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Rotterdam ( , , ) is the second largest
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...
and
municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
in the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
. It is in the
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

province
of
South Holland South Holland ( nl, Zuid-Holland ) is a Provinces of the Netherlands, province of the Netherlands with a population of over 3.7 million as of October 2021 and a population density of about , making it the country's most populous province and on ...
, at the mouth of the
Nieuwe Maas The Nieuwe Maas (, "New Meuse") is a distributary A distributary, or a distributary channel, is a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Distributaries are a common feature of river deltas. The phenomenon is known as ...
channel leading into the
Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta The Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta is a river delta in the Netherlands formed by the confluence of the Rhine, the Meuse ( nl, Maas) and the Scheldt rivers. In some cases, the Scheldt delta is considered a separate delta to the Rhine-Meuse delta. ...
at the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
. Its history goes back to 1270, when a
dam A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of surface water An example of surface water is Lake Kinney. Surface water is water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tas ...

dam
was constructed in the Rotte. In 1340, Rotterdam was granted city rights by the
Count of Holland The counts of Holland ruled over the County of Holland in the Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flander ...
. The
Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area The Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area ( nl, Metropoolregio Rotterdam Den Haag) is a metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding ter ...
, with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 10th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. A major logistic and economic centre, Rotterdam is . In 2020, it had a population of 651,446 and is home to over 180 nationalities. Rotterdam is known for its
university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...
, riverside setting, lively cultural life, maritime heritage and modern architecture. The near-complete destruction of the city centre in the
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
Rotterdam Blitz The German bombing of Rotterdam in World War II, also known as the Rotterdam Blitz, was the aerial bombardment of Rotterdam Rotterdam (, , ) is the second largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin ...
has resulted in a varied architectural landscape, including
skyscraper A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though there is no universally accepted definition. Skyscrapers ar ...

skyscraper
s designed by architects such as
Rem Koolhaas Remment Lucas Koolhaas (; born 17 November 1944) is a Dutch architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design o ...

Rem Koolhaas
, Piet Blom and Ben van Berkel. The
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
,
Meuse The Meuse ( , , , ; wa, Moûze ) or Maas ( , ; li, Maos or ) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected ...
and
Scheldt The Scheldt ( ; french: Escaut ; wa, Escô; nl, Schelde ) is a river that flows through northern France, western Belgium, and the southwestern part of Netherlands, the Netherlands, with its mouth at the North Sea. Its name is derived from an ...

Scheldt
give waterway access into the heart of Western Europe, including the highly industrialized
Ruhr The Ruhr ( ; german: Ruhrgebiet ), also referred to as Ruhr area, Ruhr district, Ruhr region, or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric Polycentric is an English adjective, meaning "having more than one center," derived from the Greek words ''polús'' ( ...

Ruhr
. The extensive distribution system including rail, roads, and waterways have earned Rotterdam the nicknames "Gateway to Europe" and "Gateway to the World".


History

The settlement at the lower end of the
fen A fen is a type of peat-accumulating wetland A wetland is a distinct ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a sy ...

fen
stream '' Rotte'' (or ''Rotta'', as it was then known, from ''rot'', "muddy" and ''a'', "water", thus "muddy water") dates from at least 950 CE. Around 1150, large
flood A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide Tides are the rise and fall of sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often ...

flood
s in the area ended development, leading to the construction of protective
dikes Dyke or dike may refer to: General uses * Dyke (slang) The term ''dyke'' is a slang Slang is language (words, phrases, and usages) of an informal register. It also sometimes refer to the language generally exclusive to the members of ...

dikes
and dams, including ''Schielands Hoge Zeedijk'' ("Schieland’s High Sea Dike") along the northern banks of the present-day
Nieuwe Maas The Nieuwe Maas (, "New Meuse") is a distributary A distributary, or a distributary channel, is a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Distributaries are a common feature of river deltas. The phenomenon is known as ...
river. A dam on the Rotte was built in the 1260s and was located at the present-day ''Hoogstraat'' ("High Street"). On 7 July 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland granted
city rights 250px, Medieval square in Spišská Sobota, Slovakia (Now Poprad). The former name of the town literally means "Saturday in Spiš">Poprad.html" ;"title="Slovakia (Now Poprad">Slovakia (Now Poprad). The former name of the town literally means ...
to Rotterdam, whose population then was only a few thousand. Around the year 1350, a shipping canal (the '' Rotterdamse Schie'') was completed, which provided Rotterdam access to the larger towns in the north, allowing it to become a local trans-shipment centre between the Netherlands,
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
and
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
, and to urbanize. The port of Rotterdam grew slowly but steadily into a port of importance, becoming the seat of one of the six "chambers" of the ''Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie'' (VOC), the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
. The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population, followed the completion of the
Nieuwe Waterweg The Nieuwe Waterweg ("New Waterway") is a ship canal A ship canal is a canal Canals are waterways Channel (geography), channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. They may also hel ...
in 1872. The city and harbour started to expand on the south bank of the river. The '''' or ''White House'' skyscraper, inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the French Château-style, is evidence of Rotterdam's rapid growth and success. When completed, it was the tallest office building in Europe, with a height of . During
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, the city was the world's largest spy centre because of Dutch neutrality and its strategic location in between Britain, Germany and German-occupied Belgium. Many spies who were arrested and executed in Britain were led by German secret agents operating from Rotterdam. MI6 had its main European office on de Boompjes. From there the British coordinated espionage in Germany and occupied Belgium. During World War I, an average of 25,000 Belgian refugees lived in the city, as well as hundreds of German deserters and escaped Allied prisoners of war. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the German army invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940..
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
had hoped to conquer the country in just one day, but his forces met unexpectedly fierce resistance. The Dutch army was forced to capitulate on 15 May 1940, following the bombing of Rotterdam on 14 May and the threat of bombing of other Dutch cities. The heart of Rotterdam was almost completely destroyed by the
Luftwaffe The ''Luftwaffe'' () was the aerial-warfare branch of the German ''Wehrmacht The ''Wehrmacht'' (, ) was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the German Army (1935–1945), ''Heer'' (army), th ...
. Some 80,000 civilians were made homeless and 900 were killed; a relatively low number since many had fled the city because of the warfare and bombing going on in Rotterdam since the start of the invasion three days earlier. The City Hall survived the bombing.
Ossip Zadkine Ossip Zadkine (russian: Осип Цадкин; 28 January 1888 – 25 November 1967) was a Belarusian-born French naturalized artist. He is primarily known as a sculptor, but also produced paintings and lithographs. Early years and education Zadk ...

Ossip Zadkine
later attempted to capture the event with his statue '' De Verwoeste Stad'' ('The Destroyed City'). The statue stands near the Leuvehaven, not far from the
Erasmusbrug ''Erasmusbrug'' (English: "Erasmus Bridge") is a combined cable-stayed and bascule bridge A bascule bridge (also referred to as a drawbridge or a lifting bridge) is a moveable bridge with a counterweight that continuously balances a span, or l ...

Erasmusbrug
in the centre of the city, on the north shore of the river Nieuwe Maas. Rotterdam was gradually rebuilt from the 1950s through to the 1970s. It remained quite windy and open until the city councils from the 1980s on began developing an active architectural policy. Daring and new styles of
apartment An apartment (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United S ...

apartment
s, office buildings and recreation facilities resulted in a more '' city centre with a new skyline. In the 1990s, the was built on the south bank of the river as a new business centre. Rotterdam was voted 2015 European City of the Year by the Academy of Urbanism. A profile of Rem Koolhaas in ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sun ...

The Guardian
'' begins "If you put the last 50 years of architecture in a blender, and spat it out in building-sized chunks across the skyline, you would probably end up with something that looked a bit like Rotterdam."


Geography

Rotterdam is divided into a northern and a southern part by the river Nieuwe Maas, connected by (from west to east): the Beneluxtunnel; the Maastunnel; the Erasmusbrug ('Erasmus Bridge'); a subway tunnel; the Willemsspoortunnel ('Willems railway tunnel'); the ('Willems Bridge') together with the Koninginnebrug ('Queen's Bridge'); and the
Van Brienenoordbrug in front. The bascule bridges A bascule bridge (also referred to as a drawbridge or a lifting bridge) is a moveable bridge with a counterweight that continuously balances a span (architecture), span, or leaf, throughout its upward swing to provid ...

Van Brienenoordbrug
('Van Brienenoord Bridge'). The former railway lift
bridge A bridge is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules t ...

bridge
De Hef ('the Lift') is preserved as a monument in lifted position between the ''Noordereiland'' ('North Island') and the south of Rotterdam. The city centre is located on the northern bank of the Nieuwe Maas, although recent urban development has extended the centre to parts of southern Rotterdam known as ''De Kop van Zuid'' ('the Head of South', i.e. the northern part of southern Rotterdam). From its inland core, Rotterdam reaches the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
by a swathe of predominantly harbour area. Built mostly behind dikes, large parts of the Rotterdam are below sea level. For instance, the Prins Alexander Polder in the northeast of Rotterdam extends below sea level, or rather below
Normaal Amsterdams Peil Amsterdam Ordnance Datum or ' (NAP) is a vertical datum A vertical datum, altimetric datum, or height datum is a reference surface for vertical positions, such as the elevations of Earth features including terrain, bathymetry, water level, and ma ...
(NAP) or 'Amsterdam Ordnance Datum'. The lowest point in the Netherlands ( below NAP) is situated just to the east of Rotterdam, in the municipality of
Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel Image:Nieuwerkerk 1867.png, 200px, Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel in 1867. Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel (; population: 22,344 in 2004) is a town and former municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. Since 2010 it is part o ...
. The Rotte river no longer joins the Nieuwe Maas directly. Since the early 1980s, when the construction of Rotterdam's second subway line interfered with the Rotte's course, its waters have been pumped through a pipe into the Nieuwe Maas via the Boerengat. Between the summers of 2003 and 2008, an artificial
beach A beach is a landform alongside a body of water which consists of loose particles. The particles composing a beach are typically made from Rock (geology), rock, such as sand, gravel, shingle beach, shingle, pebbles, etc., or biological so ...

beach
was created at the Boompjeskade along the Nieuwe Maas, between the Erasmus Bridge and the Willems Bridge.
Swimming Swimming is the self-propulsion of a person through water, or other liquid, usually for recreation, sport, exercise, or survival. Locomotion is achieved through coordinated movement of the limbs and the body to achieve hydrodynamic thrust whic ...
was not possible, digging pits was limited to the height of the layer of
sand Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided rock (geology), rock and mineral particles. Sand has various compositions but is defined by its grain size. Sand grains are smaller than gravel and coarser than silt. Sand can also refer ...

sand
, about . Alternatively, people go to the beach of
Hook of Holland A hook is a tool consisting of a length of material, typically metal, that contains a portion that is curved or indented, such that it can be used to grab onto, connect, or otherwise attach itself onto another object. In a number of uses, one en ...
(which is a Rotterdam district) or one of the beaches in
Zeeland , nl, Ik worstel en kom boven("I struggle and emerge") , anthem = "Zeeuws volkslied"("Zeelandic Anthem") , image_map = Zeeland in the Netherlands.svg , map_alt = , m ...

