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Rodulfus, or Raoul Glaber (which means "the Smooth" or "the Bald", 985–1047) was an 11th century
Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a Christian monasticism, monastic Religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church following the Rule of Saint Be ...
chronicler A chronicle ( la, chronica, from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its pop ...
.


Life

Glaber was born in 985 in
Burgundy, France
Burgundy, France
. At the behest of his uncle, a monk at Saint-Léger-de-Champeaux, Glaber was sent to a monastery at the age of twelve, but he was eventually expelled for disobedience. He spent much of his life moving from one monastery to another. He then entered
Moutiers-Saint-Jean Abbey Moutiers-Saint-Jean Abbey (from Latin ''monasterium sancti Johannis'', french: Abbaye de Moutiers-Saint-Jean, also ''Abbaye Saint-Jean-de-Réome'') was a monastery located in what is now the village of Moutiers-Saint-Jean (named after the monastery ...
near
Dijon Dijon (, , ) (dated) * it, Digione * la, Diviō or * lmo, Digion is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European langua ...

Dijon
, and around the year 1010, joined the Abbey of St. Benignus, also near
Dijon Dijon (, , ) (dated) * it, Digione * la, Diviō or * lmo, Digion is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European langua ...

Dijon
. There he met the reform-minded cleric from
Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Piedmont
, Abbot
William of Volpiano Saint William of Volpiano (Italian: ''Guglielmo da Volpiano''; French: ''Guillaume de Volpiano'') also of Dijon, of Saint-Benignus, or of Fécamp (June/July 962 – January 1, 1031) was a Northern Italian monastic reformer, composer, and founding ...
.MacErlean, Andrew. "Raoul Glaber." The Catholic Encyclopedia
Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 25 June 2019
In 1028 he travelled to Italy with Volpiano, who encouraged him write what would become his masterpiece, the ''Historiarum libri quinque ab anno incarnationis DCCCC usque ad annum MXLIV'' ("History in five books from 900 AD to 1044 AD"). The chronicle was dedicated to the
Abbot of Cluny The Abbot of Cluny was the head of the powerful monastery of the Abbey of Cluny Cluny Abbey (; , formerly also ''Cluni'' or ''Clugny''; ) is a former Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Be ...
, Odilo. Today a few manuscripts of the ''Historiarum'' survive, including the author's original copy. As a second work, Rodulfus wrote a biography of Volpiano, which probably arose shortly after his death in 1031. That year, he moved to the
Abbey of Saint-Germain en Auxerre The Abbey of Saint-Germain d'Auxerre is a former Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a Christian monasticism, monastic Religious order (Catholic), religio ...
. The monks at St-Germain got him to restore or compose the inscriptions on the numerous altars in their church, and on the tombs of the saints who were buried in it. When this was done his wanderings began again, and he went to Cluny. He died at Cluny around 1050. Glaber is credited with coining the phrase "white mantle of churches", describing the ubiquity of religious architecture of the times.


Works

Glaber is best known for ''Historiarum'', which he is believed to have started writing during his time at the Abbey of Cluny around 1026 or so, and completed at
Abbey of Saint-Germain en Auxerre The Abbey of Saint-Germain d'Auxerre is a former Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a Christian monasticism, monastic Religious order (Catholic), religio ...
some time later. Initially intended to be an ecclesiastical history, Glaber's focus is on events in the center of France, but occasionally ranges as far as
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
and
Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezojuorno; in scn, Mezzujornu), is a macroregionA macroregion is a geopolitical subdivis ...
. Glaber's writings often sympathized with proponents of church reform of that age, including
Henry II Henry II may refer to: Kings *Henry II of England (1133–89), reigned from 1154 *Henry II of Jerusalem and Cyprus (1271–1324), reigned from 1285; king of Jerusalem in name only from 1291 *Henry II of Castile (1334–79), reigned 1366–67 and ...

Henry II
,
Henry IIIHenry III may refer to: * Henry III, Duke of Bavaria (940–989) * Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor (1017–1056) * Henry III, Count of Louvain (died 1095) * Henry III, Count of Luxembourg (died 1096) * Henry III, Duke of Carinthia (1050–1122) * Henr ...

Henry III
, and
Robert II of France Robert II (c. 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious (french: link=no, le Pieux) or the Wise (french: link=no, le Sage), was List of French monarchs, King of the Franks from 996 to 1031, the second from the Capetian dynasty. Crowned Junior Ki ...

Robert II of France
, while criticizing others like
Conrad II Conrad II ( – 4 June 1039), also known as and , was Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally em ...
, and
Pope Benedict IX Pope Benedict IX ( la, Benedictus IX; c. 1012 – c. 1056), born Theophylactus of Tusculum in Rome, was bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States on three occasions between October 1032 and July 1048. Aged approximately 20 at his first election ...

Pope Benedict IX
. As a source of events, the work is of limited value due to its chronological and geographic inadequacy, but it is of significant historical value, as it has helped shape our understanding of the 10th century and the moral and cultural condition of Europe at the end of the so-called "Dark Ages", and the turning of the first millenium. He also wrote a
hagiography A hagiography (; ) or vita (from Latin ''vita'', life, which begins the title of most medieval biographies) is a biography of a saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, holin ...
of his friend, Abbot
William of Volpiano Saint William of Volpiano (Italian: ''Guglielmo da Volpiano''; French: ''Guillaume de Volpiano'') also of Dijon, of Saint-Benignus, or of Fécamp (June/July 962 – January 1, 1031) was a Northern Italian monastic reformer, composer, and founding ...
, the ''Vita Sancti Guillelmi Abbatis Divionensis.'' Large extracts from his works are cited and discussed in ''The Year 1000'', by French author
Georges Duby Georges Duby (7 October 1919 – 3 December 1996) was a French historian who specialised in the social and economic history of the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and col ...
. ''Historiarum'' was first published in 1596 from a manuscript owned by
Pierre Pithou Pierre Pithou (1 November 1539 – 1 November 1596) was a French lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems use the ...

Pierre Pithou
, as part of a collection of eleven medieval chronicles.Included in ''Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum Libri Quinque'' by Rodulfus Glaber (Oxford, 1989) .


References


Sources

*


Further reading

* ''Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum Libri Quinque'' by Rodulfus Glaber, The Five Books of the Histories over title: ''Rodulfus Glaber, Opera''ed. J. France (Oxford, 1989) . * ''Historiarum libri quinque ab anno incarnationis DCCCC usque ad annum MXLIV'' (History in five books from 900 AD to 1044 AD) * ''Les Grandeurs de l'an mille'', by Pierre Riché, éditions Bartillat. (1999) . * ''Chronique de l'an Mil'' by Raoul Glaber. .


External links


Biography
from the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Volume IV
Ralph Glaber's ''On the First Millennium''
at the
Internet Medieval Sourcebook The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the Fordham University Fordham University () is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success f ...

Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Latina with analytical indexes
{{DEFAULTSORT:Glaber, Rodulfus 1047 deaths French chroniclers French historians 11th-century historians 985 births 11th-century Latin writers French male non-fiction writers 11th-century French writers