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Citizenship Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its citizens, and t ...

Citizenship
in
ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who stud ...
() was a privileged political and legal status afforded to free individuals with respect to laws, property, and governance. * Roman women had a limited form of citizenship. They were not allowed to vote or stand for civil or public office. The rich might participate in public life by funding building projects or sponsoring religious ceremonies and other events. Women had the right to own property, to engage in business, and to obtain a divorce, but their legal rights varied over time. Marriages were an important form of political alliance during the Republic. *
Client state A client state, in international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activ ...
citizens and allies ''(socii)'' of Rome could receive a limited form of Roman citizenship such as the
Latin Right Latin Rights (also latin citizenship, Latin: ''ius Latii'' or ''ius latinum'') were a set of legal rights that were originally granted to the Latins (Latin: "Latini", the People of Latium, the land of the Latins (Italic tribe), Latins ) under ...
. Such citizens could not vote or be elected in
Roman elections Elections in the Roman Republic were an essential part to its governance, with participation only being afforded to Roman citizens Citizenship is the Status (law), status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdict ...
. *Freedmen were former slaves who had gained their freedom. They were not automatically given citizenship and lacked some privileges such as running for executive magistracies. The children of freedmen and women were born as free citizens; for example, the father of the poet
Horace Quintus Horatius Flaccus (; 8 December 65 – 27 November 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace (), was the leading Roman Empire, Roman Lyric poetry, lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian). The rhetoricia ...

Horace
was a freedman. *
Slaves Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property. Slavery typically involves the enslaved per ...
were considered property and lacked
legal personhood In law, a legal person is any person or 'thing' (less ambiguously, any legal entity) that can do the things a human person is usually able to do in law – such as enter into contracts, Lawsuit, sue and be sued, Ownership, own property, and so on ...
. Over time, they acquired a few protections under Roman law. Some slaves were freed by
manumission Manumission, or enfranchisement, is the act of freeing slaves Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslav ...
for services rendered, or through a testamentary provision when their master died. Once free, they faced few barriers, beyond normal social stigma, to participating in Roman society. The principle that a person could become a citizen by law rather than birth was enshrined in
Roman mythology Roman mythology is the body of myths of ancient Rome as represented in the Latin literature, literature and Roman art, visual arts of the Romans. One of a wide variety of genres of Roman folklore, ''Roman mythology'' may also refer to the moder ...
; when
Romulus Romulus () was the legendary founder Founder or Founders may refer to: Places *Founders Park, a stadium in South Carolina, formerly known as Carolina Stadium * Founders Park, a waterside park in Islamorada, Florida#In popular culture, Islamora ...
defeated the
Sabines The Sabines (; lat, Sabini; grc, Σαβῖνοι ''Sabĩnoi''; it, Sabini, all exonyms) were an Italic peoples, Italic people that lived in the central Apennine Mountains of the ancient Italian Peninsula, also inhabiting Latium north of the An ...
in battle, he promised the war captives that were in Rome they could become citizens.


Rights

*''Ius suffragii'': The right to vote in the
Roman assemblies The Roman Assemblies were institutions in ancient Rome. They functioned as the machinery of the Roman legislative branch, and thus (theoretically at least) passed all legislation. Since the assemblies operated on the basis of a direct democracy, ord ...
. *''Ius honorum'': The right to stand for civil or public office. *''Ius commercii'': The right to make legal
contract A contract is a legally binding agreement that defines and governs the rights and duties between or among its parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview ...

contract
s and to hold property as a Roman citizen. *''
Ius gentium The '' ius gentium'' or ''jus gentium'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through ...
'': The legal recognition, developed in the 3rd century BC, of the growing international scope of Roman affairs, and the need for Roman law to deal with situations between Roman citizens and foreign persons. The ''ius gentium'' was therefore a Roman legal codification of the widely accepted
international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of anal ...
of the time, and was based on the highly developed commercial law of the Greek city-states and of other maritime powers. The rights afforded by the ''ius gentium'' were considered to be held by all persons; it is thus a concept of
human rights Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
rather than rights attached to citizenship. *''
Ius conubiiThe (‘ Canuleian law’), or , was a law of the Roman Republic, passed in the year 445 BC, restoring the right of (marriage) between patricians The patricians (from la, patricius) were originally a group of ruling class The ruling class is ...
'': The right to have a lawful
marriage Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouse A religious marriage. A spouse is a significant other Significant other (SO) is colloquially used as a term ...