Zeeland
:
Renesse Renesse is a village in the Netherlands, Dutch province of Zeeland. It is a part of the municipality of Schouwen-Duiveland, and lies about 28 km west of Hellevoetsluis. Renesse is a popular tourist resort with zero-fare bus services in the ar ...
or the Zuid Hollandse Eilanden:
Ouddorp Ouddorp is a town in the Netherlands, Dutch province of South Holland. The statistical area ''Ouddorp'', also including the peripheral parts of the village and the surrounding countryside (including Visschershoek), has a population of approximately ...
,
Oostvoorne Oostvoorne is a town in the Netherlands, Dutch province of South Holland. It is a part of the municipality of Westvoorne, and lies about north of Hellevoetsluis. In 2001, the town of Oostvoorne had 5,403 inhabitants, the built-up area of the town ...

Oostvoorne
. Rotterdam forms the centre of the
Rijnmond Rijnmond () (literally ''Rhine Mouth, Mouth of the Rhine, Rhine Estuary'') is the conurbation surrounding the city of Rotterdam Rotterdam ( , , ) is the second largest and in the . It is in the of , at the mouth of the channel leading ...

Rijnmond
conurbation, bordering the conurbation surrounding
The Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd ed ...

The Hague
to the north-west. The two conurbations are close enough to be a single conurbation. They share the
Rotterdam The Hague Airport Rotterdam The Hague Airport (formerly ''Rotterdam Airport'', ''Vliegveld Zestienhoven'' in Dutch language, Dutch), is a minor international airport serving Rotterdam, the Netherlands' second largest city and The Hague, its administrative and roya ...
and a light rail system called
RandstadRail RandstadRail (RR) is the official name of a public transportation rapid transit network in the southern part of the Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area in the west of the Netherlands The Netherlands ( nl, Nederland ), informally referred ...
. Consideration is being given to creating an official Metropolitan region Rotterdam The Hague (''Metropoolregio Rotterdam Den Haag''), which would have a combined population approaching 2.5 million. On its turn, the Rijnmond conurbation is part of the southern wing (the
Zuidvleugel Zuidvleugel (, literally "south wing") is the band of cities and towns located along the southern wing of the Randstad The Randstad (; "Rim City") is a conurbation in the central-western Netherlands consisting primarily of the four largest Dutch ...
) of the
Randstad The Randstad (; "Rim City") is a conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center fo ...

Randstad
, which is one of the most important economic and densely populated areas in the north-west of Europe. Having a population of 7.1 million, the Randstad is the sixth-largest
urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as city, cities, towns, conurbat ...
in
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
(after Moscow, London, Paris, Istanbul, and the Rhein-Ruhr Area). The Zuidvleugel, situated in the province of
South Holland South Holland ( nl, Zuid-Holland ) is a Provinces of the Netherlands, province of the Netherlands with a population of over 3.7 million as of October 2021 and a population density of about , making it the country's most populous province and on ...
, has a population of around 3 million.


Climate

Rotterdam experiences a temperate
oceanic climate An oceanic climate, also known as a maritime climate or marine climate, is the Köppen classification of climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the deg ...
(
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climate science, climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by ...
''Cfb'') similar to all of the coastal areas in the Netherlands. Located near to the coast, its climate is slightly milder than locations further inland. Winters are cool with frequent cold days, while the summers are mild to warm, with occasional hot temperatures. Temperature rises above 30 °C on average 4 days each summer, while (night) temperatures can drop below -5 °C during winter for short periods of time, mostly during periods of sustained easterly (continental) winds. The following climate data is from the airport, which is slightly cooler than the city, being surrounded by water canals which make the climate milder and with a higher
relative humidity Humidity is the concentration of water vapour (99.9839 °C) , - , Boiling point , , - , specific gas constant , 461.5 J/( kg·K) , - , Heat of vaporization , 2.27 MJ/kg , - , Heat capacity , 1.864 kJ/(kg·K) Water vap ...

relative humidity
. The city has an
urban heat island An urban heat island (UHI) is an urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized ...

urban heat island
, especially inside the city centre.


Demographics

Rotterdam is diverse, with the demographics differing by neighbourhood. The city centre has a disproportionately high number of single people when compared to other cities, with 70% of the population between the ages of 20 and 40 identifying as single. Those with higher education and higher income live disproportionately in the city centre, as do foreign-born citizens. 54% of city centre residents are foreign-born, compared to 45% in other parts of the city, while in the city centre 70% of businesses are run by foreign-born people. Nonetheless, this is not a comment on income, as 80% of homes are rented in the city centre.


Composition

The
municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
of Rotterdam is part of the Rotterdam-The Hague Metropolitan Area which, as of 2015, covers an area of 1,130 km2, of which 990 km km2 is land, and has a population of approximately 2,563,197. As of 2019, the municipality itself occupies an area of 325.79 km2, 208.80 km2 of which is land, and is home to 638,751 inhabitants. Its population peaked at 731,564 in 1965, but the dual processes of
suburbanization pattern in the US Suburbanization is a population shift from central urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through ...
and counterurbanization saw this number steadily decline over the next 2 decades, reaching 560,000 by 1985. Although Rotterdam has experienced population growth since then, it has done so at a slower pace than comparable cities in the Netherlands, like Amsterdam, The Hague and Utrecht . Rotterdam consists of 14 submunicipalities: ,
Charlois Charlois () is a neighbourhood of the Netherlands, Dutch city of Rotterdam. It is located on the south bank of the Meuse River. Charlois used to be a separate village; the municipality Charlois existed until 1895, when it became part of Rotterda ...

Charlois
(including Heijplaat),
Delfshaven Delfshaven is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term var ...

Delfshaven
, Feijenoord,
Hillegersberg-Schiebroek Hillegersberg-Schiebroek is a borough in northern Rotterdam. The borough has (on January 1, 2008) 40,846 inhabitants. Until the annexation by Rotterdam on August 1, 1941, Hillegersberg and Schiebroek were independent communities. In 1947 in Rotter ...
,
Hook of Holland A hook is a tool consisting of a length of material, typically metal, that contains a portion that is curved or indented, such that it can be used to grab onto, connect, or otherwise attach itself onto another object. In a number of uses, one en ...
,
Hoogvliet Hoogvliet is a borough of Rotterdam, Netherlands. As of 1 January 2004, it had 36,619 inhabitants. There is also a national chain of Dutch supermarkets with the same name. History The village Hoogvliet was first mentioned on 26 May 1326 in the arc ...
, IJsselmonde,
Kralingen-Crooswijk Image:kralingsebos.jpg, 200px, Kralingse Bos Kralingen-Crooswijk () is a township of the city of Rotterdam, Netherlands. It is located at the immediate east of the city's centre. As of 2005 it has about 52,379 inhabitants and has a territory of abou ...
,
Noord Noord () is a town and region in Aruba (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands). This town is known for its low rise and high rise hotels, restaurants, beaches, malls, the California Lighthouse, and other places of attraction. Places of interest ...
,
Overschie Overschie is a neighborhood of Rotterdam Rotterdam (, , ) is the second largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''Th ...

Overschie
, Pernis, and
Prins Alexander 200px, Prins Alexander (light green) within Rotterdam (purple). Prins Alexander is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self- ...
(the most populous submunicipality with around 85,000 inhabitants). One other area,
Rozenburg Rozenburg () is a town and former municipality in the western Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES ...
, does have an official submunicipality status since 18 March 2010. The size of the municipality of Rotterdam is the result of the amalgamation of the following former municipalities, some of which now are a submunicipality: *
Delfshaven Delfshaven is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term var ...

Delfshaven
(added on 30 January 1886) *
Charlois Charlois () is a neighbourhood of the Netherlands, Dutch city of Rotterdam. It is located on the south bank of the Meuse River. Charlois used to be a separate village; the municipality Charlois existed until 1895, when it became part of Rotterda ...

Charlois
(added on 28 February 1895) *
Kralingen Kralingen is a former village in the Netherlands, Dutch province of South Holland, now a neighbourhood of Rotterdam. It is located about 3 kilometres east of the city centre, in the borough Kralingen-Crooswijk. File:Rotterdam-Kralingen, straatzicht ...
(added on 28 February 1895) *
Hoogvliet Hoogvliet is a borough of Rotterdam, Netherlands. As of 1 January 2004, it had 36,619 inhabitants. There is also a national chain of Dutch supermarkets with the same name. History The village Hoogvliet was first mentioned on 26 May 1326 in the arc ...
(added on 1 May 1934) * Pernis (added on 1 May 1934) *
Hillegersberg Hillegersberg is a neighbourhood of Rotterdam, Netherlands. Primarily a green residential area with lakes, canals and parks, it was incorporated into the city of Rotterdam in 1941. History Hillegersberg was named after Hildegard van Vlaandere ...

Hillegersberg
(added on 1 August 1941) * IJsselmonde (added on 1 August 1941) *
Overschie Overschie is a neighborhood of Rotterdam Rotterdam (, , ) is the second largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''Th ...

