabaykalsky Krai ( rus, Забайкальский край, r=Zabaikal'skii krai, p=zəbɐjˈkalʲskʲɪj kraj, lit. "(The) Transbaikal krai") is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of Russia (a krai) that was created on March 1, 2 ...
and the
Republic of Buryatia The Republic of Buryatia ( rus, Респу́блика Буря́тия, r=Respublika Buryatiya, p=rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə bʊˈrʲætʲɪjə; bua, Буряад Улас, Buryaad Ulas, , mn, Буриад Улс, Buriad Uls) is a federal subject of ...
were added they had previously formed part of the
Siberian Federal District Siberian Federal District (russian: Сиби́рский федера́льный о́круг, ''Sibirsky federalny okrug'') is one of the federal districts of Russia, eight federal districts of Russia. Its population was 17,178,298 accordin ...
. Since 2000, Russians have increasingly used the term "Far East" to refer to the federal district, though the term is often also used more loosely. Defined by the boundaries of the federal district, the Far East has an area of —over one-third of Russia's total area.


Russo-Japanese War

Russia in the early 1900s persistently sought a warm-water port on the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's five oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by the continents o ...

Pacific Ocean
for the
Imperial Russian Navy The Imperial Russian Navy () operated as the navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces principally designated for naval warfare, naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral ...
as well as to facilitate maritime trade. The recently-established Pacific seaport of
Vladivostok Vladivostok ( rus, Владивосто́к, a=Владивосток.ogg, p=vlədʲɪvɐˈstok) is the largest city and the administrative centre of Primorsky Krai, Russia. The city is located around the Zolotoy Rog, Golden Horn Bay on the Sea o ...

Vladivostok
(founded in 1860) was operational only during the summer season, but Port Arthur (leased by Russian from China from 1896 onwards) in
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...

Manchuria
could operate all year. After the
First Sino-Japanese War The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was a conflict between the Qing dynasty of China and the Empire of Japan primarily over influence in Joseon Korea. After more than six months of unbroken successes by Japanese lan ...

First Sino-Japanese War
(1894-1895) and the failure of the 1903 negotiations between
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
and the Tsar's government, Japan chose war to protect its domination of
Korea Korea is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental ...

Korea
and adjacent territories. Russia, meanwhile, saw war as a means of distracting its populace from government repression and of rallying patriotism in the aftermath of several general strikes. Japan issued a declaration of war on 8 February 1904. However, three hours before Japan's declaration of war was received by the Russian government, the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked the Russian 1st Pacific Squadron at Port Arthur. Eight days later Russia declared war on Japan. The war ended in September 1905 with a Japanese victory following the fall of Port Arthur and the failed Russian invasion of Japan through the Korean Peninsula and
Northeast China Northeast China () is a geographical region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth ...

Northeast China
; also, Japan had threatened to invade
Primorsky Krai Primorsky Krai ( rus, links=no, Приморский край, r=Primorsky kray, p=prʲɪˈmorskʲɪj kraj), informally known as Primorye (, ) and translated in full as Maritime Territory, is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia ...
via Korea. The warring parties signed the
Treaty of Portsmouth The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the 1904–05 Russo-Japanese War. It was signed on September 5, 1905, after negotiations from August 6 to August 30, at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine, United States The United S ...

Treaty of Portsmouth
on 5 September 1905, and both Japan and Russia agreed to evacuate Manchuria and to return its sovereignty to China, but Japan was allowed to lease the
Liaodong Peninsula The Liaodong Peninsula (also Liaotung Peninsula, ) is a peninsula in southern Liaoning province in Northeast China, and makes up the southwestern coastal half of the Liaodong region. It is located between the river mouth, mouths of the Daliao ...
(containing Port Arthur and Talien), and the Russian rail system in southern Manchuria with its access to strategic resources. Japan also received the southern half of the island of
Sakhalin Sakhalin; ja, 樺太 ''Karafuto'') is the largest island of Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. The ...

