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'' The Rockefeller Foundation is an American
private foundation A private foundation is a charitable organization that, while serving a good cause, might or might not qualify as a public charity by government standards. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is the largest private foundation in the U.S. with ove ...
based at 420
Fifth Avenue Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare A thoroughfare is a primary passage or way as a transit route through regularly trafficked areas whether by road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places ...

Fifth Avenue
,
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. It was established by the
Rockefeller family The Rockefeller family () is an American Industrial sector, industrial, political, and List of banking families, banking family that owns one of the List of wealthiest historical figures, world's largest fortunes. The fortune was made in the Hi ...
in
New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Colu ...
on May 14, 1913, when its charter was formally accepted by the
New York State Legislature The New York State Legislature consists of the two houses that act as the state legislature A state legislature is a Legislature, legislative branch or body of a State (country subdivision), political subdivision in a Federalism, federal syste ...
. The foundation was started by
Standard Oil Standard Oil Co. was an American -producing, transporting, refining, and marketing . Established in 1870 by and as a in , it was the largest in the world at its height. Its history as one of the world's first and largest s ended in 1911, wh ...

Standard Oil
co-founder
John D. Rockefeller John Davison Rockefeller Sr. (July 8, 1839May 23, 1937) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of Am ...

John D. Rockefeller
("Senior"), along with his son
John D. Rockefeller Jr.
John D. Rockefeller Jr.
("Junior"), and Senior's principal business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates. As of 2015, the foundation was ranked as the 39th largest U.S. foundation by total giving. By the end of 2016, assets were tallied at $4.1 billion (unchanged from 2015), with annual grants of $173 million. According to the
OECD The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 38 member countries, founded in 1961 to st ...

OECD
, the foundation provided US$103.8 million for development in 2019.


Leadership

On January 5, 2017, the board of trustees announced the selection of Dr. Rajiv Shah to serve as the 13th president of the foundation. Shah became the youngest person, at 43, and first Indian-American to serve as president of the foundation. He assumed the position March 1, succeeding
Judith Rodin Judith Rodin (born Judith Seitz; September 9, 1944) is a philanthropist Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the Public good (economics), public good, focusing on quality of life". Philanthropy contrasts with business initiatives, w ...
who served as president for nearly twelve years and announced her retirement, at age 71, in June 2016. A former
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
of the
University of Pennsylvania The University of Pennsylvania (Penn or UPenn) is a in , Pennsylvania. The university, established as the College of Philadelphia in 1740, is one of the nine chartered prior to the . , Penn's founder and first president, advocated an edu ...

University of Pennsylvania
, Rodin was the first woman to head the foundation. Rodin in turn had succeeded
Gordon Conway Sir Gordon Richard Conway (born 6 July 1938) is an agricultural ecologist and former President of the Rockefeller Foundation '' The Rockefeller Foundation is an American private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue Fifth Avenue is a majo ...
in 2005.


Beginnings

John D Rockefeller first had the notion to set up a large-scale foundation in 1901, but it was not until 1906 that Senior's business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates, seriously revived the idea, saying that Rockefeller's fortune was rolling up so fast his heirs would "dissipate their inheritances or become intoxicated with power", unless he set up "permanent corporate philanthropies for the good of Mankind". In 1906, the
Russell Sage Foundation The Russell Sage Foundation is an American non-profit organisation established by Margaret Olivia Slocum Sage, Margaret Olivia Sage in 1907 for “the improvement of social and living conditions in the United States.” It was named after her recen ...
was established, though its program was limited to working women and social ills. Rockefeller's would thus not be the first foundation in America (
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States that was negotiated on behalf of the United States by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin and John Jay The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simp ...

Benjamin Franklin
was the first to introduce the concept), but it brought to an international scale and scope. In 1909 he signed over 73,000 shares of
Standard Oil Standard Oil Co. was an American -producing, transporting, refining, and marketing . Established in 1870 by and as a in , it was the largest in the world at its height. Its history as one of the world's first and largest s ended in 1911, wh ...

Standard Oil
of New Jersey, valued at $50 million, to the three inaugural trustees, Junior, Gates and
Harold Fowler McCormick Harold Fowler McCormick (May 2, 1872 – October 16, 1941) was an American businessman. He was chairman of the board of International Harvester Company and a member of the McCormick family. in 1948 he was awarded the Henry Laurence Gantt Medal ...

Harold Fowler McCormick
, the first installment of a projected $100 million endowment. They applied for a federal
charter A charter is the grant of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social scien ...
for the foundation in the
US Senate The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, politic ...
in 1910, with at one stage Junior even secretly meeting with President
William Howard Taft William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857March 8, 1930) was the 27th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power of ...

William Howard Taft
, through the aegis of Senator
Nelson Aldrich Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich (; November 6, 1841 – April 16, 1915) was a prominent American politician and a leader of the Republican Party Republican Party is a name used by many political parties A political party is an organization that coo ...
, to hammer out concessions. However, because of the ongoing (1911) antitrust suit against Standard Oil at the time, along with deep suspicion in some quarters of undue Rockefeller influence on the spending of the endowment, the end result was that Senior and Gates withdrew the bill from Congress in order to seek a state charter. On May 14, 1913, New York Governor
William Sulzer William Sulzer (March 18, 1863 – November 6, 1941) was an American lawyer and politician, nicknamed Plain Bill Sulzer. He was the 39th Governor of New York and a long-serving congressman from the same state. Sulzer was the first (and so far ...

William Sulzer
approved a state charter for the foundation with Junior becoming the first president. With its large-scale endowment, a large part of Senior's fortune was insulated from inheritance taxes.


Early grants and connections

The first secretary of the foundation was Jerome Davis Greene, the former secretary of
Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636 as Harvard College and named for its first benefactor, the History of the Puritans in North America, Puritan cler ...

Harvard University
, who wrote a "memorandum on principles and policies" for an early meeting of the trustees that established a rough framework for the foundation's work. On December 5, the Board made its first grant of $100,000 to the
American Red Cross The American Red Cross (ARC), also known as The American National Red Cross, is a humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief, and disaster preparedness education in the United States. It is the designated US af ...
to purchase property for its headquarters in Washington, D.C.Rockfound.org
history, 1913–1919
At the beginning the foundation was global in its approach and concentrated in its first decade entirely on the sciences, public health and medical education. It was initially located within the family office at
Standard Oil Standard Oil Co. was an American -producing, transporting, refining, and marketing . Established in 1870 by and as a in , it was the largest in the world at its height. Its history as one of the world's first and largest s ended in 1911, wh ...

Standard Oil
's headquarters at , later (in 1933) shifting to the
GE Building 30 Rockefeller Plaza is a skyscraper that forms the centerpiece of Rockefeller Center in Midtown Manhattan, New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most popul ...

GE Building
(then
RCA The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919. It was initially a patent trust owned by General Electric General Electric Company (GE) is an American Multination ...
), along with the newly named family office, ''Room 5600'', at
Rockefeller Center Rockefeller Center is a large complex consisting of 19 commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adje ...

Rockefeller Center
; later it moved to the in the center, before shifting to its current
Fifth Avenue Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare A thoroughfare is a primary passage or way as a transit route through regularly trafficked areas whether by road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places ...