Overschie
(added on 1 August 1941) * Schiebroek (added on 1 August 1941) *
Rozenburg Rozenburg () is a town and former municipality in the western Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES ...
(added on 18 March 2010)


Ethnic makeup

In the Netherlands, Rotterdam has the highest percentage of foreigners from non-industrialised nations. They form a large part of Rotterdam's multi-ethnic and multicultural diversity. 52.9% of the population are of non-Dutch origins or have at least one parent born outside the country. There are 80,000 Muslims, constituting 13% of the population. The mayor of Rotterdam,
Ahmed Aboutaleb Ahmed Aboutaleb ( ber, ⴰⵃⵎⴻⴷ ⴰⴱⵓⵟⴰⵍⴻⴱ; ar, أحمد أبو طالب; born 29 August 1961) is a Moroccan-Dutch Moroccans in the Netherlands (also known as Dutch-Moroccans or Moroccan-Dutch) are immigrants from Morocco ...
, is of Moroccan descent and is a practicing Muslim (Mayors are not elected in the Netherlands). The city is home to the largest Dutch Antillean community. The city also has its own
China Town A Chinatown () is an ethnic enclave of Chinese people located outside mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau or Taiwan, most often in an urban setting. Areas known as "Chinatown" exist throughout the world, including Europe, North America, South Ameri ...

China Town
at the West-Kruiskade, close to Rotterdam Centraal.


Religion

Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
is the largest religion in Rotterdam, with 31.1% of the population identifying. The second and third largest religions are
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
(13.3%) and
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
(3.3%), while about half of the population has . Since 1795 Rotterdam has hosted the chief congregation of the liberal Protestant brotherhood of
Remonstrants The Remonstrants (or the Remonstrant Brotherhood) is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation ...
. From 1955 it has been the seat of the bishop of Rotterdam when the Rotterdam diocese was split from the Haarlem diocese. Since 2010 the city is home to the largest mosque in the Netherlands, the Essalam mosque, (capacity 1,500).


Politics

The municipal council counts 45 members. Biggest party is Livable Rotterdam. The municipal executive consists of mayor
Ahmed Aboutaleb Ahmed Aboutaleb ( ber, ⴰⵃⵎⴻⴷ ⴰⴱⵓⵟⴰⵍⴻⴱ; ar, أحمد أبو طالب; born 29 August 1961) is a Moroccan-Dutch Moroccans in the Netherlands (also known as Dutch-Moroccans or Moroccan-Dutch) are immigrants from Morocco ...
and ten elderman, belonging to seven parties (excluding Livable Rotterdam).


Economy

Rotterdam has always been one of the main centres of the shipping industry in the Netherlands. From the Rotterdam Chamber of the
VOC VOC, VoC or voc may refer to: Science and technology * Open-circuit voltage (VOC), the voltage between two terminals when there is no external load connected * Variant of concern, a category used during the assessment of a new variant of a virus * ...

VOC
, the world's first multinational, established in 1602, to the merchant shipping leader Royal
Nedlloyd Nedlloyd was a Netherlands, Dutch shipping company, formed in 1970 as the result of a merger of several shipping lines: *Stoomvaart Maatschappij Nederland (SMN) *Koninklijke Rotterdamsche Lloyd (KRL) *Koninklijke Java-China-Paketvaart-Lijnen (KJ ...

Nedlloyd
established in 1970, with its corporate headquarters located in the landmark building the 'Willemswerf' in 1988. In 1997, Nedlloyd merged with the British shipping industry leader P&O forming the third largest merchant shipping company in the world. The Anglo-Dutch
P&O Nedlloyd P&O Nedlloyd Container Line Limited was an Anglo-Dutch worldwide ocean-going Containerization, container shipping line, with dual headquarters in London and Rotterdam. The company was formed in 1997 by the merger of the container-shipping inter ...
was bought by the Danish giant corporation 'AP Moller
Maersk (), also known simply as Maersk (), is a Denmark, Danish Freight transport, shipping company, active in ocean and inland freight transportation and associated services, such as supply chain management and Port operator, port operation. Maersk ...
' in 2005 and its Dutch operations are still headquartered in the 'Willemswerf'. Nowadays, well-known companies with headquarters in Rotterdam are consumer goods company
Unilever Unilever PLC is a British multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a so ...

Unilever
, asset management firm
Robeco Robeco is an originally Dutch asset management Asset management refers to a systematic approach to the governance and realization of value from the things that a group or entity is responsible for, over their whole life cycles. It may apply both ...
, energy company Eneco, dredging company
Van Oord Royal Van Oord is a Dutch maritime contracting company that specializes in dredging Dredging is the excavation of material from a water environment. Possible reasons for dredging include improving existing water features; reshaping land and w ...
, oil company
Royal Dutch Shell Royal Dutch Shell plc (to be renamed Shell plc effective 24 January 2022), commonly known as Shell, is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overs ...
, terminal operator
Vopak Royal Royal may refer to: People * Royal (name)Royal can be a surname or a given name. Bearers include: Surname * Billy Joe Royal (1942–2015), American country music and pop singer * Calvin Royal III, American ballet dancer * Darrell Roy ...

Vopak
, commodity trading company
Vitol Vitol is a Dutch energy and commodity trading company that was founded in Rotterdam in 1966 by Henk Viëtor and Jacques Detiger. Though physical trading, logistics and distribution are at the core of the business, these are complemented by refinin ...
and architecture firm
Office for Metropolitan Architecture The Office for Metropolitan Architecture (OMA) is an international architectural firm In the United States, an architectural firm or architecture firm is a company that employs one or more licensed architect An architect is a person who pla ...
. It is also home to the regional headquarters of chemical company
LyondellBasell LyondellBasell Industries N.V. () is a Dutch-domiciled multinational chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that chemical substance cannot be ...
, commodities trading company
Glencore Glencore plc is an Anglo-Swiss Multinational corporation, multinational commodity trading and mining company with headquarters in Baar, Switzerland, Baar, Switzerland, its oil and gas head office in London and its registered office in Saint Hel ...

Glencore
, pharmaceutical company
Pfizer Pfizer Inc. ( ) is an American multinational pharmaceutical corporation. Pfizer is one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies, and was ranked 64th on the 2020 ''Fortune'' 500 list of the largest U.S. corporations by total revenue, ...

Pfizer
, logistics companies
Stolt-Nielsen Stolt-Nielsen Limited (SNL) provides transportation and storage for liquids, notably specialty and bulk liquid chemicals. It also has an aquaculture division that grows turbot and other fish and fish products. Founded in 1959, corporate services a ...
, electrical equipment company
ABB Group ABB Ltd (german: ABB AG, French, Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language * ...
and consumer goods company
Procter & Gamble The Procter & Gamble Company (P&G) is an American multinational consumer goods A final good or consumer good is a final product In Production (economics), production, a final product, or finished product is a product (business), product th ...
. Furthermore, Rotterdam has the Dutch headquarters of
Allianz Allianz SE ( ; ) is a German multinational financial services company headquartered in Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of ...

Allianz
,
Maersk (), also known simply as Maersk (), is a Denmark, Danish Freight transport, shipping company, active in ocean and inland freight transportation and associated services, such as supply chain management and Port operator, port operation. Maersk ...

Maersk
,
Petrobras Petróleo Brasileiro S.A., better known by the acronym Petrobras (), is a state-owned State ownership, also called government ownership and public ownership, is the ownership of an industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (e ...

Petrobras
, Samskip,
Louis Dreyfus Group Louis Dreyfus Company B.V. (LDC), also called the Louis-Dreyfus Group, is a global merchant firm that is involved in agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key devel ...
, Aon and MP Objects. The City of Rotterdam makes use of the services of semi-government companies Roteb and students of Rotterdam Business schoo
RBS
(to take care of
sanitation Sanitation refers to public health Public health has been defined as "the science and art of preventing disease", prolonging life and improving quality of life Quality of life (QOL) is defined by the World Health Organization The ...

sanitation
,
waste management Waste management (or waste disposal) includes the processes and actions required to manage waste Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or is worthles ...

waste management
and assorted services) and the Port of Rotterdam Authority (to maintain the
Port of Rotterdam The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port, seaport in Europe, and the world's largest seaport outside of East Asia, located in and near the city of Rotterdam, in the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. From 1962 until 2004, it was the ...

Port of Rotterdam
). Both these companies were once municipal bodies; now they are autonomous entities, owned by the city.Being the largest port and one of the largest cities of the country, Rotterdam attracts many people seeking jobs, especially in the cheap labour segment. The city's unemployment rate is 12%, almost twice the national average. Rotterdam is the largest
port A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes, the Canadian provinces of ...

port
in
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
, with the rivers
Maas Maas, MAAS or MaaS may refer to: People * Maas (surname)Maas is a Dutch language, Dutch and Low German, North German patronymic surname, from an archaic short form of Thomas (name), Thomas. It could also be a toponymic surname derived from the rive ...
and
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
providing excellent access to the
hinterland Hinterland is a German word meaning "the land behind" (a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclope ...

hinterland
upstream reaching to
Basel, Switzerland , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil (BL), Hégenheim (FR-68), Binningen (BL), Birsfelden (BL), Bottmingen (BL), Huningue Huningue (; ; Alsatian: Hinige) is a Communes of France, commune in ...

Basel, Switzerland
and into France. In 2004
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the sou ...

