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Rostov Oblast ( rus|Росто́вская о́бласть|r=Rostovskaya oblast|p=rɐˈstofskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in the Southern Federal District. The oblast has an area of and a population of 4,277,976 (2010 Census), making it the sixth most populous federal subject in Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Rostov-on-Don, which also became the administrative center of the Southern Federal District in 2002.

Geography

Rostov Oblast borders Ukraine (Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts) and also Volgograd and Voronezh Oblasts in the north, Krasnodar and Stavropol Krais in the south, and the Republic of Kalmykia in the east. The Rostov oblast is located in the Pontic-Caspian steppe. It is directly north over the North Caucasus. It is within the Russian Southern Federal District.

Rivers and lakes

The Don River, one of Eurasia's largest rivers, flows through the oblast for part of its course. Lakes cover only 0.4% of the oblast's area.

Administrative divisions

It was formed in 1937 out of the Azov-Black Sea Krai.

Demographics

''Population'': ;Vital statistics for 2012 *Births: 49 715 (11.7 per 1000) *Deaths: 59 376 (14.0 per 1000) *Total fertility rate: 2009 - 1.38 | 2010 - 1.38 | 2011 - 1.39 | 2012 - 1.51 | 2013 - 1.52 | 2014 - 1.61 | 2015 - 1.63 | 2016 - 1.60(e) ''Ethnic groups'': Residents identified themselves as belonging to 157 different ethnic groups, including twenty-seven of more than two thousand persons each. The largest ethnicities are the 3,795,607 Russians (90.3%); the 77,802 Ukrainians (1.9%); the 110,727 Armenians (2.6%). Other important groups are the 35,902 Turks (0.9%); 16,493 Belarusians (0.4%)); 13,948 Tatars (0.3%); 17,961 Azerbaijanis (0.4%); 11,449 Chechens (0.3%); 16,657 Romani (0.4%); 11,597 Koreans (0.3%); 8,296 Georgians (0.2%), and 2,040 Assyrians (.05%). There were also 76,498 people (1.8%) belonging to other ethno-cultural groupings. 76,735 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.

Religion

According to a 2012 survey 49.5% of the population of Rostov Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 6% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are either Orthodox Christian believers who don't belong to church or are members of other (non-Russian) Orthodox bodies, 1% are Muslims, and 1% are adherents of the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery) movement. In addition, 26% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 12% is atheist, and 3.5% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. The Ascension Cathedral is the largest Russian Orthodox church in Novocherkassk, Rostov Oblast, Russia. It used to be one of the largest churches of the Russian Empire and the main church of the Don Host Province. The five-domed building, which stands 75 meters tall, is a notable example of the Russian Neo-Byzantine architecture. It was erected between 1891 and 1904 on the site of an earlier church. The first church on the site was built to Luigi Rusca's designs. It collapsed in 1846. A replacement church collapsed 17 years later. Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin ― one of the oldest churches in Rostov-on-Don. For a considerable period of time Intercession Church served as the principal church not only for the fortress of St. Dimitry of Rostov, but also for people of local settlements. Since the end of the 18th century Church of Intercession had been considered to be a cathedral. The status changed in 1822, when Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary on the decree of the Holy Synod was declared cathedral.

Attractions

220px| Taganrog military museum The region is 8057 of objects of archaeological heritage of Federal importance. These include lower-Gnilovskaya a settlement and a necropolis, fragments of the walls of the Genoese fortress of the 14th century, the archaeological Museum-reserve "Tanais", many burial Mounds and necropolises. Since 2002, in the Rostov region are the country's only racing on tractors "bison-Track-Show". In a unique competition brings together machine operators of agricultural enterprises of Russia and abroad. In the past the race on tractors have become a real sports holiday of workers of agriculture.