Fifth Avenue
address. In 1913, the foundation set up the International Health Commission (later Board), the first appropriation of funds for work outside the US, which launched the foundation into international public health activities. This expanded the work of the
Sanitary Commission The United States Sanitary Commission (USSC) was a private Aid agency, relief agency created by federal legislation on June 18, 1861, to support sick and wounded soldiers of the United States Army (Federal / Northern / Union Army) during the Amer ...
worldwide, working against various diseases in fifty-two countries on six continents and twenty-nine islands, bringing international recognition of the need for public health and environmental sanitation. Its early field research on
hookworm Hookworms are intestinal, blood-feeding, parasitic roundworms that cause types of infection known as helminthiases. Hookworm infection is found in many parts of the world, and is common in areas with poor access to adequate water, sanitation, ...
,
malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms Signs and symptoms are the observed or detectable signs, and experienced symptoms of an illness, injury, or condition. A sign fo ...

malaria
, and
yellow fever Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration. In most cases, symptoms include fever, chills, Anorexia (symptom), loss of appetite, nausea, muscle pains particularly in the back, and headaches. Symptoms typically improve within ...
provided the basic techniques to control these diseases and established the pattern of modern public health services. The commission established and endowed the school of Hygiene and Public Health, at
Johns Hopkins University The Johns Hopkins University (Johns Hopkins, Hopkins, or JHU) is a private university, private research university in Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur ...

Johns Hopkins University
, and later at Harvard, and then spent more than $25 million in developing other public health schools in the US and in 21 foreign countries – helping to establish America as the world leader in medicine and scientific research. In 1913, it also began a 20-year support program of the ''Bureau of Social Hygiene'', whose mission was research and education on birth control, maternal health and sex education.


Europe

In the interwar years, the Foundation's support of public health, nursing, and social work in Eastern and Central Europe was a concentrated effort to advance medicine and create a global network of medical research. After
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
it sent a team to West Germany to investigate how it could become involved in reconstructing the country. They focused on restoring democracy, especially regarding education and scientific research, with the long-term goal of reintegrating Germany to the Western world.


China Medical Board

In 1914, the foundation set up the
China Medical BoardChina Medical Board, Inc. (CMB; ) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, ...
, which established the first public health university in China, the
Peking Union Medical College Peking Union Medical College (), founded in 1906, is a selective medical college based in Dongcheng, Beijing Beijing ( ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Re ...
, in 1921; this was subsequently nationalized when the Communists took over the country in 1949. In the same year it began a program of international fellowships to train scholars at many of the world's universities at the post-doctoral level; a fundamental commitment to the education of future leaders.


Department of Industrial Relations

Also in 1914, the trustees set up a new Department of Industrial Relations, inviting
William Lyon Mackenzie King William Lyon Mackenzie King (December 17, 1874 – July 22, 1950) was a Canadian statesman and politician who served as the 10th prime minister of Canada for three non-consecutive terms from 1921 to 1926, 1926 to 1930 and 1935 to 1948. A Libera ...

William Lyon Mackenzie King
to head it. He became a close and key advisor to Junior through the
Ludlow Massacre The Ludlow Massacre was a mass killing perpetrated by anti-striker militia during the Colorado Coalfield War. Soldiers from the Colorado National Guard The Colorado National Guard consists of the Colorado Army National Guard and Colorado Air ...
, turning around his attitude to unions; however the foundation's involvement in IR was criticized for advancing the family's business interests. The foundation henceforth confined itself to funding responsible organizations involved in this and other controversial fields, which were beyond the control of the foundation itself.


Psychiatry

During the late-1920s, the Rockefeller Foundation created the Medical Sciences Division, which emerged from the former Division of Medical Education. The division was led by Dr. Richard M. Pearce until his death in 1930, to which Alan Gregg succeeded him until 1945. During this period, the Division of Medical Sciences was known for making large contributions to research across several fields of psychiatry. The 1930s was one of the most prominent decades in Rockefeller Foundation philanthropy to psychiatric research, as the foundation set a goal to find, train, and encourage scholars for research and practice. One of the first large contributions from the Foundation to psychiatric research was in 1935, with the appropriation of $100000 to the Institute for Psychoanalysis in Chicago. This grant was renewed in 1938, with payments extending into the early-1940s.


Social sciences

Through the ''Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial'' (LSRM), established by Senior in 1918 and named after his wife, the Rockefeller fortune was for the first time directed to supporting research by social scientists. During its first few years of work, the LSRM awarded funds primarily to social workers, with its funding decisions guided primarily by Junior. In 1922, Beardsley Ruml was hired to direct the LSRM, and he most decisively shifted the focus of Rockefeller philanthropy into the
social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist o ...

social science
s, stimulating the founding of university research centers, and creating the
Social Science Research Council The Social Science Research Council (SSRC) is a US-based independent, international nonprofit organization dedicated to advancing research in the social sciences and related disciplines. Established in Manhattan in 1923, it today maintains a hea ...
. In January 1929, LSRM funds were folded into the Rockefeller Foundation, in a major reorganization. Junior became the foundation chairman in 1917. One of the many prominent trustees of the institution since has been
C. Douglas Dillon Clarence Douglas Dillon (born Clarence Douglass Dillon; August 21, 1909January 10, 2003) was an United States, American diplomat and politician, who served as U.S. Ambassador to France (1953–1957) and as the 57th United States Secretary of the Tr ...
, the
United States Secretary of the Treasury The United States secretary of the treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, which is concerned with all financial and monetary matters relating to the federal government, and, until 2003, also included several major ...
under both Presidents
John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the ...

John F. Kennedy
and
Lyndon B. Johnson Lyndon Baines Johnson (; August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was the 36th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the ...

Lyndon B. Johnson
.


Eugenics and Nazi racial studies

Beginning in 1930, the Rockefeller Foundation provided financial support to the
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics Former Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Racial Hygiene, at the Free University of Berlin The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics was founded in 1927 in Berlin, Germany. The Rockefeller Foundation partially funded the ...
, which later inspired and conducted eugenics experiments in the
Third Reich Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...
. The Rockefeller Foundation funded Nazi racial studies even after it was clear that this research was being used to rationalize the demonizing of Jews and other groups. Up until 1939, the Rockefeller Foundation was funding research used to support Nazi racial science studies at the
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics Former Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Racial Hygiene, at the Free University of Berlin The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics was founded in 1927 in Berlin, Germany. The Rockefeller Foundation partially funded the ...
(KWIA.) Reports submitted to Rockefeller did not hide what these studies were being used to justify. Still, Rockefeller continued the funding and refrained from criticizing this research so closely derived from Nazi ideology. The Rockefeller Foundation did not alert "the world to the nature of German science and the racist folly" that German anthropology promulgated. Rockefeller funded for years after the passage of the 1935 Nuremberg racial laws. The Rockefeller Foundation, along with the
Carnegie Institution The Carnegie Institution of Washington (the organization's legal name), known also for public purposes as the Carnegie Institution for Science (CIS), is an organization in the United States established to fund and perform . The institution is he ...
, was the primary financier for the
Eugenics Record Office The Eugenics Record Office (ERO), located in Cold Spring Harbor, New York, United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily loc ...
, until 1939.


Harvard International Seminars

The foundation also supported the early initiatives of
Henry Kissinger Henry Alfred Kissinger (; ; born Heinz Alfred Kissinger; May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the ...

Henry Kissinger
, such as his directorship of Harvard's ''International Seminars'' (funded as well by the
Central Intelligence Agency The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA; ), known informally as the Agency and the Company, is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States The federal government of the United States (U.S. fed ...
) and the early foreign policy magazine ''Confluence'', both established by him while he was still a graduate student.


