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The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences ( Swedish: ''Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien'') is one of the royal academies of
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
. Founded on 2 June 1739, it is an independent, non-governmental scientific organization which takes special responsibility for promoting the
natural science Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or ph ...

natural science
s and
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
and strengthen their influence in society, whilst endeavouring to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines. The goals of the academy are: * to be a forum where researchers meet across subject boundaries, * to offer a unique environment for research, * to provide support to younger researchers, * to reward outstanding research efforts, * to communicate internationally among scientists, * to advance the case for science within society and to influence research policy priorities * to stimulate interest in mathematics and science in school, and * to disseminate and popularize scientific information in various forms. Every year the academy awards the
Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, busines ...
s in
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...
and in
chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...
, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, the
Crafoord Prize The Crafoord Prize is an annual science prize established in 1980 by Holger Crafoord, a Swedish industrialist, and his wife Anna-Greta Crafoord. The Prize is awarded in partnership between the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences The Royal Swedis ...
, the The Sjöberg Prize, Sjöberg Prize and several other awards. The Academy maintains close relations with foreign academies, learned societies and international scientific organizations and also promotes international scientific cooperation. The Academy of Sciences is located within the Stockholm region's Royal National City Park.


Prizes


International prizes

*
Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, busines ...
s in Nobel Prize in Physics, Physics and in Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Chemistry * Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel *
Crafoord Prize The Crafoord Prize is an annual science prize established in 1980 by Holger Crafoord, a Swedish industrialist, and his wife Anna-Greta Crafoord. The Prize is awarded in partnership between the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences The Royal Swedis ...
s in astronomy and
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
, geosciences, biosciences (with an emphasis on ecology), and polyarthritis (for example rheumatoid arthritis) * The Sjöberg Prize, Sjöberg Prize for research in cancer * Rolf Schock Prizes in logic and philosophy, mathematics, visual arts and musical arts * Gregori Aminoff Prize in crystallography * Tobias Prize for research to treat hematological disorders


National prizes

* Göran Gustafsson Prize for research in chemistry, mathematics, molecular biology, medicine and physics * Söderberg Prize for research in economics or jurisprudence or medicine * Ingvar Lindqvist Prizes for teachers in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics and natural sciences * Tage Erlander Prize "for research in natural sciences and technology" in four fields (physics, chemistry, technology and biology)


Members

The academy has elected about 1,700 Swedish and 1,200 foreign members since it was founded in 1739. Today the academy has about 470 Swedish and 175 foreign members which are divided into ten "classes", representing ten various scientific disciplines: * Mathematics * Astronomy, Astronomy and space science * Physics * Chemistry * Geosciences * Biosciences * Medicine, Medical sciences * Engineering sciences * Social sciences *Humanities and "for outstanding services to science"


List of permanent secretaries

The following persons have served as permanent secretaries of the academy: *Anders Johan von Höpken, 1739–1740, 1740–1741 *Augustin Ehrensvärd, April – June 1740 *Jacob Faggot, 1741–1744 *Pehr Elvius, 1744–1749 *Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin, 1749–1783 *Johan Carl Wilcke and Henrik Nicander, 1784–1796 *Daniel Melanderhjelm and Henrik Nicander, 1796–1803 *Jöns Svanberg and Carl Gustaf Sjöstén 1803–1808; Sjöstén was removed 1808 for negligence of his duties *Jöns Svanberg, 1809–1811 *Olof Swartz, 1811–1818 *Jöns Jacob Berzelius, 1818–1848 *Peter Fredrik Wahlberg, 1848–1866 *Georg Lindhagen, 1866–1901 *Christopher Aurivillius, 1901–1923 *Henrik Gustaf Söderbaum, 1923–1933 *Henning Pleijel, 1933–1943 *Arne Westgren, 1943–1959 *Erik Rudberg, 1959–1972 *Carl Gustaf Bernhard, 1973–1980 *Tord Ganelius, 1981–1989 *Carl-Olof Jacobson, 1989–1997 *Erling Norrby, 1997–30 June 2003 *Gunnar Öquist, 1 July 2003 – 30 June 2010 *Staffan Normark, 1 July 2010 – 30 June 2015 *Göran K. Hansson, 1 July 2015–present


Publications

The transactions of the Academy (''Vetenskapsakademiens handlingar'') were published as its main series between 1739 and 1974. In parallel, other major series have appeared and gone: *''Öfversigt af Kungl. Vetenskapsakademiens förhandlingar'' (1844–1903) *''Bihang till Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar'' (1872–1902) *''Vetenskapsakademiens årsbok'' (1903–1969) The academy started publishing annual reports in physics and chemistry (1826), technology (1827), botany (1831), and zoology (1832). These lasted into the 1860s, when they were replaced by the single ''Bihang'' series (meaning: supplement to the transactions). Starting in 1887, this series was once again split into four sections (''afdelning''), which in 1903 became independent scientific journals of their own, titled "Arkiv för..." (archive for...). These included: * ''Arkiv för matematik, astronomi och fysik'' (1903–1949) Further restructuring of their topics occurred in 1949 and 1974. Other defunct journals of the Academy include: * ''Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence'' (1997–2001) ;Current publications *''AMBIO, Ambio'' (1972–) *''Acta Mathematica'' (1882–) *''Arkiv för matematik'' (1949– with this title; 1903–1949 also including physics and astronomy) *''Acta Zoologica'' (1920–) *''Levnadsteckningar över Vetenskapsakademiens ledamöter'' (1869–), biographies of deceased members *''Porträttmatrikel'' (1971–), portraits of current members *''Zoologica Scripta'' (1972–), jointly with the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters


History

The academy was founded on 2 June 1739 by naturalist Carl Linnaeus, mercantilist Jonas Alströmer, mechanical engineer Mårten Triewald, civil servants Sten Carl Bielke and Carl Wilhelm Cederhielm, and statesman/author Anders Johan von Höpken. The purpose of the academy was to focus on practically useful knowledge, and to publish in Swedish language, Swedish in order to widely disseminate the academy's findings. The academy was intended to be different from the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala, which had been founded in 1719 and published in Latin language, Latin. The location close to the commercial activities in Sweden's capital (which unlike Uppsala did not have a university at this time) was also intentional. The academy was modeled after the Royal Society of London and Academie Royale des Sciences in Paris, France, which some of the founding members were familiar with.


See also

*:Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences


References


External links

*
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences video site
{{Authority control Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, National academies of sciences, Sweden 1739 establishments in Sweden Swedish Royal Academies, Sciences, Academy Nobel Prize, Academy, Science Buildings and structures in Stockholm Science and technology in Sweden Scientific organizations established in 1739 Members of the International Council for Science Members of the International Science Council