Sakhalin
from Russia. In 1907 Japan forced Russia to confiscate land from Korean settlers (who formed the majority of Primorsky Krai's population) due to a fear of an invasion of Korea and of the ousting of Japanese troops by Korean guerrillas.


Soviet era

Between 1937 and 1939, the Soviet Union under
Joseph Stalin ( – 5 March 1953) was a Georgians, Georgian revolutionary and Soviet political leader who governed the Soviet Union from 1924 until his death in 1953. He held power both as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–1952 ...
deported over 200,000 Koreans to
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi), is a landlocked country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land ...

Uzbekistan
and
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
, fearing that the Koreans might act as spies for Japan. Many Koreans died on the way in cattle trains due to starvation, illness, or freezing conditions. Soviet authorities purged and executed many community leaders;
Koryo-saram Koryo-saram ( ko, 고려사람; russian: Корё сарам; uk, Корьо-сарам) is the name which ethnic Koreans in the post-Soviet states use to refer to themselves. The term is composed of two Korean words: "''Names of Korea#Goryeo, ...
were not allowed to travel outside of Central Asia for the next 15 years. Koreans were also not allowed to use the Korean language and its use began to become lost with the involvement of the
Koryo-mar Koryo-mal, Goryeomal, or Koryŏmal ( ko, 고려말, russian: Корё мар) is the dialect of Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, an ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * ...
dialect and the use of Russian. Development of numerous remote locations in the Soviet Far East relied on
GULAG The Gulag, GULAG, or GULag (russian: ГУЛАГ, ГУЛаг, an acronym An acronym is a word In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by h ...

GULAG
labour camp A labor camp (or labour camp, see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English orthograph ...
s during Stalin's rule, especially in the region's northern half. After the death of Stalin in 1953 the large-scale use of
forced labour Unfree labour, or forced labour, is any work relation, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence including death, compulsion, or other ...
waned and was superseded by volunteer employees attracted by relatively high wages.


Soviet–Japanese conflicts

During the
Japanese invasion of Manchuria The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army ''Kantō-gun'' , image=Kwantung Army Headquarters.JPG , image_size=300px , caption=Kwantung Army headquarters in Hsinking, Manchukuo Manchukuo, officiall ...
in 1931, the Soviets occupied
Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island 200px, Heixiazi / Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island is depicted in the inset map on the lower right. Bolshoi Ussuriysky Island (russian: о́стров Большо́й Уссури́йский Ostrov Bol'shoy Ussuriyskiy), or Heixiazi Island ( ...
, Yinlong Island, and several adjacent islets to separate the city of
Khabarovsk Khabarovsk ( rus, Хабaровск, a=Хабаровск.ogg, r=Khabarovsk, p=xɐˈbarəfsk) is the largest city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., ...

Khabarovsk
from the territory controlled by a possibly hostile power.The
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
recognized Russian possession of the eastern half of these lands in the treaty of 2004, whereas the western half then reverted to China.
Indeed, Japan turned its military attention to Soviet territories. Conflicts between the Japanese and the Soviets frequently happened on the border of Manchuria between 1938 and 1945. The first confrontation occurred in Primorsky Krai, the
Battle of Lake Khasan The Battle of Lake Khasan (29 July – 11 August 1938), also known as the Changkufeng Incident (russian: Хасанские бои, Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of Ch ...
(July–August 1938) involved an attempted military incursion of Japanese-controlled
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of (Great) Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded as a republic in 19 ...
into territory claimed by the Soviet Union. This incursion was founded in the beliefs of the Japanese side that the Soviet Union had misinterpreted the demarcation of the boundary based on the 1860
Treaty of Peking The Convention of Peking or First Convention of Peking is an agreement comprising three distinct treaties A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign s ...
between Imperial Russia and Manchu China. Primorsky Krai was always threatened by a Japanese invasion despite the fact that most of the remaining clashes occurred in Manchukuo. The clashes ended shortly before the conclusion of World War II when a war-weakened Japan found its territories of Manchukuo, Mengjiang, Korea, and South Sakhalin Soviet invasion of Manchuria, invaded by Soviet and Mongolian troops (August 1945).