Programs: scale and scope

Through the years the foundation has expanded greatly in scope. Historically, it has given more than $14 billion in current dollars to thousands of grantees worldwide and has assisted directly in the training of nearly 13,000 Rockefeller Fellows. Its overall philanthropic activity has been divided into five main subject areas: * Medical, health, and population sciences * Agricultural and natural sciences * Arts and humanities * Social sciences * International relations In the 1920s, the Rockefeller Foundation started a program to eradicate hookworm in Mexico. The program demonstrated the time period's confidence in science as the solution for everything. This reliance on science was known as scientific neutrality. The Rockefeller Foundation program stated that there was a crucial correlation between the world of science, politics and international health policy. This heavy reliance on scientific neutrality contradicted the hookworm program's fundamental objective to invest in public health in order to develop better social conditions and to establish positive ties between the United States and Mexico. The Hookworm Campaign set the terms of the relationship between Mexico and the Rockefeller Foundation that persisted through subsequent programs including the development of a network of local public health departments. The importance of the hookworm campaign was to get a foot in the door and swiftly convince rural people of the value of public health work. The roles of the RF's hookworm campaign are characteristic of the policy paradoxes that emerge when science is summoned to drive policy. The campaign in Mexico served as a policy cauldron through which new knowledge could be demonstrated applicable to social and political problems on many levels. A major program beginning in the 1930s was the relocation of German (Jewish) scholars from German universities to America. This was expanded to other European countries after the ''
Anschluss The ''Anschluss'' (, or ''Anschluß'' before the German orthography reform of 1996 The German orthography reform of 1996 (') was a change to German spelling German orthography is the orthography used in writing Writing is a med ...

Anschluss
'' occurred; when war broke out it became a full-scale rescue operation. Another program, the ''Emergency Rescue Committee'' was also partly funded with Rockefeller money; this effort resulted in the rescue of some of the most famous artists, writers and composers of Europe. Some of the notable figures relocated or saved (out of a total of 303 scholars) by the Foundation were
Thomas Mann Paul Thomas Mann ( , ; ; 6 June 1875 – 12 August 1955) was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature ) , image = Nobel Prize.png , caption = , awarded_ ...
,
Claude Lévi-Strauss Claude Lévi-Strauss (; ; 28 November 1908 – 30 October 2009) was a French anthropologist and Ethnology, ethnologist whose work was key in the development of the theory of structuralism and structural anthropology. He held the chair of Social ...
and
Leó Szilárd Leo Szilard (; hu, Szilárd Leó ; born Leó Spitz; February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was a Hungarian-American physicist and inventor. He conceived the nuclear chain reaction in 1933, patented the idea of a nuclear fission reactor in 19 ...
, enriching intellectual life and academic disciplines in the US. This came to light afterwards through a brief, unpublished history of the Foundation's program. Another program was its Medical Sciences Division, which funded women's contraception and the human reproductive system in general. Other funding went into
endocrinology Endocrinology (from ''endocrine system, endocrine'' + ''wikt:-logy#Suffix, -ology'') is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones. It is also concerned with the ...
departments in American universities, human heredity, mammalian biology, human physiology and anatomy,
psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

psychology
, and the studies of human sexual behavior by Dr.
Alfred Kinsey Alfred Charles Kinsey (; June 23, 1894 – August 25, 1956) was an American biologist Francesco Redi, the founder of biology, is recognized to be one of the greatest biologists of all time A biologist is a professional who has specialized kno ...
. In 1950, the Foundation mounted a major program of virus research, establishing field laboratories in
Poona Pune (; ) is the seventh most populous city in India and the second-largest city in the state of Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a states and union territories of India, state in the western and central peninsular region of ...
, India;
Port of Spain Port of Spain (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...
,
Trinidad Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago (, ), officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is the southernmost island country in the and is known for its fossil- ...

Trinidad
;
Belém Belém (; Portuguese language, Portuguese for Bethlehem) is a Cities of Brazil, Brazilian city with 2,491,052 people residing in its Metropolitan Region. The capital city itself has 1,499,641 inhabitants (for more details on its population see in ...

Belém
, Brazil;
Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in , classified as a , and is . According to , the Johannesburg-Pretoria urban area (combined because of strong transpor ...

Johannesburg
, South Africa;
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic language, Coptic: ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Egypt, largest city of Egypt. The Greater Cairo, Cairo metropolitan area, with a population o ...

Cairo
, Egypt;
Ibadan Ibadan (, ; ) is the Capital city, capital and most populous city of Oyo State, in Nigeria. It is the List of Nigerian cities by population, third-largest city by population in Nigeria after Lagos and Kano (city), Kano, with a total population ...

Ibadan
, Nigeria; and
Cali Santiago de Cali (), or Cali, is the capital of the Valle del Cauca department, and the most populous city in southwest Colombia, with 2,227,642 residents according to the 2018 census. The city spans with of urban area, making Cali the second- ...

Cali
, Colombia. In time, major funding was also contributed by the countries involved, while in Trinidad the
British government The Government of the United Kingdom, domestically referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
and neighbouring British-controlled territories also assisted. Sub-professional staff were almost all recruited locally and, wherever possible, local people were given scholarships and other support to be professionally trained. In most cases, locals eventually took over management of the facilities. Support was also given to research on viruses in many other countries. The result of all this research was the identification of a huge number of viruses affecting humans, the development of new techniques for the rapid identification of viruses, and a quantum leap in our understanding of
arthropod An arthropod (, (gen. ποδός)) is an invertebrate Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a ''backbone'' or ''spine''), derived from the notochord. This includes all animals apart fr ...
-borne viruses. In the arts it has helped establish or support the
Stratford Shakespeare Festival The Stratford Festival is a theatre festival which runs from April to October in the city of Stratford, Ontario , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ont ...
in
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
, Canada, and the American Shakespeare Festival in
Stratford, Connecticut Stratford is a New England town, town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. It is situated on Long Island Sound along Connecticut's "Gold Coast (Connecticut), Gold Coast" at the mouth of the Housatonic River. Stratford is in the Grea ...
;
Arena Stage Arena Stage is a not-for-profit regional theater based in Southwest The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is ...

Arena Stage
in Washington, D.C.;
Karamu House Karamu House in the Fairfax neighborhood on the east side of Cleveland Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of gov ...
in
Cleveland, Ohio Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a city in the United States, U.S. U.S. state, state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County, Ohio, Cuyahoga County. It is located along the southern shore of Lake Erie, across the U.S ...
; and
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts Lincoln most commonly refers to: * Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln (; February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th from 1861 until in 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the , the co ...
in New York. In a recent shift in program emphasis, President Rodin eliminated the division that spent money on the arts, the creativity and culture program. One program that signals the shift was the foundation's support as the underwriter of
Spike Lee Shelton Jackson "Spike" Lee (born March 20, 1957) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, actor, and professor. His production company, 40 Acres and a Mule Filmworks 40 Acres and a Mule Filmworks is the production company of Spi ...

Spike Lee
's documentary on
New Orleans New Orleans (,New Orleans
Merriam-Webster.
; french: La Nouvelle-Orléans ) is a Consolidat ...

New Orleans
, '' When the Levees Broke''. The film has been used as the basis for a curriculum on poverty, developed by the Teachers College at
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a in . Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of in , Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in and ...

Columbia University
for their students. Many scientists and scholars from all over the world have received foundation fellowships and scholarships for advanced study in major scientific disciplines. In addition, the foundation has provided significant and often substantial research grants to finance conferences and assist with published studies, as well as funding departments and programs, to a vast range of foreign policy and educational organizations, including: *
Council on Foreign Relations The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States Nonprofit organization, nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and International relations, international affairs. It is headquartered in New York City ...
(CFR) – Especially the notable 1939-45 ''
War and Peace StudiesWar and Peace Studies was a project carried out by the Council on Foreign Relations between 1939 and 1945 before and during American involvement in World War II. It was intended to advise the U.S. Government on conduct in the war and the subsequent ...
'' that advised the US
State Department The United States Department of State (DOS), or State Department, is an executive department The United States federal executive departments are the principal units of the Federal government of the United States, executive branch of the feder ...