Shanghai
took over as the
world's busiest port The world's busiest ports are commonly ranked by cargo tonnage and by volume of container shipment measured in TEUs. Since the 2000s, the Port of Shanghai The Port of Shanghai (), located in the vicinity of Shanghai, comprises a deep-sea ...
. In 2006, Rotterdam was the world's seventh largest
container port in Singapore A container port or container terminal is a facility where Intermodal container, cargo containers are transshipped between different transport vehicles, for onward transportation. The transshipment may be between container ship ...

container port
in terms of
twenty-foot equivalent unit The twenty-foot equivalent unit (abbreviated TEU or teu) is an inexact unit of cargo capacity, often used for container ship A container ship (also called boxship or spelled containership) is a cargo ship 300px, The ''Colombo Express'', one ...
s (TEU) handled. The port's main activities are
petrochemical Petrochemicals (sometimes abbreviated as petchems) are the chemical products Products are the species formed from chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance ...
industries and general
cargo In economics, the word cargo refers in particular to goods or produce being conveyed—generally for Commerce, commercial gain—by water, air or land. "Freight" is the money paid to carry cargo. ''Cargo'' was originally a shipload. Cargo ...

cargo
handling and
transshipment Transshipment or transhipment is the shipment of Cargo, goods or Intermodal container, containers to an intermediate destination, then to another destination. One possible reason for transshipment is to change the means of transport during the ...
. The harbour functions as an important transit point for
bulk Bulk can refer to: Industry * Bulk cargo * Bulk liquids * Bulk mail * Bulk material handling * Bulk pack, packaged bulk materials/products * Bulk purchasing * Baking * Bulk fermentation, the period after mixing when dough is left alone to fermen ...
materials between the European continent and overseas. From Rotterdam, goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. In 2007, the ''
Betuweroute The Betuweroute is a double track A double-track railway usually involves running one track in each direction, compared to a single-track railway where trains in both directions share the same track. Overview In the earliest days of railw ...

Betuweroute
'', a new fast freight
railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wagons, bicycles, motor veh ...

railway
from Rotterdam to
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
, was completed. Well-known streets in Rotterdam are the
Lijnbaan The Lijnbaan is the main shopping street of Rotterdam Rotterdam (, , ) is the second largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., ...

Lijnbaan
(the first set of pedestrian streets of the country, opened in 1953), the Hoogstraat, the Coolsingel with the city hall, and the Weena, which runs from the Central Station to the Hofplein (square). A modern shopping venue is the Beurstraverse ("Stock Exchange Traverse"), better known by its informal name ' Koopgoot' ('Buying/Shopping Gutter', after its subterranean position), which crosses the Coolsingel below street level). The Kruiskade is a more upscale shopping street, with retailers like
Michael Kors Michael David Kors (born Karl Anderson Jr.; August 9, 1959) is an American fashion designer. He is the honorary chairman and chief creative officer of his brand, Michael Kors, which sells men's and women's ready-to-wear, accessories, watches, je ...
, 7 For All Mankind,
Calvin Klein Calvin Richard Klein (born November 19, 1942) is an American fashion designer who launched the company that would later become Calvin Klein (company), Calvin Klein Inc., in 1968. In addition to clothing, he also has given his name to a range of ...

Calvin Klein
,
Hugo Boss Hugo Boss AG, often styled as BOSS, is a German luxury Fashion design, fashion house headquartered in Metzingen, Baden-Württemberg. The company sells clothing, accessories, footwear and fragrances. Hugo Boss is one of the largest German clothin ...

Hugo Boss
,
Tommy Hilfiger Thomas Jacob Hilfiger ( /hɪlˈfɪgər/; born March 24, 1951) is an American fashion designer and founder of Tommy Hilfiger Corporation. After starting his career by co-founding a chain of jeans/fashion stores called People's Place in upstate ...

Tommy Hilfiger
and the Dutch well-known men's clothier Oger. Another upscale shopping venue is a flagship store of department store
De Bijenkorf De Bijenkorf (literally, "the beehive") is a chain of high-end department stores in the Netherlands, with its flagship store on Dam Square in Amsterdam. The chain is owned by the Weston family, which also owns United Kingdom, Britain's Selfridges, ...

De Bijenkorf
. Located a little more to the east is the Markthal, with lots of small retailers inside. This hall is also one of Rotterdam's famous architectural landmarks. The main shopping venue in the south of Rotterdam is Zuidplein, which lies close to
Rotterdam Ahoy Rotterdam Ahoy (also known as Ahoy Rotterdam or simply as Ahoy) is a convention centre and multi-purpose indoor arena An arena is a large enclosed platform, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theatre, musical perform ...
, an accommodation centre for shows, exhibitions, sporting events, concerts and congresses. Another prominent shopping centre called Alexandrium lies in the east of Rotterdam. It includes a large kitchen and furniture centre.


Education

Rotterdam has one major university, the
Erasmus University Rotterdam Erasmus University Rotterdam (abbreviated as ''EUR'', nl, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam ) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an orga ...
(EUR), named after one of the city's famous former inhabitants,
Desiderius Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (; English: Erasmus of Rotterdam;''Erasmus'' was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae. ''Desiderius'' was a self-adopted additional name, which he used from 1496. The ''Roterodamus'' was a schol ...
. The Woudestein campus houses (among others) Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University. In
Financial Times The ''Financial Times'' (''FT'') is a daily newspaper printed in broadsheet and published digitally that focuses on business and economic Current affairs (news format), current affairs. Based in London, England, the paper is owned by a Japanese ...
' 2005 rankings it placed 29th globally and 7th in Europe. In the 2009 rankings of Masters of Management, the school reached first place with the CEMS Master in Management and the tenth place with its RSM Master in Management. The university is also home to Europe's largest student association, STAR Study Association Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the world's largest student association,
AIESEC AIESEC is an international youth-run, non-governmental A non-governmental organization, or simply an NGO, is an organization that is, generally, formed independent from government. They are typically nonprofit organization, nonprofit entit ...

AIESEC
, has its international office in the city. The Willem de Kooning Academy Rotterdam's main art school, which is part of the Hogeschool Rotterdam. It is regarded as one of the most prestigious art schools in the Netherlands and the number 1 in Advertising and Copywriting. Part of the Willem de Kooning Academy is the Piet Zwart Institute for postgraduate studies and research in Fine Art, Media Design and Retail Design. The Piet Zwart Institute boasts a selective roster of emerging international artists. The Hoboken campus of EUR houses the Dijkzigt (general) hospital, the Sophia Hospital (for children), Daniel den Hoed clinic (cancer institute) and the medical department of the University. They are known collectively as the . This center is ranked third in Europe by CSIC as a hospital, and is also ranked within top 50 universities of the world in the field of medicine (clinical, pre-clinical & health, 2017). Three '' Hogescholen'' (Universities of applied sciences) exist in Rotterdam. These schools award their students a professional
Bachelor's degree A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...
and postgraduate or
Master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of Profession, professio ...
. The three ''Hogescholen'' are Hogeschool Rotterdam, Hogeschool Inholland and Hogeschool voor Muziek en Dans (uni for music and dance) which is also known as CodArts. As there are many international and American schools scattered across Europe such as ASH (American International School of the Hague) Rotterdam also has its own international school by the name NAISR ( Nord Anglia International School Rotterdam). At NAISR children receive a multicultural education in a culturally diverse community and it offers the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme. Unique to the city is the Shipping & Transport College which offers masters, bachelors and vocational diplomas on all levels.


Culture

Alongside
Porto Porto or Oporto () is the List of cities in Portugal, second-largest city in Portugal, the capital of the Porto District, and one of the Iberian Peninsula's major urban areas. Porto city proper, which is the entire concelho, municipality of Porto ...

Porto
, Rotterdam was
European Capital of Culture A European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as p ...

European Capital of Culture
in 2001. The city has its own orchestra, the
Rotterdam PhilharmonicThe Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra (RPhO; nl, Rotterdams Philharmonisch Orkest) is a Netherlands, Dutch symphony orchestra based in Rotterdam. Its primary venue is the concert hall De Doelen. The RPhO is considered one of the Netherlands' two pr ...
, with its well-regarded young music director
Yannick Nézet-Séguin Yannick Nézet-Séguin, Companion of the Order of Canada, CC (; born Yannick Séguin;David Patrick Stearns, "Nezet-Seguin signs Philadelphia Orchestra contract". ''The Philadelphia Inquirer'', 19 June 2010. 6 March 1975) is a Canadian (French-spea ...

Yannick Nézet-Séguin
which plays at a large congress and concert building called ''
De Doelen image:Rotterdam Doelen.jpg, 270px, De Doelen De Doelen is a concert venue and convention centre in Rotterdam, Netherlands. It was originally built in 1934 but then destroyed in 1940 during Rotterdam Blitz, the German bombardment of Rotterdam in M ...
''. There are several theatres and cinemas, including
Cinerama Cinerama is a widescreen process that originally projected images simultaneously from three synchronized 35 mm movie film, 35mm projectors onto a huge, deeply curved screen, subtending 146° of arc. The trademarked process was marketed by the C ...
. The
Ahoy Ahoy or Ahoj may refer to: * Ahoy (greeting) * ''Ahoy!'', a magazine * Ahoy Rotterdam, an indoor sports arena in Rotterdam, Netherlands * Australian Humanist of the Year, an award *Chips Ahoy!, a brand of cookie See also

* Ahoi Ashtami * Ahoj, ...
complex in the south of the city is used for pop concerts, exhibitions, tennis tournaments and other activities. A major
zoo A zoo (short for zoological garden; also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () i ...

zoo
called
Diergaarde Blijdorp ( ''Blijdorp Zoo''), officially Rotterdam Zoo, is a zoo located in the northwestern part of Rotterdam Rotterdam (, , ) is the second largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geogra ...
is situated on the northwest side of Rotterdam, complete with a walkthrough sea aquarium called the
Oceanium The Oceanium is a public aquarium that opened in 2001 in Diergaarde Blijdorp, a zoo in Rotterdam, Netherlands. The Oceanium lies in the expansion area of the zoo, which includes a new entrance and parking area, and was the biggest project to date ...
. Rotterdam features some urban architecture projects, nightlife, and many summer festivals celebrating the city's multicultural population and identity, such as the Caribbean-inspired " Summer Carnival", the Dance Parade, Rotterdam 666, the Metropolis pop festival and the World Port days. In the years 2005–2011 the city struggled with venues for pop music. Many of the venues suffered severe financial problems. This resulted in the disappearance of the major music venues Nighttown and WATT and smaller stages such as Waterfront, Exit, and Heidegger. The city has a few venues for
pop music Pop is a genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed by people with little or no musical tra ...
like , and Annabel. The venue
WORM Worms are many different distantly related bilateral animals that typically have a long cylindrical tube-like body, no limb Limb can refer to: *Limb (anatomy), an appendage of a human or animal *Limb Music, a record label *Limb (album), an ...
focuses on
experimental music Experimental music is a general label for any music that pushes existing boundaries and genre definitions. Experimental compositional practice is defined broadly by exploratory sensibilities radically opposed to, and questioning of, institutionali ...
and related subcultural music. There are also the
International Film Festival A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, b ...
in January, the Poetry International Festival in June, the
North Sea Jazz Festival The North Sea Jazz Festival is an annual List of jazz festivals, festival held each second weekend of July in the Netherlands at the Rotterdam Ahoy, Ahoy venue. It used to be in The Hague but since 2006 it has been held in Rotterdam. This is becau ...
in July, the Valery Gergiev Festival in September, September in Rotterdam and the World of the Witte de With. In June 1970, The Holland Pop Festival (which featured
Jefferson Airplane Jefferson Airplane was an American Rock music, rock band based in San Francisco, California, that became one of the pioneering bands of psychedelic rock. Formed in 1965, the group defined the San Francisco Sound and was the first from the Bay Ar ...

