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The Ruian dialect (; pronounced in the Rui'an dialect; standard ) is a
dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , 'discourse', from , 'through' and , 'I speak') can refer to either of two distinctly different types of Linguistics, linguistic phenomena: * One usage refers to a variety (linguis ...
of
Wu Chinese Wu (Chinese character: , , Mandarin: ) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related Sinitic languages spoken primarily in Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four ...
spoken in
Ruian Rui'an (, Wenzhounese Wenzhounese (), also known as Oujiang (), Tong Au () or Auish (), is the language spoken in Wenzhou, the southern prefecture of Zhejiang Zhejiang (, formerly romanized as Chekiang) is an eastern, coastal Provinces ...
. It belongs to the Oujiang sub-group of
Wu Chinese Wu (Chinese character: , , Mandarin: ) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related Sinitic languages spoken primarily in Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four ...
dialects. It is closely related to the Pingyang dialect and Lucheng dialect, generally referred to as
Wenzhounese Wenzhounese (), also known as Oujiang (), Tong Au () or Auish (), is the language spoken in Wenzhou, the southern prefecture of Zhejiang Zhejiang (, formerly romanized as Chekiang) is an eastern, coastal Provinces of China, province of th ...
.


Phonology


Initials


Finals

Rui'an has the following finals: 嘸 , 兒 姹 , 好 , 包 海 , 先 , 思 下 , 布 ~ 圖 ~ 水 全 , 安 , 歌 會 , 走 李 , 六 涼 , 關 , 花 經 , 聽 , 公 . Additional finals for older accents include 天 , 橋 , 頭


Tones

In the Ruian dialect, a monosyllabic word can have one of the eight tones, but there are only four phonetically distinguished tones, divided into high (陰) and low (陽) categories. In combination with another tone, it can change depending on the
tone sandhi Tone sandhi is a phonological change occurring in tonal languages Tone is the use of pitch (music), pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflection, inflect words. All verbal langua ...
system. Yin Ping 陰平 44 江天飛三 Yang Ping 陽平 31 來同魚球 Yin Shang 陰上 35 懂紙古本 Yang Shang 陽上 24 近淡厚似 Yin Qu 陰去 52 對去貨歲 Yang Qu 陽去 22 外地路住 Yin Ru 陰入 323 七博塔各 Yang Ru 陽入 212 六肉白石


Tone sandhi

In bisyllabic words, the Rui'an dialect phonetically has only six tones, ''high flat'' ˦, ''middle flat'' ˧, ''rising'' ˨˦, ''departing'' ˦˨, ''entering'' ˨˩˨ and ''short'' ˨. We'll now use A, B, C, D, E, and 0 for these six tones.


Grammar


Sentence Structure


Classifiers


Verbs


Adverbs

;Ruian dialect


Lexicon


Pronouns


Numerals

:1 used when are alone or follow 第 to form ordinal numerals, and the later three lectures are cardinal numerals and are generally followed by a classifier. :2 the first lecture is considered literal, the second colloquial.


Vocabulary

Below is a list of the most common vocabulary in Ruian dialect.


Readings

Like other Wu dialects, in the Ruian dialect a Chinese character can have more than one reading, divided into vernacular readings (白讀) and literary readings (文讀), in comparison with other Wu dialects, the Ruian dialect has relatively few multiple readings. Below are some samples.


See also

*
Shanghainese Shanghainese, also known as the Shanghai language, Shanghai dialect, or Hu language, is a Wu Chinese Wu (Chinese character: , , Mandarin: ) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related Sinitic languages spoken primarily i ...
, another Wu Chinese dialect *
Suzhou dialect The Suzhou dialect (; Suzhounese: ''Sou-tseu ghé-ghô'' ), also known as Suzhounese, is the variety of Chinese traditionally spoken in the city of Suzhou Suzhou (; ; , Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a ...
*
Ruian Rui'an (, Wenzhounese Wenzhounese (), also known as Oujiang (), Tong Au () or Auish (), is the language spoken in Wenzhou, the southern prefecture of Zhejiang Zhejiang (, formerly romanized as Chekiang) is an eastern, coastal Provinces ...
, the city *
Wenzhounese Wenzhounese (), also known as Oujiang (), Tong Au () or Auish (), is the language spoken in Wenzhou, the southern prefecture of Zhejiang Zhejiang (, formerly romanized as Chekiang) is an eastern, coastal Provinces of China, province of th ...
, of which the variety of Rui'an is considered a dialect


References


A Study on the Phonetics of Ruian Dialect
Wu Chinese {{St-lang-stub