State Department
and the US government on World War II strategy and forward planning *
Royal Institute of International Affairs Royal may refer to: People * Royal (name)Royal can be a surname or a given name. Bearers include: Surname * Billy Joe Royal (1942–2015), American country music and pop singer * Calvin Royal III, American ballet dancer * Darrell Royal (1924 ...
(RIIA) in London *
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a nonpartisan foreign-policy think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for ...
in Washington – Support of the diplomatic training program *
Brookings Institution The Brookings Institution, often referred to simply as Brookings, is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States ...
in Washington – Significant funding of research grants in the fields of economic and social studies *
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...
in Washington – Helped finance the training of foreign officials through the ''Economic Development Institute'' *
Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636 as Harvard College and named for its first benefactor, the History of the Puritans in North America, Puritan cler ...

Harvard University
– Grants to the ''Center for International Affairs'' and medical, business and administration Schools *
Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
– Substantial funding to the ''Institute of International Studies'' *
Princeton University Princeton University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Princeton University
Office of Population Research *
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a in . Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of in , Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in and ...

Columbia University
– Establishment of the ''Russia Institute'' *
University of the Philippines, Los Baños A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various Discipline (academia), academic d ...
– Funded research for the College of Agriculture and built an international house for foreign students *
McGill University McGill University is a public university, public research university located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Founded in 1821 by royal charter granted by George IV, King George IV,Frost, Stanley Brice. ''McGill University, Vol. I. For the Advanceme ...
– The Rockefeller Foundation funded the
Montreal Neurological Institute The McGill University Health Centre (MUHC; french: Centre universitaire de santé McGill) is one of two major healthcare networks in the city of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec. It is affiliated with McGill University and is one of the largest medical i ...

Montreal Neurological Institute
, on the request of Dr.
Wilder Penfield Wilder Graves Penfield (January 26, 1891April 5, 1976) was an American-Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Can ...

Wilder Penfield
, a Canadian neurosurgeon, who had met David Rockefeller years before *
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order ...

Library of Congress
– Funded a project for photographic copies of the complete card catalogues for the world's fifty leading libraries *
Bodleian Library The Bodleian Library () is the main research library A research library is a library which contains an in-depth collection of material on one or several subjects.(Young, 1983; p. 188) A research library will generally include primary source ...

Bodleian Library
at
Oxford University Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London, southeast of Birmingham, and northeast of Bristol. The city is home to the Univer ...

Oxford University
– Grant for a building to house five million volumes *
Population Council The Population Council is an international, nonprofit, non-governmental organization File:Europe in a suitcase - UK.jpg, upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at the launch o ...
of New York – Funded fellowships *
Social Science Research Council The Social Science Research Council (SSRC) is a US-based independent, international nonprofit organization dedicated to advancing research in the social sciences and related disciplines. Established in Manhattan in 1923, it today maintains a hea ...
– Major funding for fellowships and grants-in-aid *
National Bureau of Economic Research The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is an American private nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and op ...
*
National Institute of Public Health of Japan National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared territory. A nation is more overtly political than an ...

National Institute of Public Health of Japan
(formerly ja) in Tokyo (1938) *
Group of Thirty The Group of Thirty, often abbreviated to G30, is an international body of financiers and academics which aims to deepen understanding of economic and financial issues and to examine consequences of decisions made in the public and private sec ...
– In 1978 the Foundation invited to set up this high-powered and influential advisory group on global financial issues, whose former chairman was longtime Rockefeller associate
Paul Volcker Paul Adolph Volcker Jr. (; September 5, 1927 – December 8, 2019) was an American economist. He served two terms as the 12th Chair of the Federal Reserve The chair of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is the head of the Fed ...
, until his death in 2019 *
London School of Economics , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of s ...
– funded research and general budget * University of Lyon, France – funded research in natural sciences, social sciences, medicine and the new building of the medical school during the 1920s-1930s * The * The
Results for Development Institute Results for Development (R4D) is a global nonprofit strategy consulting organization." Regions & Countries Results for Development is active in more than 55 countries. History Founded in 2008 by David de Ferranti, who served with the World Bank ...
– funded the Center for Health Market Innovations *
Mahidol University Mahidol University (Mahidol), an autonomous research institution in Thailand, had its origin in the establishment of Siriraj Hospital in 1888. Mahidol had an acceptance rate for Medicine of 0.4% as of the 2016 academic year. Becoming the Universit ...

Mahidol University
in Thailand


Notable programs

The Rockefeller Foundation has accomplished some notable achievements, such as: * Financially supported education in the United States "without distinction of race, sex or creed" * Helped establish the
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. Thi ...

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
in the United Kingdom; * Established the
Johns Hopkins School of Public Health The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH) is part of Johns Hopkins University The Johns Hopkins University is a private university, private research university in Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the universit ...
and
Harvard School of Public Health The Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health is the public health school of Harvard University, located in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area, Longwood Medical Area of Boston, Massachusetts. The school grew out of the Harvard-Massachusetts ...
, two of the first such institutions in the United States;Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
History
/ref>Harvard School of Public Health
History
/ref> * Established the at the University of Toronto in 1927; * Developed the vaccine to prevent
yellow fever Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration. In most cases, symptoms include fever, chills, Anorexia (symptom), loss of appetite, nausea, muscle pains particularly in the back, and headaches. Symptoms typically improve within ...
;
National Library of Medicine The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the national government of the United Sta ...
* Helped
The New School The New School is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two decade ...
provide a haven for scholars threatened by the Nazis The foundation also funded several infamous projects: * Various German
eugenics Eugenics ( ; from Greek εὐ- 'good' and γενής 'come into being, growing') is a set of beliefs and practices that aim to improve the genetic quality of a human population Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widesp ...
programs, including the laboratory of
Otmar Freiherr von VerschuerOthmar, also spelled Otmar or Ottmar, is a masculine German given name, derived from the Germanic nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix A prefix is an affix which i ...
, for whom
Josef Mengele or ) * Wolfgang Gerhard (burial name) , allegiance = Nazi Germany , branch = Schutzstaffel , serviceyears = 1938–1945 , rank = ''Schutzstaffel, SS''-''Hauptsturmführer'' (Captain) , servicenumber = , battles ...
worked before he went to
Auschwitz The Auschwitz concentration camp () was a complex of over 40 concentration In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture. Several types of mathematical description can be distinguishe ...

Auschwitz
. * The construction of the
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute was first detected Image:Freie Universitaet Berlin - Fachbereich Rechtswissenschaft.jpg, Former Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut for Biology, Berlin The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science ( German ''Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förd ...
's Institute for Brain Research with a $317,000 grant in 1929, with continuing support for the institute's operations under
Ernst Rüdin Ernst Rüdin (April 19, 1874 in St. Gallen – October 22, 1952) was a Switzerland, Swiss-born German psychiatry, psychiatrist, geneticist, eugenics, eugenicist and Nazi. Rising to prominence under Emil Kraepelin and assuming his directorship ...

Ernst Rüdin
over the next several years. * An experiment conducted by Vanderbilt University in the 1940s where they gave 800 pregnant women radioactive iron,Pacchioli, David, (March 1996
"Subjected to Science"
, ''Research/Penn State'', Vol. 17, no. 1
751 of which were pills, without their consent. In a 1969 article published in the ''
American Journal of Epidemiology The American Journal of Epidemiology (''AJE'') is a peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by quali ...
'', it was estimated that three children had died from the experiment.


The Green Revolution

Agriculture was introduced to the Natural Sciences division of the foundation in the major reorganization of 1928. In 1941, the foundation gave a small grant to
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to ...