Jefferson Airplane
,
The Byrds The Byrds () were an American rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compou ...
,
Canned Heat Canned Heat is an American blues and Rock music, rock band that was formed in Los Angeles in 1965. The group has been noted for its efforts to promote interest in blues music and its original artists. It was launched by two blues enthusiasts Al ...
,
It's a Beautiful Day It's a Beautiful Day is an American band formed in San Francisco, California, in 1967, featuring vocalist Pattie Santos along with violinist David LaFlamme and his wife, Linda LaFlamme, on keyboards. David LaFlamme, who as a youth had once pe ...
, and Santana) was held and filmed at the Stamping Grounds in Rotterdam. There is a healthy competition with
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...

Amsterdam
, which is often viewed as the cultural capital of the Netherlands. This rivalry is most common amongst the city's football supporters,
Feyenoord Feyenoord Rotterdam () is a Dutch professional association football, football club in Rotterdam, which plays in the Eredivisie, the top tier in Dutch football. Founded as Wilhelmina in 1908, the club changed to various names before settling on b ...
(Rotterdam) and
Ajax Ajax (also AJAX ; short for "Asynchronous JavaScript JavaScript (), often abbreviated JS, is a programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set architecture, set of instructions that produ ...
(Amsterdam). There is a saying: "Amsterdam to party, Den Haag (The Hague) to live, Rotterdam to work". Another one, more popular by Rotterdammers, is "Money is earned in Rotterdam, distributed in The Hague and spent in Amsterdam". Another saying that reflects both the rivalry between Rotterdam and Amsterdam is "Amsterdam has it, Rotterdam doesn't need it". Bright magazine editor Erwin van der Zande notes that this phrase is on T-shirts in Rotterdam. In terms of alternative culture, Rotterdam had from the 1960s until the 2000s a thriving which as well as housing thousands of people, occupied venues, social centres and so on. From this movement came clubs like Boogjes, Eksit, Nighttown, Vlerk and Waterfront. The was squatted in the 1980s and quickly legalised. Rotterdam is also the home of
Gabber Gabber (; ) is a style of Rave A rave (from the verb: ''wikt:rave#English, to rave'') describes a dance party at a warehouse, club, or other public or private venue, typically featuring performances by Disc jockeys, DJs playing electronic ...
, a type of hardcore electronic music popular in the mid-1990s, with hard beats and samples. Groups like
Neophyte A neophyte is a recent Initiation, initiate or Religious conversion, convert to a subject or belief. Neophyte may also refer to: Science * Neophyte (botany), a plant species recently introduced to an area As a proper noun Arts and entertainmen ...
and Rotterdam Terror Corps (RTC) started in Rotterdam, playing at clubs like Parkzicht. The main cultural organisations in Amsterdam, such as the
Concertgebouw The Royal Concertgebouw ( nl, Koninklijk Concertgebouw, ) is a concert hall in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The Dutch term "concertgebouw" translates into English as "concert building". Its superb Architectural acoustics, acoustics place it among the ...

Concertgebouw
and
Holland Festival The Holland Festival () is the oldest and largest performing arts festival in the Netherlands The Netherlands ( nl, Nederland ), informally referred to as Holland, is a country primarily located in Western Europe and partly in the Dutch Caribb ...
, have joint forces with similar organisations in Rotterdam, via A'R'dam. In 2007 these organisations published with plans for co-operation. One of the goals is to strengthen the international position of culture and art in the Netherlands in the international context. On 30 August 2019, it was announced by the
European Broadcasting Union The European Broadcasting Union (EBU; french: Union européenne de radio-télévision, UER) is an alliance of public service media organisations, established on 12 February 1950. The organisation is made up of 115 member organisations in 56 c ...
and Dutch television broadcasters
AVROTROS AVROTROS () is a Dutch radio and television broadcaster that is part of the Dutch public broadcasting system The Dutch public broadcasting system ( nl, Nederlands publieke omroepbestel) is a set of organizations that together take care of public ...

AVROTROS
, NOS & NPO, that Rotterdam would host the
Eurovision Song Contest 2020 The Eurovision Song Contest 2020 was planned to be the 65th edition of the Eurovision Song Contest. The contest would have taken place in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, following the country's victory at the with the song "Arcade (song), Arcade" ...
, following the Dutch victory at the contest in
Tel Aviv Tel Aviv-Yafo ( he, תֵּל־אָבִיב-יָפוֹ, ''Tel Aviv-Yafo'' ; ar, تَلّ أَبِيب - يَافَا, ''Tall ʾAbīb-Yāfā''), often referred to as just Tel Aviv, is the most populous city in the metropolitan area of . Locate ...

Tel Aviv
,
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
with the song "
Arcade Arcade most often refers to: * Arcade (architecture) An arcade is a succession of contiguous arch An arch is a vertical curved structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or syst ...
", performed by
Duncan Laurence Duncan de Moor (; born 11 April 1994), known professionally as Duncan Laurence, is a Dutch singer-songwriter. He began his music career in 2014 and became a semi-finalist in the fifth season of ''The Voice of Holland ''The Voice of Holland' ...

Duncan Laurence
. However, due to the
COVID-19 pandemic in Europe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease has since spread worldwid ...
, the 2020 contest was cancelled, and Rotterdam was later retained as host of the contest. The contest took place at the
Rotterdam Ahoy Rotterdam Ahoy (also known as Ahoy Rotterdam or simply as Ahoy) is a convention centre and multi-purpose indoor arena An arena is a large enclosed platform, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theatre, musical perform ...
, with the semi-finals taking place on 18 and 20 May 2021, and the final taking place on 22 May 2021. This was the first time that Rotterdam has hosted the contest, and the first time that the Netherlands hosted the contest since , when it was held in
The Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd ed ...

The Hague
.


Museums

Rotterdam has many museums. Well known
museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that cares for and displays a collection Collection or Collections may refer to: * Cash collection, the function of an accounts receivable department * Collec ...

museum
s are the
Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen () is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own Collection (artwork), collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to ...

Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
, the
Netherlands Architecture Institute .'' Image:Rotterdam - gebouw Nederlands Architectuurinstituut.jpg, ''NAI Rotterdam. On the left the archives, on the right the office building. The Netherlands Architecture Institute (NAI) was a cultural institute for architecture and urban devel ...
, the , the
Kunsthal The Kunsthal ( en, Art Hall) is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own Collection (artwork), collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all ...

Kunsthal
, Witte de With Center for Contemporary Art and the
Maritime Museum Rotterdam The Maritime Museum Rotterdam is a maritime museum in Rotterdam Rotterdam (, , ) is the second largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kup ...

Maritime Museum Rotterdam
. The Historical Museum Rotterdam has changed into Museum Rotterdam which aims to exhibit Rotterdam as a contemporary transnational city, and not a past city. Other museums include the tax & customs museum and the
natural history museum A natural history museum or museum of natural history is a scientific institution with natural history scientific collection, collections that include current and historical records of animals, plants, Fungus, fungi, ecosystems, geology, paleo ...
. At the historical shipyard and museum Scheepswerf 'De Delft', the reconstruction of
ship of the line A ship of the line was a type of naval warship A warship or combatant ship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare. Usually they belong to the armed forces of a state. As well as being armed, warships are des ...
''
Delft Delft () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. ...
'' can be visited.


Architecture

Rotterdam has become world famous because of its modern and groundbreaking architecture. Throughout the years the city has been nicknamed ''
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
at the Meuse'' and ''The architectural capital of the Netherlands'' both for its skyline and because it is home to internationally leading architectural firms involved in the design of famous buildings and bridges in other big cities. Examples include OMA (
Rem Koolhaas Remment Lucas Koolhaas (; born 17 November 1944) is a Dutch architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design o ...

Rem Koolhaas
), Neutelings & Riedijk and
Erick van Egeraat Erick van Egeraat (; born 1956) is a Dutch architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the sp ...
. It has the reputation in being a platform for architectural development and education through the NAi (
Netherlands Architecture Institute .'' Image:Rotterdam - gebouw Nederlands Architectuurinstituut.jpg, ''NAI Rotterdam. On the left the archives, on the right the office building. The Netherlands Architecture Institute (NAI) was a cultural institute for architecture and urban devel ...
), which is open to the public and has a variety of exhibitions on architecture and urban planning issues and prior the
Berlage InstituteThe Berlage Institute was an independent unaccredited postgraduate school of architecture in Amsterdam and Rotterdam, Netherlands, the Netherlands, that operated in 1990-2012. Named after the Dutch architect Hendrik Petrus Berlage, the Berlage Instit ...
, a postgraduate laboratory of architecture. The city has 38 skyscrapers and 352 high-rises and has many skyscrapers planned or under construction. The top 5 of highest buildings in the Netherlands consists entirely of buildings in Rotterdam. It is home to the tallest building in the Netherlands, the with a height of 165 meters. In 2021, the Zalmhaven Tower will be completed with a height of 215 meters, which will become the new tallest building in the Netherlands.