marriage
with a Roman citizen according to Roman principles, to have the legal rights of the ''
paterfamilias The ''pater familias'', also written as ''paterfamilias'' (plural ''patres familias''), was the head of a Ancient Rome, Roman family. The ''pater familias'' was the oldest living male in a household, and could legally exercise autocratic authority ...
'' over the family, and for the children of any such marriage to be counted as Roman citizens. *''Ius migrationis'': The right to preserve one's level of citizenship upon relocation to a
polis ''Polis'' (, ; grc-gre, πόλις, ), plural ''poleis'' (, , ), literally means "city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (199 ...

polis
of ''comparable'' status. For example, members of the ''cives Romani'' (see below) maintained their full ''civitas'' when they migrated to a
Roman colony A Roman colonia (plural ''coloniae'') was originally a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans ...
with full rights under the law: a ''colonia civium Romanorum''. ''Latins'' also had this right, and maintained their ''ius Latii'' if they relocated to a different Latin state or Latin colony (''Latina colonia''). This right did ''not'' preserve one's level of citizenship should one relocate to a colony of ''lesser'' legal status; full Roman citizens relocating to a ''Latina colonia'' were reduced to the level of the ''ius Latii'', and such a migration and reduction in status had to be a voluntary act. *The right of immunity from some taxes and other legal obligations, especially local rules and regulations. *The right to sue in the courts and the right to be sued. *The right to have a legal trial (to appear before a proper court and to defend oneself). *The right to appeal from the decisions of magistrates and to appeal the lower court decisions. *Following the early 2nd-century BC
Porcian Laws The Valerian and Porcian laws were Roman laws Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by i ...
, a Roman citizen could not be
torture Torture is the deliberate infliction of severe pain or suffering Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. Suffering i ...

torture
d or whipped and could commute
sentences of death
sentences of death
to
voluntary exile Image:Dante exile.jpg, ''Dante in Exile'' by To be in exile means to be forced away from one's home (i.e. village, town, city, State (polity), state, province, territory or even country) and unable to return. People (or corporations and even go ...
, unless he was found guilty of
treason Treason is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Lindsay: "Cr ...
. *If accused of treason, a Roman citizen had the right to be tried in Rome, and even if sentenced to death, no Roman citizen could be sentenced to
die on the cross
die on the cross
. Roman citizenship was required in order to enlist in the Roman legions, but this was sometimes ignored. Citizen soldiers could be beaten by the
centurion A centurion (; la, centurio , . la, centuriones, label=none; grc-gre, κεντυρίων, kentyríōn, or ) was a position in the Roman army The Roman army (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is ...

centurion
s and senior officers for reasons related to discipline. Non-citizens joined the
Auxilia The lat, Auxilia (: , lit. "auxiliaries") were introduced as non-citizen troops attached to the citizen by after his reorganisation of the from 30 BC. By the 2nd century, the Auxilia contained the same number of infantry as the legions ...
and gained citizenship through service.


Classes of citizenship

The legal classes varied over time, however the following classes of legal status existed at various times within the Roman state:


Cives Romani

The ''cives Romani'' were full Roman citizens, who enjoyed full legal protection under Roman law. ''Cives Romani'' were sub-divided into two classes: *The ''non optimo iure'' who held the ''ius commercii'' and ''ius conubii'' (rights of property and marriage) *The ''optimo iure'', who held these rights as well as the ''ius suffragii'' and ''ius honorum'' (the additional rights to vote and to hold office).