Mexico
for maize research, in collaboration with the then new president,
Manuel Ávila Camacho Manuel Ávila Camacho (; 24 April 1897 – 13 October 1955) was a Mexican politician and military leader who served as the President of Mexico from 1940 to 1946. Despite participating in the Mexican Revolution and achieving a high rank, he came ...

Manuel Ávila Camacho
. This was done after the intervention of vice-president and the involvement of
Nelson Rockefeller Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979), sometimes referred to by his nickname, Rocky, was an American businessman and politician who served as the 41st vice president of the United States from December 1974 to January ...

Nelson Rockefeller
; the primary intention being to stabilise the Mexican Government and derail any possible communist infiltration, in order to protect the Rockefeller family's investments.The story of the Foundation and the Green Revolution – see Mark Dowie, ''American Foundations: An Investigative History'', Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2001, (pp.105–140) By 1943, this program, under the foundation's ''Mexican Agriculture Project'', had proved such a success with the science of corn propagation and general principles of
agronomy Agronomy is the science and technology of producing and using plants in agriculture for food, fuel, fiber, recreation, and land restoration. Agronomy has come to encompass work in the areas of plant genetics, plant physiology, meteorology, and ...
that it was exported to other Latin American countries; in 1956, the program was then taken to India; again with the geopolitical imperative of providing an antidote to communism. It wasn't until 1959 that senior foundation officials succeeded in getting the
Ford Foundation The Ford Foundation is an American private foundation A private foundation is a charitable organization that, while serving a good cause, might or might not qualify as a public charity by government standards. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundati ...
(and later
USAID The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance. With a budget of ov ...

USAID
, and later still, the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...
) to sign on to the major philanthropic project, known now to the world as the
Green Revolution The Green Revolution, or the Third Agricultural Revolution, is the set of research technology transfer initiatives occurring between 1950 and the late 1960s, that increased agricultural production worldwide, beginning most markedly in the late ...

Green Revolution
. It was originally conceived in 1943 as
CIMMYT The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (known - even in English - by its Spanish acronym CIMMYT for ''Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo'') is a non-profit research-for-development organization that develops imp ...
, the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center in Mexico. It also provided significant funding for the
International Rice Research Institute The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international agricultural research and training organization with its headquarters in Los Baños, Laguna in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), o ...
in the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
. Part of the original program, the funding of the IRRI was later taken over by the Ford Foundation. The
International Rice Research Institute The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international agricultural research and training organization with its headquarters in Los Baños, Laguna in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), o ...
and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center are part of a consortium of agricultural research organizations known as
CGIAR CGIAR (formerly the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research) is a global partnership that unites s engaged in research about food security. CGIAR research aims to reduce rural poverty, increase food security, improve human h ...

CGIAR
. Costing around $600 million, over 50 years, the revolution brought new farming technology, increased productivity, expanded crop yields and mass fertilization to many countries throughout the world. Later it funded over $100 million of plant
biotechnology Biotechnology is a broad area of biology, involving the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products. Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with related scientific fields. In the late 20th and early 21st c ...

biotechnology
research and trained over four hundred scientists from Asia, Africa and Latin America. It also invested in the production of
transgenic A transgene is a gene In biology, a gene (from ''genos'' "...Wilhelm Johannsen coined the word gene to describe the Mendelian_inheritance#History, Mendelian units of heredity..." (Greek language, Greek) meaning ''generation'' or ''birth'' ) ...
crops, including rice and maize. In 1999, the then president Gordon Conway addressed the
Monsanto Company The Monsanto Company () was an American agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation founded in 1901. In 2018, it was acquired by Bayer as part of its crop science division. It was headquartered in Creve Coeur, Missouri. Monsanto ...
board of directors, warning of the possible social and environmental dangers of this biotechnology, and requesting them to disavow the use of so-called terminator genes; the company later complied. In the 1990s, the foundation shifted its agriculture work and emphasis to Africa; in 2006, it joined with the
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), a merging of the William H. Gates Foundation and the Gates Learning Foundation, is an American private foundation founded by Bill Gates, Bill and Melinda Gates. Based in Seattle, Washington, it was lau ...
in a $150 million effort to fight hunger in the continent through improved agricultural productivity. In an interview marking the 100 year anniversary of the Rockefeller Foundation,
Judith Rodin Judith Rodin (born Judith Seitz; September 9, 1944) is a philanthropist Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the Public good (economics), public good, focusing on quality of life". Philanthropy contrasts with business initiatives, w ...
explained to
This Is Africa ''This Is Africa'' is an English-language bi-monthly business publication owned by ''The Financial Times'' Ltd and edited in London. It examines African business and politics in a global context and seeks to make sense of the relationships that Afri ...
that Rockefeller has been involved in Africa since their beginning in three main areas – health, agriculture and education, though agriculture has been and continues to be their largest investment in Africa.


Bellagio Center

The foundation also owns and operates the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Bellagio, Italy. The Center comprises several buildings, spread across a property, on the peninsula between lakes
Como Como (, ; lmo, Còmm, label=Comasco dialect, Comasco , or ; lat, Novum Comum; rm, Com; french: Côme) is a city and ''comune'' in Lombardy, Italy. It is the administrative capital of the Province of Como. Its proximity to Lake Como and t ...

Como
and
Lecco Lecco (, , ; lmo, label=Lecchese Lecchese is a dialect of Western Lombard language spoken in the city and suburbs of Lecco (Lombardy). Characteristics It has the characteristic, in contrast with the other Comasco-Lecchese dialects, to be ...

Lecco
in
Northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical cha ...
. The center is sometimes colloquially referred to as the ''Villa Serbelloni.'' The Villa is only one of the many buildings in which residents and conference participants are housed. The property was bequeathed to the Foundation in 1959 under the presidency of
Dean Rusk David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State The United States secretary of state implements foreign policy for the U.S. government as the head of the U.S. Department of State. Created in 17 ...

Dean Rusk
(who was later to become
U.S. President The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodime ...

U.S. President
's secretary of state). The Bellagio Center operates both a conference center and a residency program. The residency program is a highly competitive program to which scholars, artists, writers, musicians, scientists, policymakers and development professionals from around the world can apply to work on a project of their own choosing for a period of four weeks. The essence of the program is the synergy obtained by the interaction between people coming from the most diverse backgrounds. Numerous
Nobel laureates The Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's Will and testament, will of 1895, are awarded to "those who, during the preceding year, have conferred th ...
,
PulitzerPulitzer may refer to: *Pulitzer Prize, an annual U.S. journalism, literary, and music award *Pulitzer (surname) *Pulitzer, Inc., a U.S. newspaper chain *Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting, a non-profit organization for journalists See also

*P ...
winners,
National Book Award The National Book Awards are a set of annual U.S. literary awards A literary award or literary prize is an award presented in recognition of a particularly lauded Literature, literary piece or body of work. It is normally presented to an author ...
recipients,
Prince Mahidol Award The Prince Mahidol Award ( th, รางวัลสมเด็จเจ้าฟ้ามหิดล) is a Thai Royal Family A royal family is the immediate family of kings/ queens, emirs/emiras, or sultans/ sultanas, and sometimes the ...
winners and
MacArthur fellows The MacArthur Fellows Program, also known as the MacArthur Fellowship and commonly but unofficially known as the "Genius Grant", is a prize awarded annually by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation typically to between 20 and 30 indiv ...
, as well as several acting and former heads of State and Government, have been in residence at Bellagio.