History

In 1898, the high-rise office building the White House (in Dutch ) was completed, at that time the tallest office building in Europe. In the first decades of the 20th century, some influential architecture in the modern style was built in Rotterdam. Notable are the Van Nelle fabriek (1929) a monument of modern factory design by , the
Jugendstil Jugendstil ("Youth Style") was an artistic movement, particularly in the decorative arts ] The decorative arts are arts or crafts whose object is the design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or ...
clubhouse of the Royal Maas Yacht Club designed by Hooijkaas jr. en Brinkman (1909), and
Feyenoord Feyenoord Rotterdam () is a Dutch professional association football, football club in Rotterdam, which plays in the Eredivisie, the top tier in Dutch football. Founded as Wilhelmina in 1908, the club changed to various names before settling on b ...
's football stadium
De Kuip Stadion Feijenoord (), more commonly known by its nickname De Kuip (, the Tub), is a stadium in Rotterdam, Netherlands. It was completed in 1937. The name is derived from the Feijenoord district in Rotterdam, and from Feyenoord, the club with t ...
(1936) also by . The architect J. J. P. Oud was a famous Rotterdammer in those days. The Van Nelle Factory obtained the status of UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2014. During the early stages of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
the centre of Rotterdam was bombed by the German
Luftwaffe The ''Luftwaffe'' () was the aerial-warfare branch of the German ''Wehrmacht The ''Wehrmacht'' (, ) was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the German Army (1935–1945), ''Heer'' (army), th ...
, destroying many of the older buildings in the centre of the city. After an initial crisis re-construction, the centre of Rotterdam has become the site of the ambitious new architecture. Rotterdam is also famous for its Lijnbaan 1952 by architects Broek en Bakema, Peperklip by architect Carel Weeber, Kubuswoningen or
cube house Cube houses ( nl, kubuswoningen) are a set of innovative houses built in Rotterdam Rotterdam (, , ) is the second largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pengu ...
s designed by architect Piet Blom 1984. The newest landmark in Rotterdam is the Markthal, designed by architect firm
MVRDV MVRDV is a Rotterdam Rotterdam ( , , ) is the second largest and in the . It is in the of , at the mouth of the channel leading into the at the . Its history goes back to 1270, when a was constructed in the . In 1340, Rotterdam wa ...
. In addition to that, there are many international well-known architects based in Rotterdam like O.M.A (
Rem Koolhaas Remment Lucas Koolhaas (; born 17 November 1944) is a Dutch architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design o ...

Rem Koolhaas
), Neutelings & Riedijk and
Erick van Egeraat Erick van Egeraat (; born 1956) is a Dutch architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the sp ...
to name a few. Two architectural landmarks are located in the Lloydkwartier: the STC college building and the Schiecentrale 4b. Rotterdam also houses several of the tallest structures in the Netherlands. * The
Erasmusbrug ''Erasmusbrug'' (English: "Erasmus Bridge") is a combined cable-stayed and bascule bridge A bascule bridge (also referred to as a drawbridge or a lifting bridge) is a moveable bridge with a counterweight that continuously balances a span, or l ...

Erasmusbrug
(1996) is a 790-meter (2,600 ft) cable-stayed bridge linking the north and south of Rotterdam. It is held up by a tall pylon with a characteristic bend, earning the bridge its nickname 'De Zwaan' ('the Swan'). * Rotterdam has the tallest residential building in the Netherlands: the New Orleans Tower (). * Rotterdam is also home to the tallest office building '' () which houses
Deloitte Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited (), commonly referred to as Deloitte, is a multinational corporation, multinational professional services network with offices in over 150 countries and territories around the world. Deloitte is one of the Big ...

Deloitte
. This office tower surpassed the 'Delftse Poort' () which houses Nationale-Nederlanden insurance company, part of
ING Group The ING Group ( nl, ING Groep) is a Dutch multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinat ...
as tallest office tower in 2009. * The skyline of Rotterdam also houses the tall
Euromast Euromast is an observation tower in Rotterdam, Netherlands, designed by Hugh Maaskant constructed between 1958 and 1960. It was specially built for the 1960 Floriade, Netherlands, Floriade, and is a listed monument since 2010. The tower is a concre ...

Euromast
, which is a major
tourist at the archaeological site of Chichén Itza. in Vienna. Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring (disambiguation), touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and th ...

tourist
attraction. It was built in 1960, initially reaching a height of ; in 1970, the Euromast was extended by . Rotterdam has a reputation in being a platform for architectural development and education through the Berlage Institute, a postgraduate laboratory of architecture, and the NAi (
Netherlands Architecture Institute .'' Image:Rotterdam - gebouw Nederlands Architectuurinstituut.jpg, ''NAI Rotterdam. On the left the archives, on the right the office building. The Netherlands Architecture Institute (NAI) was a cultural institute for architecture and urban devel ...
), which is open to the public and has a variety of exhibitions on architecture and urban planning issues. Over 30 new highrise projects are being developed. A Guardian journalist wrote in 2013 that "All this is the consequence of the city suffering a bombardment of two things: bombs and architects." Highrise buildings that are being built: * Zalmhaventoren, with a height of the highest building in the Netherlands when completed. The tower is expected to be completed in 2021.


Sports

Rotterdam calls itself ''Sportstad'' (City of Sports). The city annually organises several world-renowned sporting events. Some examples are the
Rotterdam Marathon The Rotterdam Marathon, currently branded Nationale-Nederlanden, NN Rotterdam Marathon, is an annual marathon that has been held in Rotterdam, Netherlands since 1981. It has been held in April every year since the third edition in 1984 and attracts ...
, the
World Port Tournament The World Port Tournament is an international baseball tournament held at the ''Neptunus Familiestadion'' in Rotterdam, Netherlands. The tournament has been held every other year ( excluded) in odd-numbered years since , alternating with the Haa ...
, and the Rotterdam World Tennis Tournament. Rotterdam also organises one race of the Red Bull Air Race World Championship and the car racing event Monaco aan de Maas (Monaco at the Meuse). The city is also the home of many sports clubs and some historic and iconic athletes.


Football

Rotterdam is the home of three professional Association football, football clubs, being Eredivisie, first tier clubs
Feyenoord Feyenoord Rotterdam () is a Dutch professional association football, football club in Rotterdam, which plays in the Eredivisie, the top tier in Dutch football. Founded as Wilhelmina in 1908, the club changed to various names before settling on b ...
and Sparta Rotterdam, Sparta and Eerste Divisie, second tier club SBV Excelsior, Excelsior. Feyenoord, founded in 1908 and the dominant of the three professional clubs, has won fifteen national titles since the introduction of professional football in the Netherlands. It won the UEFA Champions League, Champions league as the first Dutch club in 1970 and won the World Cup for club teams in the same year. In 1974, they were the first Dutch club to win the UEFA Europa League, UEFA Cup and in 2002, Feyenoord won the UEFA Cup again. In 2008, the year of their 100-year-anniversary, Feyenoord won the KNVB-cup. Seating 51,480, its 1937 stadium, called ''Stadion Feijenoord'' but popularly known as
De Kuip Stadion Feijenoord (), more commonly known by its nickname De Kuip (, the Tub), is a stadium in Rotterdam, Netherlands. It was completed in 1937. The name is derived from the Feijenoord district in Rotterdam, and from Feyenoord, the club with t ...
('the Tub'), is the second-largest in the country, after the Amsterdam Arena. De Kuip, located in the southeast of the city, has hosted many international football games, including the final of UEFA Euro 2000, Euro 2000 and has been awarded a FIFA 5 star ranking. There are concrete plans to build a new stadium with a capacity of at least 63,000 seats. Sparta, founded in 1888 and situated in the northwest of Rotterdam, won the national title six times; Excelsior (founded 1902), in the northeast, has never won any. Rotterdam also has three Hoofdklasse, fourth tier clubs, SC Feijenoord (Feyenoord Amateurs), PVV DOTO and TOGR. Rotterdam is and has been the home to many great football players and coaches, among whom:


Marathon

Rotterdam has its own annual international Rotterdam Marathon, marathon, which offers one of the fastest courses in the world. From 1985 until 1998, the Marathon world record progression, world record was set in Rotterdam, first by Carlos Lopes and later in 1988 by Belayneh Densamo. In 1998, the world record for women was set by Tegla Loroupe, in a time of 2:20.47. Loroupe won the Rotterdam Marathon three consecutive times, from 1997 to 1999. The track record for men is held by Duncan Kibet, who ran a time of 2:04.27 in 2009. The female record was set in 2012 when Tiki Gelana finished the race in 2:18.58. Gelana went on to become the 2012 Olympic champion in London, a few months later. The marathon starts and ends on the ''Coolsingel'' in the heart of Rotterdam. It attracts a total of 900.000 visitors.


Tennis

Since 1972, Rotterdam hosts the indoor hard court Rotterdam Open, ABN AMRO World Tennis Tournament, part of the Association of Tennis Professionals, ATP Tour. The event was first organised in 1972 when it was won by Arthur Ashe. Ashe went on to win the tournament two more times, making him the singles title record holder. Former The Championships, Wimbledon, Wimbledon winner Richard Krajicek became the tournament director after his retirement in 2000. The latest edition of the tournament attracted a total of 116.354 visitors.


Tour de France

In November 2008 Rotterdam was chosen as the host of the Grand Départ of the 2010 Tour de France. Rotterdam won the selection over the Dutch city of Utrecht. Germany's Düsseldorf had previously also expressed interest in hosting. The Amaury Sport Organization (ASO), the organizer of the Tour de France, said in a statement on its web site that it chose Rotterdam because, in addition to it being another big city, like London, to showcase the use of bikes for urban transportation, it provided a location well-positioned considering the rest of the route envisioned for the 2010 event. The start in Rotterdam was the fifth in the Netherlands. The prologue was a individual time trial crossing the centre of the city. The first regular stage left the
Erasmusbrug ''Erasmusbrug'' (English: "Erasmus Bridge") is a combined cable-stayed and bascule bridge A bascule bridge (also referred to as a drawbridge or a lifting bridge) is a moveable bridge with a counterweight that continuously balances a span, or l ...