Latini

The ''Latini'' were a class of citizens who held the
Latin Right Latin Rights (also latin citizenship, Latin: ''ius Latii'' or ''ius latinum'') were a set of legal rights that were originally granted to the Latins (Latin: "Latini", the People of Latium, the land of the Latins (Italic tribe), Latins ) under ...
(''ius Latii''), or the rights of ''ius commercii'' and ''ius migrationis'', but not the ''ius conubii''. The term ''Latini'' originally referred to the
Latins The Latins were originally an Italic tribe in ancient central Italy from Latium Latium ( , ; ) is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire. Definition La ...
, citizens of the
Latin League The Latin League (c. 7th century BC – 338 BC)Stearns, Peter N. (2001) ''The Encyclopedia of World History'', Houghton Mifflin. pp. 76–78. . was an ancient confederation of about 30 villages and tribes in the region of Latium Latium ( , ; ...
who came under Roman control at the close of the
Latin War The (Second) Latin War (340–338 BC)The Romans customarily dated events by noting the consuls who held office that year. The Latin War broke out in the year that Titus Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus and Publius Decius Mus were consuls and ende ...
, but eventually became a legal description rather than a national or ethnic one.
Freedmen A freedman or freedwoman is a formerly enslaved person who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means. Historically, enslaved people were freed by manumission (granted freedom by their captor-owners), abolitionism, emancipation (gr ...
slaves, those of the ''cives Romani'' convicted of crimes, or citizens settling Latin colonies could be given this status under the law.


Socii

''Socii'' or ''foederati'' were citizens of states which had treaty obligations with Rome, under which typically certain legal rights of the state's citizens under Roman law were exchanged for agreed levels of military service, i.e. the Roman magistrates had the right to levy soldiers for the
Roman legion The Roman legion ( la, legiō, ) was the largest military unit of the Roman army The Roman army (: ) was the armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of , from the (to c. 500 BC) to the (500–31 BC) and the (31 BC– ...

Roman legion
s from those states. However, ''foederati'' states that had at one time been conquered by Rome were exempt from payment of tribute to Rome due to their treaty status. Growing dissatisfaction with the rights afforded to the ''socii'', and with the growing manpower demands of the legions (due to the protracted
Jugurthine War The Jugurthine War ( la, Bellum Iugurthinum; 112–106 BC) was an armed conflict between the Roman Republic and king Jugurtha of Numidia, a kingdom on the north African coast approximating to modern Algeria. Jugurtha was the nephew and adopted ...
and the
Cimbrian War The Cimbrian or Cimbric War (113–101 BC) was fought between the Roman Republic and the Germanic peoples, Germanic and Celts, Celtic tribes of the Cimbri and the Teutons, Ambrones and Tigurini, who migrated from the Jutland peninsula into Roman ...
) led eventually to the Social War of 91–87 BC in which the Italian allies revolted against Rome. The
Lex Julia A ''Lex Julia'' (or: Lex Iulia, plural: Leges Juliae/Leges Iuliae) was an ancient Roman law that was introduced by any member of the Julian family. Most often, "Julian laws", ''Lex Iulia'' or ''Leges Iuliae'' refer to moral legislation introduced ...
(in full the ''Lex Iulia de Civitate Latinis Danda''), passed in 90 BC, granted the rights of the ''cives Romani'' to all ''Latini'' and ''socii'' states that had not participated in the Social War, or who were willing to cease hostilities immediately. This was extended to all the Italian ''socii'' states when the war ended (except for
Gallia Cisalpina Cisalpine Gaul ( la, Gallia Cisalpina, also called ''Gallia Citerior'' or ''Gallia Togata'') was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. After its conquest by the Roman Republic in the 200s BC it was cons ...
), effectively eliminating ''socii'' and ''Latini'' as legal and citizenship definitions.


Provinciales

''Provinciales'' were those people who fell under Roman influence, or control, but who lacked even the rights of the ''Foederati'', essentially having only the rights of the ''ius gentium''.


Peregrini

A peregrinus (plural ''peregrini'') was originally any person who was not a full Roman citizen, that is someone who was not a member of the ''cives Romani''. With the expansion of Roman law to include more gradations of legal status, this term became less used, but the term ''peregrini'' included those of the ''Latini'', ''socii'', and ''provinciales'', as well as those subjects of foreign states.