Theatres

* Rostov academic drama theatre named after Maxim Gorky. * Rostov State Musical Theater . The theater opened in September 1999, and is the successor to the 1919 Rostov Musical Comedy Theater, one of the best operetta theaters in the Soviet Union. The theater has two stages as well as a music and entertainment center, and hosts about 300 performances and concerts annually, as well as various forums and festivals. Its repertoire encompasses both musical traditions, as well as experiments in the field of contemporary art. * Rostov state puppet theatre. * Rostov regional academic youth theatre (former Rostov theatre for young spectators). * Taganrog Theatre. The Taganrog Theater was established in 1827 by governor Alexander Dunaev. The theater was subsidized by the Taganrog's City Council since 1828, and its first director was Alexander Gor. The first group of Russian drama artists was directed by Perovsky and toured around the region, giving performances in Rostov on Don, Novocherkassk, Bahmut. The repertoire consisted mainly of dramas, melodramas and vaudevilles. In 1874, the Taganrog Municipality acquired the theater building by the purchase of its stocks. * Don theatre of drama and Comedy V. F. Komissarzhevskaya (the Cossack drama theatre) Novocherkassk. * Shakhty drama theatre, Shakhty. * Novoshakhtinskiy drama theatre, Novoshakhtinsk.

Museums



In Rostov-on-Don

* Rostov Regional Museum of Local History. * Rostov Regional Museum of Fine Arts. * Museum of Contemporary Art at Dmitrovskaya. * Museum of Russian-Armenian Friendship. * Museum of North Caucasus Railway. The first museum of history of North Caucasus Railway opened on 4 November 1960 in a Community Center of railwaymen at Rostov-Glavny station. Permanent exposition includes: information boards about famous North Caucasus railwaymen, model trains on a scale 1:15, uniform, cases, panoramas, implements of various times. The exhibition covers the period from emergence of rail transport in the region up to the present moment. The various collections from the Russian Civil War and the Great Patriotic War, now exceed 12,000 objects in the main fund. * Center for Contemporary Art "Tobacco Factory".

In other cities of the region

* Aksai Military History Museum, Aksay. * Archaeological museum-reserve "Tanais", Nedvigovka. * Azov History, Archaeology and Paleontology Museum-Reserve, Azov. The bulk of the museum is located in the three-story building erected in 1892 which belonged to the former town council, there are 22 rooms. The symbol of the museum is the skeleton of a Trogontherium mammoth that existed 800-600 thousand years ago in the interglacial period. This is the world's unique skeleton with the whole skull. The museum's areas: permanent exhibitions - 2852 m2, temporary exhibitions - 580 m2, storage facilities - 1896 m2, park (open air) - 7.13 hectares.  * Bataysk Museum of History, Bataysk. * Gukovo Museum of Mining Work, Gukovo. * House-Museum of S. Budyonny, Stan. Budennovskaya. * Novocherkassk Museum of the History of the Don Cossacks, Novocherkassk. * Razdorsk Ethnographic Museum-Reserve, the camp. Razdorskaya. * Salsk Art Museum named after People's Artist VK Nechitailo, Salsk. * Shakhty Museum of Local History, Shakhty. * Taganrog military museum, Taganrog. The start of museum exhibition creation refers to May 9, 2004, when the club Auto-Retro Taganrog was founded. Subsequently, several vehicle units were purchased and repaired. In 2008, club activity concept got military direction. On May 6, 2010, permanent exhibition consisting of several thousands of exhibits was opened. In July 2012, the name Taganrog military museum got official status. * The State Museum-Reserve of MA Sholokhov, St. Veshenskaya. * Volgodonsk Art Museum, Volgodonsk. * Volgodonsk Ecological and Historical Museum, Volgodonsk.

Economy

Major industries of Rostov Oblast are agriculture, agricultural industry, food processing, heavy industry, coal and automobile manufacture. The largest companies in the region include Novoshakhtinsk Petrochemical Plant, Gloria Jeans Corp., Rostvertol, Oil-extracting factory "Yug Rusi", North Caucasian Railway.

Culture



References



Sources

* *

External links


Official website of Rostov Oblast

Russian South
News and events of Rostov Oblast
Official Tourism Portal of Rostov OblastOfficial Tourism Portal of Rostov Oblast

Central Eurasian Information Resource: Images of Rostov Oblast
- University of Washington Digital Collection {{Use mdy dates|date=August 2014 Category:1937 establishments in Russia Category:History of the Don Cossacks Category:States and territories established in 1937 Category:Southern Federal District