Erasmusbrug
and went south, towards Brussels. The second stage of 2015 Tour de France, 2015 edition took the riders through Rotterdam on their way to Neeltje Jans in Zeeland.


Rowing

Members of the student rowing club Skadi (rowing club), Skadi were part of the 'Holland Acht', winning a gold medal at the Rowing at the Summer Olympics, Olympics in 1996 Summer Olympics, 1996. Since the opening in April 2013, Rotterdam hosts the rowing venue Willem-Alexander Baan that hosted the 2016 World Rowing Championships for Seniors, U23 and Juniors.


Field hockey

In field hockey, Rotterdam has the largest hockey club in the Netherlands, HC Rotterdam, with its own stadium in the north of the city and nearly 2,400 members. The first men's and women's teams both play on the highest level in the Dutch ''Hoofdklasse''.


Baseball

Rotterdam is home to the most successful European baseball team, DOOR Neptunus, Neptunus Rotterdam, winning the most European Cup (baseball), European Cups.


Boxing

Rotterdam has a long boxing tradition starting with Bep van Klaveren (1907–1992), aka 'The Dutch Windmill', Gold medal winner of the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics, followed by professional boxers like Regilio Tuur and Don Diego Poeder.


Swimming

Rotterdam's swimming tradition started with Marie Braun aka Zus (sister) Braun, who was coached to a gold medal at the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics by her mother Ma Braun, and 3 European titles 3 years later in Paris. In her career as 14-time national champ, she broke 6 world records. Ma Braun later also coached the Rotterdam-born, three-times Olympic champion Rie Mastenbroek during the Berlin Olympics in 1936. In later years Inge de Bruijn became a Rotterdam sports icon as triple Olympic Gold medal winner in 2000 and triple European Gold medal winner in 2001.


Sailing

Olympic Gold medalist, in the O-Jolle during sailing at the 1936 Summer Olympics, 1936 Olympics, Daan Kagchelland was born in Rotterdam and member of the :nl:Rotterdamsche Zeil Vereeniging, Rotterdamsche Zeil Vereeniging. The Kralingse plas was and is still a source of Olympic sailors like Koos de Jong, Ben Verhagen, Henny Vegter, Serge Kats and Margriet Matthijsse.


Motorcycle racing

Motorcycle speedway was staged in the Feyenoord Stadium after the second world war. The team which raced in a Dutch league was known as the Feyenoord Tigers. The team included Dutch riders and some English and Australian riders.


Sportsmen of the year election

Since 1986, the city has selected its best sportsman, woman and team at the Rotterdam Sportsman of the year, Rotterdam Sports Awards Election, held in December.


Other famous Rotterdam athletes

*Mia Audina, a retired Indonesia-born badminton player, living in Rotterdam. *Nelli Cooman, a Surinamese-born retired athlete who held the 60 metres, 60 m dash world record, and was the world and European champion in that event. *Robert Doornbos, a Rotterdam-born race car driver, who competed in the Formula One. *Robert Eenhoorn, a Rotterdam-born retired MLB shortstop, who competed for the New York Yankees, the Anaheim Angels and the New York Mets. *Dex Elmont, a Rotterdam-born judoka, who finished second in the European championships in 2009 in the division. *Guillaume Elmont, a Rotterdam-born judoka, who became world champion in 2005 in the division. *Francisco Elson, a Rotterdam-born basketball player who played in the NBA, won the NBA finals in 2007 with the San Antonio Spurs. *Ignisious Gaisah, a Ghanaian-born long jumper with a personal best of , residing in Rotterdam since 2001. Gaisah is a multiple medal winner in several international events, both as a citizen of Ghana and the Netherlands. *Francis Hoenselaar, a Rotterdam-born female darts player, generally recognised as the best Dutch female darts player ever. *Robert Lathouwers, an athlete born in a Rotterdam suburb, specialised in the 800 m. Lathouwers gained international notoriety when he got disqualified after shoving Irish athlete David McCarthy (born 1983), David McCarthy in the 2010 European Championships. *Fatima Moreira de Melo, a Rotterdam-born, three-times Olympic champion in field hockey. Moreira de Melo is a professional poker player. *Piet Roozenburg, a Rotterdam-born draughts player, who was the world champion from 1948 to 1956 and the 8-time Dutch champion. *Betty Stöve, a Rotterdam-born retired female tennis double specialist and 10-time Grand Slam winner. *Ingmar Vos, a Rotterdam-born decathlete, with a personal best of 8224 points.


Yearly events

Rotterdam hosts several annual events unique to the city. It hosts the ''Zomercarnaval'' (Summer carnaval), the second-largest Caribbean carnival in Europe, originally called the Antillean carnival. Other events include: ''North Sea Jazz Festival'', the largest Jazz festival in Europe, and a three-day long maritime extravaganza called the ''World Port Days'' celebrating the Port of Rotterdam. * January: "Zesdaagse van Rotterdam" "(six-day track-cycling race) – Rotterdam Ahoy * January: International Film Festival Rotterdam * February: **Rotterdam Open ABN AMRO ATP 500 Tennis Tournament – Rotterdam Ahoy ** Art Rotterdam - international art fair at Van Nellefabriek * April–June: **
Rotterdam Marathon The Rotterdam Marathon, currently branded Nationale-Nederlanden, NN Rotterdam Marathon, is an annual marathon that has been held in Rotterdam, Netherlands since 1981. It has been held in April every year since the third edition in 1984 and attracts ...
**Koningsdag Festival (27 April) ** CHIO Rotterdam ** Roparun * July: **
North Sea Jazz Festival The North Sea Jazz Festival is an annual List of jazz festivals, festival held each second weekend of July in the Netherlands at the Rotterdam Ahoy, Ahoy venue. It used to be in The Hague but since 2006 it has been held in Rotterdam. This is becau ...
(second weekend of July) ** Summer Carnival * August: **Pleinbioscoop **Dag van de Romantische Muziek (Romantic music festival) * September: ** The World Port Days * November/December (Last weekend before 5 December (Sinterklaas)) **Boterletterwedstrijden (Sailing regatta for International classes)


Transportation

Rotterdam offers connections by international, national, regional and local public transport systems, as well as by the Dutch motorway network. Motorways
There are several motorways to/from Rotterdam. The following four are part of its 'Ring' (ring road): *A20 motorway (Netherlands), A20 (Ring North):
Hook of Holland A hook is a tool consisting of a length of material, typically metal, that contains a portion that is curved or indented, such that it can be used to grab onto, connect, or otherwise attach itself onto another object. In a number of uses, one en ...
– ''Rotterdam'' – Gouda, South Holland, Gouda *A16 motorway (Netherlands), A16 (Ring East): ''Rotterdam'' – Breda (- Antwerp – Paris) *A15 motorway (Netherlands), A15 (Ring South): Europoort – ''Rotterdam'' – Nijmegen *A4 motorway (Netherlands), A4 (Ring West). ''Rotterdam'' -
The Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd ed ...

The Hague
(-
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...

Amsterdam
) The following two other motorways also serve Rotterdam: *A13 motorway (Netherlands), A13, (
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...

Amsterdam
-)
The Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd ed ...

The Hague
– Delft – ''Rotterdam'' *A29 motorway (Netherlands), A29, (Antwerp -) Bergen op Zoom – ''Rotterdam'' Airport
Much smaller than the international hub Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, Schiphol Airport,
Rotterdam The Hague Airport Rotterdam The Hague Airport (formerly ''Rotterdam Airport'', ''Vliegveld Zestienhoven'' in Dutch language, Dutch), is a minor international airport serving Rotterdam, the Netherlands' second largest city and The Hague, its administrative and roya ...
(formerly known as ''Zestienhoven'') is the third-largest airport in the country, behind Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, Schiphol Airport and Eindhoven Airport. Located north of the city, it has shown solid growth over the past five years, mostly caused by the growth of the low-cost carrier market. For business travellers, Rotterdam The Hague Airport offers advantages in terms of rapid handling of passengers and baggage. Environmental regulations make further growth uncertain. Train
Rotterdam is well connected to the Dutch railway network, and has several international connections: * Southern direction Dordrecht, Breda, Eindhoven, Flushing, Netherlands, Flushing (Vlissingen) (also international trains to Belgium/France) * Western direction
Hook of Holland A hook is a tool consisting of a length of material, typically metal, that contains a portion that is curved or indented, such that it can be used to grab onto, connect, or otherwise attach itself onto another object. In a number of uses, one en ...
(reopened as a metro line in 2019) * North-Western direction
The Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd ed ...

The Hague
, Leiden,
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...

Amsterdam
* Northern direction (high-speed rail) Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, Schiphol,
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...

Amsterdam
* North-Eastern direction Utrecht and further * A fifth alternative train system to the Hague, the Hofpleinlijn, Hofplein Line was converted to the light rail system RandstadRail, Randstadrail in 2006. * The city is often mentioned as the terminus of the Eurasian Land Bridge. Railway stations *Rotterdam Centraal railway station, Rotterdam Centraal – Rotterdam's main station *Rotterdam Alexander railway station, Rotterdam Alexander – Eastern part of Rotterdam *Rotterdam Blaak railway station, Rotterdam Blaak – Close to the centre of Rotterdam *Rotterdam Lombardijen railway station, Rotterdam Lombardijen – Most Southern part of Rotterdam *Rotterdam Noord railway station, Rotterdam Noord – Northern part of Rotterdam *Rotterdam Zuid railway station, Rotterdam Zuid – Northern part of the Southern part of Rotterdam *Rotterdam Stadion railway station, Rotterdam Stadion – A station near the Feyenoord stadium, open in connection with football matches and music concerts The main connections: * Direct international services to Belgium and France via high-speed train system: Thalys * International trains to the south of France and London via the Eurostar *Frequent international trains to Antwerp and Brussels, Belgium * Frequent services within the Netherlands: ** Intercity line to
The Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd ed ...

The Hague
, Leiden, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, Schiphol airport and
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...