World War II

Both the Soviet Union and Japan regarded the Primorsky Krai as a strategic location in World War II, and clashes over the territory were common. The Soviets and the other Allies of World War II, Allies considered it a key location for the planned Operation Downfall, invasion of Japan through Korea; Japan viewed it as a key location to begin a mass invasion of Eastern Russia. The Primorsky Krai served as the Soviet Union's Pacific headquarters in the war to plan an invasion for allied troops of Korea in order to reach Japan. After the Soviet invasion, the USSR returned Manchukuo and Mengjiang to China; Liberation of Korea, Korea became liberated. The Soviet Union also occupied and annexed the Kuril Islands and southern Sakhalin. The planned Soviet invasion of Japan proper never happened.


Cold War

During the Korean War, Primorsky Krai became the site of extreme security concern for the Soviet Union.
Vladivostok Vladivostok ( rus, Владивосто́к, a=Владивосток.ogg, p=vlədʲɪvɐˈstok) is the largest city and the administrative centre of Primorsky Krai, Russia. The city is located around the Zolotoy Rog, Golden Horn Bay on the Sea o ...

Vladivostok
became the site of the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks in 1974. At the time, the Soviet Union and the United States decided quantitative limits on various nuclear weapons systems and banned the construction of new land-based intercontinental ballistic missile, ICBM launchers. Vladivostok and other cities in Primorsky Krai soon became closed cities because of the bases of the Soviet Pacific Fleet. Incursions of United States, American reconnaissance aircraft from Alaska sometimes happened. Concerns of the Soviet military caused the infamous Korean Air Lines Flight 007 incident in 1983.


Russian Federation


Russian Homestead Act

In 2016, President of Russia, President Vladimir Putin proposed the Russian Homestead Act to populate the Russian Far East.


Russian-Japanese relations in the 21st century

Japanese citizens can visit Russian Vladivostok under a simplified visa regime. A simplified electronic visa to Primorsky Krai in 2016 brought 1338 citizens of Japan.


Demographics


Population

According to the Russian Census (2010), 2010 Census,
Far Eastern Federal District The Far Eastern Federal District (russian: Дальневосто́чный федера́льный о́круг, ''Dalnevostochny federalny okrug'') is the largest of the federal districts of Russia, eight federal districts of Russia but th ...
had a population of 6,293,129. Most of it is concentrated in the southern parts. Given the vast territory of the Russian Far East, 6.3 million people translates to slightly less than one person per square kilometer, making the Russian Far East one of the most sparsely populated areas in the world. The population of the Russian Far East has been rapidly declining since the dissolution of the Soviet Union (even more so than for Russia in general), dropping by 14% in the last fifteen years. The Russian government had been discussing a range of re-population programs to avoid the forecast drop to 4.5 million people by 2015, hoping to attract in particular the remaining Russian population of the near abroad but eventually agreeing on a program to resettle Ukrainian Illegal immigrants. Ethnic
Russians , native_name_lang = ru , image = , caption = Wedding ceremony in the national Russian tradition. , population = 134 million , popplace = 117,319,000 , region1 = , pop1 = 7,170,00 ...

Russians
and Ukrainians make up the majority of the population.


Cities

75% of the population is urban. The largest cities are: *
Vladivostok Vladivostok ( rus, Владивосто́к, a=Владивосток.ogg, p=vlədʲɪvɐˈstok) is the largest city and the administrative centre of Primorsky Krai, Russia. The city is located around the Zolotoy Rog, Golden Horn Bay on the Sea o ...

Vladivostok
*
Khabarovsk Khabarovsk ( rus, Хабaровск, a=Хабаровск.ogg, r=Khabarovsk, p=xɐˈbarəfsk) is the largest city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., ...