Rockefeller Foundation Communication for Social Change Network

The network is enabled by the Rockefeller Foundation for collaboration between experts and communication professionals that include grassroots/community-based and international non-governmental organizations, as well as multilateral and bilateral entities. Its involvement in AIDS prevention was based on promoting deep-rooted social changes that stem from informed and inclusive public engagement. However, it recognized that wide-scale educational campaigns focused on altering individual behavior played a critical role. The strategy and principles linked with the network are listed below: * "Sustainability of social change is more likely if the individuals and communities most affected ''own'' the process and content of communication." * "Communication for social change should be empowering, horizontal (versus top-down), give a voice to the previously unheard members of the community, and be biased towards local content and ownership." * "Communities should be the agents of their own change." * "Emphasis should shift from persuasion and the transmission of information from outside technical experts to dialogue, debate and negotiation on issues that resonate with members of the community." * "Emphasis on outcomes should go beyond individual behaviour to social norms, policies, culture and the supporting environment."


100 Resilient Cities

In December 2013, The Rockefeller Foundation launched the 100 Resilient Cities initiative, which was dedicated to promoting
urban resilience Urban resilience has conventionally been defined as the "measurable ability of any urban system, with its inhabitants, to maintain continuity through all shocks and stresses, while positively adapting and transforming towards sustainability". There ...
, defined as "the capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses, and systems within a city to survive, adapt, and grow no matter what kinds of chronic stresses and acute shocks they experience." Through its program, 100 Resilient Cities offered cities the following resources: * Financial and logistical guidance for establishing an innovative new position in city government, a Chief Resilience Officer, who will lead the city's resilience efforts * Expert support for development of a robust resilience strategy * Access to solutions, service providers, and partners from the private, public and NGO sectors who can help them develop and implement their resilience strategies * Membership of a global network of member cities who can learn from and help each other A total of 100 cities across six continents were part of the program. All 100 cities developed individual City Resilience Strategies with technical support from a Chief Resilience Officer (CRO), funded by the program. The CRO ideally reports directly to the city's chief executive and helps coordinate all the resilience efforts in a single city. In January 2016, the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development announced winners of its National Disaster Resilience Competition (NDRC), awarding three 100RC member cities – New York, NY; Norfolk, VA; and New Orleans, LA – with more than $437 million in disaster resilience funding. The grant was the largest ever received by the city of Norfolk. In April 2019, it was announced that the Rockefeller Foundation would no longer be funding the 100 Resilient Cities program as a whole. Some elements of the initiative's work, most prominently the funding of several cities' Chief Resilience Officer roles, continues to be managed and funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, while other aspects of the program continue in the form of two independent organizations, Resilient Cities Catalyst (RCC) and the Global Resilient Cities Network (GRCN), founded by former 100RC leadership and staff.


Cultural Innovation Fund

The Cultural Innovation Fund is a pilot grant program that is overseen by Lincoln Center for the Arts. The Rockefeller Foundation selected
Lincoln Center Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts (also simply known as Lincoln Center) is a complex of buildings in the Lincoln Square neighborhood of Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropol ...
to administer the fund based on the institutions steady track record in creating community based partnerships and implementing art based programs. The grants are to be used towards innovative ideas that would bring art access and foster cultural opportunities in the underserved areas of
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the te ...

Brooklyn
and the
South Bronx The South Bronx is an area of the New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2019 population of 8,336,8 ...
with three overarching goals. * Increase access to the arts in underserved neighborhoods around
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
* increase the "places and platforms" where cultural activities are taking place * support nonprofit organizations in implementing cultural based programs and strategies


Family involvement

The Rockefeller family helped lead the foundation in its early years, but later limited itself to one or two representatives, to maintain the foundation's independence and avoid charges of undue family influence. These representatives have included the former president John D. Rockefeller III, and then his son John D. Rockefeller, IV, who gave up the trusteeship in 1981. In 1989,
David Rockefeller David Rockefeller (June 12, 1915 – March 20, 2017) was an American banker who served as chairman and chief executive of Chase (bank), Chase Manhattan Corporation. He was the oldest living member of the third generation of the Rockefeller family ...
's daughter,
Peggy Dulany Margaret Dulany "Peggy" Rockefeller (born 1947) is an American heiress and philanthropist. Early life Rockefeller was born in 1947. She is the fourth child of David Rockefeller David Rockefeller (June 12, 1915 – March 20, 2017) was an American ...
, was appointed to the board for a five-year term. In October 2006, David Rockefeller, Jr. joined the board of trustees, re-establishing the direct family link and becoming the sixth family member to serve on the board. By contrast, the
Ford Foundation The Ford Foundation is an American private foundation A private foundation is a charitable organization that, while serving a good cause, might or might not qualify as a public charity by government standards. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundati ...
has severed all direct links with the Ford family. Stock in the family's oil companies had been a major part of the foundation's assets, beginning with
Standard Oil Standard Oil Co. was an American -producing, transporting, refining, and marketing . Established in 1870 by and as a in , it was the largest in the world at its height. Its history as one of the world's first and largest s ended in 1911, wh ...

Standard Oil
and later with its corporate descendants, including
Exxon Mobil Exxon Mobil Corporation, stylized as ExxonMobil, is an American Multinational corporation, multinational List of oil exploration and production companies, oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas. It is the largest direct descenda ...
. In December 2020, the foundation pledged to dump their fossil fuel holdings. With a $5 billion endowment, the Rockefeller Foundation was "the largest US foundation to embrace the rapidly growing divestment movement." CNN writer Matt Egan noted, "This divestment is especially symbolic because the Rockefeller Foundation was founded by oil money."


Historical legacy

The second-oldest major philanthropic institution in America, after the
Carnegie Corporation The Carnegie Corporation of New York is a philanthropic fund established by Andrew Carnegie Andrew Carnegie ( , November 25, 1835August 11, 1919) was a Scottish-American industrialist and philanthropist Philanthropy consists of "pri ...
, the foundation's impact on philanthropy in general has been profound. It has supported
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
programs throughout its history, such as the recent ''First Global Forum On Human Development'', organized by the ''United Nations Development Programme'' (UNDP) in 1999. The early institutions it set up have served as models for current organizations: the UN's
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unit ...
, set up in 1948, is modeled on the International Health Division; the U.S. Government's
National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent agency of the United States government Independent or Independents may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Artist groups * Independents (artist group)The Independents were a group of ...

National Science Foundation
(1950) on its approach in support of research, scholarships and institutional development; and the
National Institute of Health The National Institutes of Health (NIH ) is the primary agency of the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States The United Sta ...
(1950) imitated its longstanding medical programs.


Current trustees

:As of June 1, 2021 * Admiral (chair), 2018-, retired
United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = "Anchors Aweigh "Anchors Aweigh" is the fight song of the United States Naval Ac ...
; Supreme Allied Commander at
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental military alliance between 27 European ...
, 2009–2013, Operating Executive,
The Carlyle Group The Carlyle Group is an American multinational corporation, multinational private equity firm, private equity, alternative asset management and financial services corporation. It specializes in private equity, real assets, and private credit. In ...

The Carlyle Group
; Chair of the Board of Counselors, McLarty Associates * , 2019-, Vice-Chancellor, The
University of Global Health Equity University of Global Health Equity (UGHE) is a health sciences university in Rwanda. An initiative of Partners In Health, UGHE is a private, not-for-profit, accredited institution. Catalytic partners that have helped to launch the University incl ...
, Rwanda *
Mellody Hobson Mellody Hobson (born April 3, 1969) is an American businesswoman who is President and co-CEO of Ariel Investments, and the chairwoman of Starbucks Starbucks Corporation is an American multinational chain of coffeehouses and roastery reser ...

Mellody Hobson
, 2018-, President,
Ariel Investments Ariel Investments is an investment company located in Chicago, Illinois (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive maps of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_foo ...
*
Donald Kaberuka Donald P. Kaberuka (born 5 October 1951) is a Rwandan economist and was the president of the African Development Bank from September 2005 until September 2015. Early life and education Kaberuka was born in Byumba, Rwanda. He studied at the Univer ...