Amsterdam
(north) ** Intercity line to Utrecht and on to Deventer or Enschede (the east), Leeuwarden (north-west) or Groningen (city), Groningen (north-east) ** Intercity line to Dordrecht, Roosendaal and on to Flushing, Netherlands, Vlissingen (south west) ** Intercity line to Dordrecht, Breda, Tilburg, Eindhoven and Venlo (south east) ** Night services every hour connecting every day of the week to Delft, The Hague, Leiden, Schiphol airport, Amsterdam, and, with a detour, Utrecht. On Thursday, Friday and Saturday night services (either directly or via a detour) to Den Bosch, Eindhoven, Tilburg, Roosendaal. ** Several semi-fast services and local trains originate or call at Rotterdam Centraal; semi-fast services Amsterdam-Breda. * Detailed information available from the site of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen (Dutch Railways) In Rotterdam, public transport services are provided by the following companies: * NS (Dutch Railways): national train services * RET (Rotterdamse Elektrische Tram): Tram, city-bus, metro, randstadrail and ferry-services in Rotterdam and surrounding cities * Arriva Netherlands: regional bus services * Connexxion: regional bus services * Qbuzz: regional bus services * Veolia: regional bus services. Metro
In 1968, Rotterdam was the first Dutch city to open a Rapid transit, metro system. The metro system consists of three main lines, each of which has its own variants. The metro network has of rail tracks, and there are 70 stations, which makes it the biggest of the Benelux. 5 lines operate the system; 3 lines (A, B and C) on the east–west line, and two (D and E) on the north–south line. Line E (Randstadrail) connects Rotterdam with The Hague as of December 2011. Tram
The Trams in Rotterdam, Rotterdam tramway network offers 9 regular tram lines and 4 special tram lines with a total length of . Service Tramlines in Rotterdam : * 2: (Rotterdam) Charlois – Rotterdam Lombardijen NS – (Rotterdam) Keizerswaard (runs only to the southern part of the city) * 4: (Rotterdam) Molenlaan – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) Marconiplein * 7: (Rotterdam) Oostplein – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) Willemsplein * 8: (Rotterdam) Spangen – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) Kleiweg * 20: Rotterdam Centraal – Rotterdam Lombardijen NS – (Rotterdam) Lombardijen * 21: (Schiedam) Woudhoek – Station Schiedam Centrum – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) De Esch * 23: (Rotterdam) Marconiplein – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) Beverwaard * 24: (Vlaardingen) Holy – Station Schiedam Centrum – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) De Esch * 25: (Rotterdam) Schiebroek – Rotterdam Centraal – (Barendrecht) Carnisselande Special tram lines: * 10: Historical tram line, only runs in summer and throughout the whole city for tourist information. Using historical Rotterdam Trams from the year 1931. * 18: Tramline from Rotterdam Central Station towards Park, runs only at the Dunya Festival and during the Rotterdam World Port Days. * 12: Rotterdam Centraal – Stadion Feyenoord or Rotterdam Centraal – Het Kasteel ('The Castle', Sparta Stadium). Football tramline, only for big fixtures at Stadion Feyenoord or Het Kasteel. * Snert-tram: Historical tram, only in winter as a tourist tram through Rotterdam. Passengers are provided with a cup of "snert"; Rotterdam dialect for erwtensoep (pea soup). Rolling stock is a historical Rotterdam tram from 1968. * IJsjes-tram: Summer version of the snert tram, providing tourists with ijsjes (ice cream) rather than snert. Bus
Rotterdam offers 55 city bus lines with a total length of . RET runs buses in the city of Rotterdam and surrounding places like Barendrecht, Ridderkerk, Rhoon, Poortugaal, Schiedam, Vlaardingen, Delft and Capelle aan den IJssel. Arriva Netherlands, Connexxion, Qbuzz and Veolia run buses from other cities to Rotterdam. An automated bus service, ParkShuttle, runs between Kralingse Zoom metro station and the Rivium Business Park in Capelle aan den IJssel. Waterbus
The Waterbus network consists of seven lines. The mainline (Line 20) stretches from Rotterdam to Dordrecht. The ferry carries about 130 passengers, and there is space for 60 bicycles. The stops between Rotterdam and Dordrecht are: * Rotterdam
Erasmusbrug ''Erasmusbrug'' (English: "Erasmus Bridge") is a combined cable-stayed and bascule bridge A bascule bridge (also referred to as a drawbridge or a lifting bridge) is a moveable bridge with a counterweight that continuously balances a span, or l ...

Erasmusbrug
– Krimpen aan den IJssel Stormpolder – Ridderkerk De Schans – Alblasserdam Kade – Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht Noordeinde – Papendrecht Westeind – Dordrecht Merwekade. Ferry
P&O Ferries have daily sailings from Europoort to Kingston upon Hull in the UK.


International relations

Rotterdam has city and port connections throughout the world. In 2008, the city had 13 twin towns and sister cities, sister cities, 12 partner cities, and 4 sister ports. Since 2008, the City of Rotterdam doesn't forge new sister or partner connections. Sister and partner cities are not a priority in international relations. On 15 March 2017, the Turkish president expressed his wish that Istanbul should no longer be the twin town of Rotterdam. A speaker of the Rotterdam municipality then explained that the two cities have no official partnership. Both authorities do cooperate often.


Twin towns – Sister cities

Rotterdam is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: * Baltimore (since 1985) * Burgas (since 1976) * Cologne (since 1958) * Constanța (since 1976) * Dresden (since 1988) * Esch-sur-Alzette (since 1958) * Gdańsk (since 1977) * Havana (since 1983) * Lille (since 1958) * Liège (since 1958) *
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the sou ...

Shanghai
(since 1979) * Saint Petersburg (since 1984) * Turin (since 1958)


Partner cities

* Antwerp (since 1940) * Basel (since 1945) * Bratislava (since 1991) * Budapest (since 1991) * Duisburg (since 1950) * Durban (since 1991) * Kingston upon Hull, Hull (since 1936) * Jakarta (since 1983) * Nuremberg (since 1961) * Osaka Prefecture (since 1984) * Oslo (since 1945) * Prague (since 1991)


Sister ports

* Kobe (since 1967) * Busan (since 1987) * Seattle (since 1969) * Tokyo (since 1989)


Places named after Rotterdam

* Nieuw Rotterdam, Nickerie District, Suriname (1866-1875) * Rotterdam, New York, United States * Rotterdam, Limpopo, South Africa


Notable residents

* Pierre Bayle, (1647–1706) enlightenment philosopher. * Leo Beenhakker, (born 1942) football coach. * Giovanni van Bronckhorst, (born 1975) former footballer with
Feyenoord Feyenoord Rotterdam () is a Dutch professional association football, football club in Rotterdam, which plays in the Eredivisie, the top tier in Dutch football. Founded as Wilhelmina in 1908, the club changed to various names before settling on b ...
. * Jules Deelder, (1944–2019) poet, writer, DJ, night mayor. *
Desiderius Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (; English: Erasmus of Rotterdam;''Erasmus'' was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae. ''Desiderius'' was a self-adopted additional name, which he used from 1496. The ''Roterodamus'' was a schol ...
, (1466–1536) philosopher and humanist. * Pim Fortuyn, (1948–2002) assassinated politician. * Leo Fuld, (1912–1997) singer. * Bernard Mandeville, (1670–1733) philosopher, political economist and satirist. * Piet Pieterszoon Hein, (1577–1629) naval fleet officer and privateer. *
Rem Koolhaas Remment Lucas Koolhaas (; born 17 November 1944) is a Dutch architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design o ...

Rem Koolhaas
, (born 1944) internationally renowned architect. * Willem de Kooning, (1904–1997) painter. * Coen Moulijn, (1937–2011) football player of
Feyenoord Feyenoord Rotterdam () is a Dutch professional association football, football club in Rotterdam, which plays in the Eredivisie, the top tier in Dutch football. Founded as Wilhelmina in 1908, the club changed to various names before settling on b ...
. * Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, Johan van Oldebarnevelt, (1547–1619) statesman of the Dutch Revolt. * Colonel Tom Parker, (1909–1997) manager of Elvis Presley. * Robin van Persie, (born 1983)
Feyenoord Feyenoord Rotterdam () is a Dutch professional association football, football club in Rotterdam, which plays in the Eredivisie, the top tier in Dutch football. Founded as Wilhelmina in 1908, the club changed to various names before settling on b ...
forward and Dutch international footballer. * Marten Toonder, (1912–2005) comic writer. * Angela Visser, (born 1966) model, actress, Miss Nederland, Miss Holland 1988 and Miss Universe 1989.


In popular culture

Rotterdam features in Edgar Allan Poe's short story ‘The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall’ (1835), as well as J.T. Sheridan Le Fanu's 'Strange Event in the Life of Schalken the Painter' (1839). Part of Jackie Chan's 1998 film ''Who Am I? (1998 film), Who am I?'' is set in Rotterdam. ''Ender's Shadow'', part of the series ''Ender's Game'' is partially set in Rotterdam. In season 1, episode 2 of The Golden Girls (season 1), ''The Golden Girls'' ("Guess Who's Coming to the Wedding?"), Dorothy Zbornak, Dorothy reminisces how her ex-husband, Stan, would buy her tulips after they fought. "Towards the end, our house looked like Easter in Rotterdam." In 1996, the United Kingdom, British band The Beautiful South recorded a song named after this region titled Rotterdam (or Anywhere). In the 2004 video game ''Hitman: Contracts'', the levels "Rendezvous in Rotterdam" and "Deadly Cargo" both take place in Rotterdam. The 2017 Laurence Olivier Awards, 2017 Olivier award winning Rotterdam (play), play, Rotterdam, written by Jon Brittain, is set in the city. In ''Battlefield V'', this city is used as a map released on its two of its maps on launch, which are Rotterdam and Devastation, and featured the British Army fighting against the Wehrmacht and according to its history, the white building was almost left untouched by the bombing during WWII and that building can be seen on both in-game and real world.


References


Bibliography

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Notes


External links


Rotterdam City Council (English)

Rotterdam Tourism Board

VisitRotterdam.org (Unofficial)
{{Authority control Rotterdam, Cities in the Netherlands Municipalities of South Holland 1340 establishments in Europe Populated places in South Holland Port cities and towns in the Netherlands Port cities and towns of the North Sea