Citizenship as a tool of Romanization

Roman citizenship was also used as a tool of foreign policy and control. Colonies and political allies would be granted a "minor" form of Roman citizenship, there being several graduated levels of citizenship and legal rights (the
Latin Right Latin Rights (also latin citizenship, Latin: ''ius Latii'' or ''ius latinum'') were a set of legal rights that were originally granted to the Latins (Latin: "Latini", the People of Latium, the land of the Latins (Italic tribe), Latins ) under ...
was one of them). The promise of improved status within the Roman "sphere of influence", and the rivalry with one's neighbours for status, kept the focus of many of Rome's neighbours and allies centered on the ''status quo'' of Roman culture, rather than trying to subvert or overthrow Rome's influence. The granting of citizenship to allies and the conquered was a vital step in the process of
Romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspec ...
. This step was one of the most effective political tools and (at that point in history) original political ideas. Previously
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
had tried to "mingle" his Greeks with the Persians, Egyptians, Syrians, etc. in order to assimilate the people of the conquered
Persian Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, wikt:𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian peoples, Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Grea ...
, but after his death this policy was largely ignored by his
successors
successors
. The idea was not to assimilate, but to turn a defeated and potentially rebellious enemy (or their sons) into Roman citizens. Instead of having to wait for the unavoidable revolt of a conquered people (a tribe or a city-state) like
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
and the conquered
Helots The helots (; el, εἵλωτες, ''heílotes'') were a subjugated population that constituted a majority of the population of Laconia Laconia or Lakonia ( el, Λακωνία, , ) is a historical and administrative region of Greece Gre ...
, Rome tried to make those under its rule feel that they had a stake in the system.


The Edict of Caracalla

The Edict of Caracalla (officially the
Constitutio Antoniniana The ''Constitutio Antoniniana'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the po ...

Constitutio Antoniniana
in Latin: "Constitution r Edictof Antoninus") was an
edict An edict is a decree or announcement of a law, often associated with monarchy, monarchism, but it can be under any official authority. Synonyms include "dictum" and "pronouncement". ''Edict'' derives from the Latin wikt:edictum#Latin, edictum. N ...
issued in AD 212 by the Roman Emperor
Caracalla Caracalla ( ; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus), was Roman emperor from 198 to 217. He was a member of the Severan dynasty, the elder son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. Co-ruler ...

Caracalla
, which declared that all free men in the Roman Empire were to be given full Roman citizenship and all free women in the Empire were given the same rights as Roman women, with the exception of the ''dediticii'', people who had become subject to Rome through surrender in war, and freed slaves.Giessen Papyrus, 40,7-9 "I grant to all the inhabitants of the Empire the Roman citizenship and no one remains outside a civitas, with the exception of the dediticii" Before 212, for the most part only inhabitants of
Italia Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italia
held full Roman citizenship. Colonies of Romans established in other provinces, Romans (or their descendants) living in provinces, the inhabitants of various cities throughout the Empire, and a few local nobles (such as kings of client countries) also held full citizenship. Provincials, on the other hand, were usually non-citizens, although some held the Latin Right. The Bible's
Book of Acts The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the ...
indicates that
Paul the Apostle Paul; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח, name=, group= (born Saul of Tarsus;; ar, بولس الطرسوسي; el, Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, Saũlos Tarseús; tr, Tarsuslu Pavlus AD ...
was a
Roman citizen by birth
Roman citizen by birth
- though not clearly specifying which class of citizenship - a fact which had considerable bearing on Paul's career and on the religion of Christianity. However, by the century previous to Caracalla, Roman citizenship had already lost much of its exclusiveness and become more available.