Donald Kaberuka
, 2015-, former president,
African Development Bank Group The African Development Bank Group (AfDB or ADB) or (BAD) is a multilateral development finance institution. The AfDB was founded in 1964 and comprises three entities: The African Development Bank, the African Development Fund and the Nigeria Tr ...
,
Rwanda Rwanda, officially the Republic of Rwanda, is a landlocked country in the Great Rift Valley, where the African Great Lakes region and East Africa converge. Located a few degrees south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Tanzania, ...

Rwanda
Minister of Finance and Economic Planning between 1997 and 2005. * Martin L. Leibowitz, 2012-, Vice-Chairman,
Morgan Stanley Morgan Stanley is an American multinational investment bank and financial services Financial services are the Service (economics), economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage ...
Research Department's Global Strategy Team; formerly
TIAA-CREF The Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association of America-College Retirement Equities Fund (TIAA, formerly TIAA-CREF), is a Fortune 100 financial services Financial services are the Service (economics), economic services provided by the finance ...
(1995 to 2004) and 26 years with
Salomon Brothers Salomon Brothers, Inc., was an American multinational bulge bracket investment bank To invest is to allocate money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III a ...
* Yifei Li, 2013-, country chair,
Man Group Man Group plc is an active management business initially founded as a sugar cooperage and brokerage by James Man in 1783. It provides a range of funds for institutional and private investors globally and is the world's largest publicly traded h ...
China * Ndidi Okonkwo Nwuneli, 2019-, Co-Founder, Sahel Consulting * Paul Polman, 2019-, Chair,
International Chamber of Commerce The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC; French: ''Chambre de commerce internationale'') is the largest, most representative business organization in the world. Its over 45 million members in over 100 countries have interests spanning every se ...
, The B Team; Former CEO,
Unilever Unilever PLC is a British multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a so ...

Unilever
*
Sharon Percy Rockefeller Sharon Lee Percy Rockefeller (born December 10, 1944) is the wife of former West Virginia Senator Jay Rockefeller, John Davison "Jay" Rockefeller IV and served as that state's First Lady from 1977 to 1985. On November 21, 2019, she was awarded the ...
, 2017-, President & CEO,
WETA-TV WETA-TV, virtual channel In most telecommunications organizations, a virtual channel is a method of remapping the ''program number'' as used in H.222 Program Association Tables and Program Mapping Tables to a channel number that can be entere ...
*
Juan Manuel Santos Juan Manuel Santos Calderón (; born 10 August 1951) is a Colombian politician who was the President of Colombia from 2010 to 2018. He was the sole recipient of the 2016 Nobel Peace Prize. An economist by profession and a journalist by trade, S ...

Juan Manuel Santos
, 2020-, Former President of
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning South America and an Insular region of Colombia, insular region in North America. It is bordered by the Carib ...

Colombia
& Recipient of
2016 Nobel Peace Prize The 2016 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the President of Colombia Juan Manuel Santos "for his resolute efforts to bring the country’s more than 50-year-long civil war to an end, a war that has cost the lives of at least 220,000 Colombians an ...
* Dr.
Rajiv Shah Rajiv "Raj" Shah, (born March 9, 1973) is the President of the Rockefeller Foundation '' The Rockefeller Foundation is an American private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough (New York Ci ...
, 2017-, President of the Foundation and ex-officio member of the board; served as a Rockefeller Foundation Trustee, 2015–2017; former administrator of the
United States Agency for International Development The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in different ...
(USAID) from 2010 to 2017. *
Adam Silver Adam Silver (born April 25, 1962) is an American lawyer and sports executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state ...
, 2020-, Commissioner,
National Basketball Association The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a professional basketball Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, m ...
(NB) *
Patty Stonesifer Patricia Q. Stonesifer (born 1956) is the president and CEO of Martha's Table, a non-profit in Washington, D.C., that provides community programs to address poverty. Stonesifer currently advises business, nonprofit and government leaders on strat ...
, 2019-, former President & CEO,
Martha's Table Martha's Table (founded in 1980) is a non-profit organization, an active charitable organization, charity and volunteer center in Washington, D.C. History Martha's Table started in 1980 as a safe place for children to receive free sandwiches and ...
; former CEO and Co-Chair,
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), a merging of the William H. Gates Foundation and the Gates Learning Foundation, is an American private foundation A private foundation is a charitable organization A charitable organization or cha ...
* Ravi Venkatesan, 2014-, former Chairman,
Bank of Baroda Bank of Baroda (BOB) is an Indian banking and company under the of , . It is the third largest bank in India, with 132 million customers, a total business of US$218 billion, and a global presence of 100 overseas offices. Based on 2019 data ...
; former Chairman
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multination ...

Microsoft
India (2004–2011) and
Cummins Cummins Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...

Cummins
India; Special Representative for Young People and Innovation,
UNICEF UNICEF, also known as the United Nations Children's Fund, is a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly ...

UNICEF


Past trustees

: include: *
Alan Alda Alan Alda (; born Alphonso Joseph D'Abruzzo; January 28, 1936) is an American actor. A six-time Emmy Award and Golden Globe Award winner, he played Hawkeye Pierce in the war television series '' M*A*S*H'' (1972–1983). He has had recurring ro ...
, 1989–1994 – actor and film director."Rockefeller Foundation Elects 5"
"
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
" 28, May 1989. Retrieved on 4 January 2019.
* Winthrop W. Aldrich 1935–1951 – chairman of the
Chase National Bank JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., doing business as Chase Bank or often as Chase, is an American national bank headquartered in Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, is the m ...
, 1934–1953; Ambassador to the Court of St. James, 1953–1957. * 1922–1939 –
J. P. Morgan John Pierpont Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier An investor is a person that allocates capital with the expectation of a future financial return (profit) or to gain an advantage (interest). Through this a ...
's private attorney; founding president of the
Council on Foreign Relations The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States Nonprofit organization, nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and International relations, international affairs. It is headquartered in New York City ...
. *
C. Douglas Dillon Clarence Douglas Dillon (born Clarence Douglass Dillon; August 21, 1909January 10, 2003) was an United States, American diplomat and politician, who served as U.S. Ambassador to France (1953–1957) and as the 57th United States Secretary of the Tr ...
1960–1961 – US Treasury Secretary, 1961–1965; member of the Council on Foreign Relations. * Orvil E. Dryfoos 1960–1963 – publisher of ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'', 1961–1963. *
Peggy Dulany Margaret Dulany "Peggy" Rockefeller (born 1947) is an American heiress and philanthropist. Early life Rockefeller was born in 1947. She is the fourth child of David Rockefeller David Rockefeller (June 12, 1915 – March 20, 2017) was an American ...
, 1989–1994 – Fourth child of David Rockefeller; founder and president of ''Synergos''. *
John Foster Dulles John Foster Dulles (; February 25, 1888May 24, 1959) was an American diplomat, lawyer, and Republican politician. He served as United States Secretary of State The United States secretary of state implements foreign policy for the U.S. g ...
1935–1952 (chairman) – US Secretary of State, 1953–1959; senior partner,
Sullivan & Cromwell Sullivan & Cromwell LLP is an international law firm headquartered in New York City. History Founded in 1879 by Algernon Sydney Sullivan and William Nelson Cromwell, Sullivan & Cromwell advised J.P. Morgan, John Pierpont Morgan during the creatio ...
law firm. *
Charles William Eliot Charles William Eliot (March 20, 1834 – August 22, 1926) was an American academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary h ...