Khabarovsk
*Ulan-Ude *Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai, Chita *Komsomolsk-on-Amur *Blagoveshchensk *Yakutsk *Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky *Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk *Nakhodka *Ussuriysk


Ukrainian Resettlement Program

In 2016, a program was approved which hoped to resettle at least 500,000 Ukrainians in the Far East. This included giving free land to attract voluntary immigrants from Ukraine and the settlement of refugees from East Ukraine.


Traditional ethnic groups

The original population groups of the Russian Far East include (grouped by language group): *Mongolic languages, Mongolic: Buryats *Turkic Languages, Turkic: Yakuts, Sakha *Eskimo–Aleut languages, Eskimo–Aleut: Aleut people, Aleuts, Siberian Yupiks (Yuits) *Chukotko-Kamchatkan peoples, Chukotko-Kamchatkan: Chukchi (people), Chukchi, Koryaks, Alutor language, Alutors, Kereks, Itelmens *Tungusic peoples, Tungusic: Evenks, Evens, Nanais, Orochs, Ul'chs, Ul'ch, Udegey, Orok people, Orok, Manchu People, Manchus *language isolate, Isolate: Koreans, Yukaghirs, Nivkh people, Nivkhs, Ainu people, Ainus


Transportation

The region was not connected with the rest of Russia via domestic highways until the M58 highway (Russia), M58 highway was completed in 2010. Uniquely for Russia, most cars have right-hand drive (73% of all cars in the region), though traffic still flows on the right-hand side of the road. Railways are better developed. The Trans-Siberian Railway and Baikal–Amur Mainline (since 1984) provide a connection with Siberia (and the rest of the country). The Amur–Yakutsk Mainline is aimed to link the city of Yakutsk to the Russian railway network. Passenger trains connect to Nizhny Bestyakh as of 2013. Like in nearby Siberia, for many remote localities, aviation is the main mode of transportation to/from civilisation, but the infrastructure is often poor. Maritime transport is also important for delivering supplies to localities at (or near) the Pacific and Arctic Ocean, Arctic coasts.


See also

*
Bering Strait The Bering Strait (russian: Берингов пролив) is a of the , which separates and the slightly south of the at about 65° 40' N . The present Russia-US east–west boundary is at 168° 58' 37" W. The Strait is named after , a Dani ...
* Far North (Russia) * Kolyma * List of Russian explorers * Outer Manchuria


Footnotes


Bibliography

* Beer, Daniel. ''The house of the dead: Siberian exile under the tsars'' (Vintage, 2017). * Bobrick, Benson/ ''East of the Sun: the Epic Conquest and Tragic History of Siberia'', (NY: Poseidon Press, 1992) * Forsyth, James. ''History of the Peoples of Siberia'', (Cambridge: University Press 1992) * Glebov, Sergei. "Center, Periphery, and Diversity in the Late Imperial Far East: New Historiography of a Russian Region." Ab Imperio 2019.3 (2019): 265–278. * Hartley, Janet M. ''Siberia, A History of the People,'' (New Haven: Yale University Press 2014) * Haywood, A.J. ''Siberia: A Cultural History'', (Oxford UP, 2010) * Monahan, Erika. ''The merchants of Siberia: Trade in early modern Eurasia'' (Cornell UP, 2016). * Naumov, Igor. ''History of Siberia'', (London: Routledge, 2006) * Reid, Anna. ''The Shaman's Coat: A Native History of Siberia'', (NY: Walker & Comp., 2002) * Stolberg. Eva-Maria (ed.), ''Siberian Saga: a History of Russia's Wild We * Vajda (ed.), Edward J.''Languages and Prehistory of Central Siberia'', (Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2004) * Wood, Alan. ''The History of Siberia'', (London: Rutledge, 1991) * Wood, Alan. ''Russian Far East 1581 -1991'', (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2011)


External links


Meeting of Frontiers: Siberia, Alaska, and the American West
(includes materials on Russian Far East)
Дальневосточный федеральный округ at WGEO
{{Authority control Russian Far East, North Asia Regions of Russia Historical regions