''Romanitas'', roman nationalism, and its extinction

With the settlement of
Romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspec ...
and the passing of generations, a new unifying feeling began to emerge within Roman territory, the ''
Romanitas ''Romanitas'' is the collection of political and cultural concepts and practices by which the Romans defined themselves. It is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-Europe ...
'' or ''Roman way of life'', the once tribal feeling that had divided Europe began to disappear (although never completely) and blend in with the new wedge patriotism imported from Rome with which to be able to ascend at all levels. The ''Romanitas'', ''Romanity'' or ''Romanism'' would last until the last years of unity of the ''
pars occidentalis
pars occidentalis
'', a moment in which the old tribalisms and the proto-
feudalism Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the disc ...
of Celtic origins, until then dormant, would re-emerge, mixing with the new ethnic groups of Germanic origin. This being observed in the writings of
Gregory of Tours Gregory of Tours (30 November 538 – 17 November 594 AD) was a Gallo-Roman The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanization (cultural), Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire. This was characterized by the Gaulish ...
, who does not use the dichotomy
Gallo-Roman Gallo-Roman culture was a consequence of the Romanization (cultural), Romanization of Gauls, Gaulish peoples under the rule of the Roman Empire. It was characterized by the Gaulish adoption or adaptation of Roman culture, Roman culture, languag ...
-
Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman author ...

Frankish
, but uses the name of each of the
gens In ancient Rome, a gens ( or ), plural gentes, was a family consisting of individuals who shared the same Roman naming conventions#Nomen, nomen and who claimed descent from a common ancestor. A branch of a gens was called a ''stirps'' (plural ''s ...
of that time existing in
Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rat ...

Gaul
(arverni, turoni, lemovici, turnacenses, bituriges, franci, etc.), considering himself a
Arverni The Arverni (: ''Aruerni'') were a people dwelling in the modern region during the and the . They were one of the most powerful tribes of ancient , contesting primacy over the region with the neighbouring . They are mentioned in 207 BC as tr ...
and not a Gallo-Roman; being the relations between the natives and the Franks seen not as Romans against barbarians, as is popularly believed, but as in the case of Gregory, a relationship of coexistence between Arverni and Franks (Franci) as equals. It must also be remembered that
Clovis Clovis may refer to: People * Clovis (given name), the early medieval (Frankish) form of the name Louis ** Clovis I (c. 466 – 511), the first king of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler ** Clovis II (c. 634 – c. 657), ...

Clovis
,
kings of the Franks The Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman authors. They are also ...
, was born in Gaul, so according to the Edict of Caracalla that made him a Roman citizen by birth, in addition to being recognized by the emperor
Anastasius I Dicorus Anastasius I "Dicorus" ( grc-gre, Ἀναστάσιος, ; – 9 July 518) was a Byzantine emperor from 491 to 518. He made his career as a government administrator. He came to the throne at the age of 61 after being chosen by the wife of hi ...
as consul of Gaul, so his position of power was reinforced, in addition to being considered by his Gallo-Roman subjects as a legitimate viceroy of Rome; understanding that the ''Romanitas'' did not disappear in such an abrupt way, observed its effects centuries later with
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
and the ''
Translatio imperii ''Translatio imperii'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...

Translatio imperii
''.De Troyes, Chrétien. '' Cligès''. Circa 1176.


See also

* Civis romanus sum *
Constitution of the Roman Republic The constitution of the Roman Republic was a set of uncodified norms and customs which, together with various written laws, guided the procedural governance of the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a sta ...
*
Rights of Englishmen The "rights of Englishmen" are the traditional rights of English subjects and later English speaking subjects of the British crown. In the 18th century, some of the colonists who objected to British rule in the thirteen British North American c ...


References


Further reading

* Atkins, Jed W. 2018. ''Roman Political Thought.'' Key Themes in Ancient History. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2018. * Cecchet, Lucia and Anna Busetto, eds. 2017. ''Citizens in the Graeco-Roman World: Aspects of Citizenship from the Archaic Period to AD 212.'' Mnemosyne Supplements, 407. Leiden; Boston: Brill. * Gardner, Jane. 1993. ''Being a Roman Citizen.'' London: Routledge. * Howarth, Randal S. 2006. ''The Origins of Roman Citizenship.'' Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press. * Nicolet, Claude. 1980. The World of the Citizen In Republican Rome. Berkeley: University of California Press.


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Roman Citizenship