Charles William Eliot
1914–1917 – president of
Harvard Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Harvard
, 1869–1909. *
John Robert Evans John Robert Evans (1 October 1929 – 13 February 2015) was a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, m ...
1982 -1996 (chairman) – president of the
University of Toronto The University of Toronto (U of T or UToronto) is a public university, public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park (Toronto), Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 ...

University of Toronto
1972–1978; founding director of the Population, Health and Nutrition Department of the World Bank * Ann M. Fudge, 2006–2015, former chairman and CEO,
Young & Rubicam In September 2018, Y&R (originally Young & Rubicam) merged with VML to become VMLY&R. VMLY&R is a marketing and Marketing communications, communications company specializing in advertising, Digital media, digital and social media, sales promotion, ...
Brands, New York * Frederick Taylor Gates 1913–1923 – John D. Rockefeller Sr.'s principal advisor. *
Helene D. Gayle Helene D. Gayle (born August 16, 1955), is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly ...

Helene D. Gayle
, 20010–2019, president and CEO of
CARE CARE (Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere, formerly Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe) is a major international humanitarian aid, humanitarian agency delivering emergency relief and long-term international development proj ...
. *
Stephen Jay Gould Stephen Jay Gould (; September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American Paleontology, paleontologist, Evolutionary biology, evolutionary biologist, and History of science, historian of science. He was one of the most influential and widely read ...
1993–2002 – author; professor and curator, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University. *
Rajat Gupta Rajat Kumar Gupta (; born ) is an Indian-American businessman and convicted felon who, as Chief executive officer, CEO, was the first foreign-born managing director of management consultancy firm McKinsey & Company from 1994 to 2003. In 2012, he ...
, 2006–11, former director,
Goldman Sachs The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. () is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City. It offers services in investment management, securities, asset management, prime brokerage Prime ...

Goldman Sachs
,
Procter & Gamble The Procter & Gamble Company (P&G) is an American multinational consumer goods A final goods or consumer goods is a commodity that is used by the consumer to satisfy current wants or needs, unlike intermediate goods which is utilized to produ ...
,
AMR Corporation AMR Corporation is the former name of American Airlines Group American Airlines Group Inc. is an American publicly traded airline holding company headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, Fort Worth, Texas. It was formed on December 9, 2013, by the ...
; Special Advisor to the
UN Secretary-General The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or SG) is the chief administrative officer of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international ...
; former managing director,
McKinsey & Company McKinsey & Company is a management consulting firm, founded in 1926 by University of Chicago professor James O. McKinsey, that advises on strategic management to corporations, governments, and other organizations. McKinsey is the oldest and large ...
. *
Wallace Harrison Wallace Kirkman Harrison (September 28, 1895 – December 2, 1981) was an American architect. Harrison started his professional career with the firm of Corbett, Harrison & MacMurray, participating in the construction of Rockefeller Center. He is b ...
1951–1961 – Rockefeller family architect; lead architect for the
UN Headquarters zh, 联合国总部大楼french: Siège des Nations uniesrussian: Штаб-квартира Организации Объединённых Наций es, Sede de las Naciones Unidas , image = UN HQ 2724390955 bfc562c6a9 (cropped).jpg , image_ ...

UN Headquarters
complex. * Thomas J. Healey, 2003–2012, partner, Healey Development LLC; teaching course at
Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636 as Harvard College and named for its first benefactor, the History of the Puritans in North America, Puritan cler ...

Harvard University
's
John F. Kennedy School of Government The Harvard Kennedy School (also known as the John F. Kennedy School of Government and HKS) is the public policy school of Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, ...
; formerly with
Goldman Sachs The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. () is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City. It offers services in investment management, securities, asset management, prime brokerage Prime ...

Goldman Sachs
and an Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Treasury. * Alice S. Huang, senior faculty associate,
California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such a"Cal Tech" and "CalTech" are incorrect. The Institute is also occasionally referred to as "CIT", most notably i ...
. *
Charles Evans Hughes Charles Evans Hughes Sr. (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was an American statesman and politician who served as the 11th Chief Justice of the United States The chief justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of ...

Charles Evans Hughes
1917–1921; 1925–1928 – Chief Justice of the United States, 1930–1941. * 1949–1961 – US Secretary of Defense, 1951–1953. * Monica Lozano, 2012–2018, CEO, ImpreMedia, LLC *
Yo-Yo Ma Yo-Yo Ma (born October 7, 1955) is an American cellist. Born in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175, ...

Yo-Yo Ma
1999–2002 – cellist. *
Strive Masiyiwa Strive Masiyiwa (born 29 January 1961) is a London-based Zimbabwean billionaire businessman and philanthropist. He is the founder and executive chairman of the international technology group Econet Global. He has gained international recognitio ...

Strive Masiyiwa
, 2003–2018,
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individ ...

Zimbabwe
a businessman and cellphone pioneer, founding
Econet Wireless Econet, officially known as Econet Global Ltd, is a diversified telecommunications group with operations and investments in Africa, Europe, South America and the East Asia Pacific Rim, offering products and services in the core areas of Mobile te ...
. * Jessica T. Mathews, president,
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a nonpartisan foreign-policy think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for ...
, Washington, D.C. * John J. McCloy chairman: 1946–1949; 1953–1958 – prominent US presidential advisor; chairman of the
Ford Foundation The Ford Foundation is an American private foundation A private foundation is a charitable organization that, while serving a good cause, might or might not qualify as a public charity by government standards. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundati ...
, 1958–1965; chairman of the council on Foreign Relations. *
Bill Moyers Billy Don Moyers (born June 5, 1934) is an American journalist and political commentator. He served as the ninth White House Press Secretary The White House press secretary is a senior White House official whose primary responsibility is to act ...

Bill Moyers
1969–1981 – journalist. * Diana Natalicio, 2004–2014, president, The
University of Texas at El Paso The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) is a public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary ed ...
*
Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala (; born 13 June 1954) is a Nigerian-American economist and international development expert who has served since March 2021 as Director-General of the World Trade Organization. She is the first woman and the first African to h ...

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala
, 2009–2018, Finance Minister of Nigeria; former managing director of the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...
; former Foreign Minister of
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and as we ...

Nigeria
. *
Sandra Day O'Connor Sandra Day O'Connor (born March 26, 1930) is an American retired attorney and politician who served as the first female associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States An associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United State ...

Sandra Day O'Connor
, 2006–2013, associate justice, retired,
Supreme Court of the United States The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or Americ ...

Supreme Court of the United States
* James F. Orr, III, (board chair), president and chief executive officer, LandingPoint Capital, Boston, Massachusetts. * Richard Parsons, 2007-2021, chairman of the board,
Citigroup Citigroup Inc. or Citi (stylized File:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg, ''Les Demoiselles d'Avignon'' (1907), also by Picasso in a different style ("Picasso's African Period") four years later.In the visual arts, style is a "...distinctive mann ...

Citigroup
Inc. *
Surin Pitsuwan Surin Pitsuwan ( th, สุรินทร์ พิศสุวรรณ; ms, Surin Abdul Halim bin Ismail Pitsuwan; Jawi alphabet, Yawi: سورين عبدالحاليم بن اسماعيل ڤيتسووان; October 28, 1949 – November 30, 201 ...
, 2010–2012, secretary general of
ASEAN ASEAN; ( , ) officially the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is an economic union comprising 10 member states in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southe ...

ASEAN
(2007–2012) and
Thai Thai or THAI may refer to: * Of or from Thailand, a country in Southeast Asia ** Thai people, the dominant ethnic group of Thailand ** Thai language, a Tai-Kadai language spoken mainly in and around Thailand *** Thai script *** Thai (Unicode block) ...

Thai
politician. *
Mamphela Ramphele Mamphela Aletta Ramphele (; born 28 December 1947) is a South African politician, an activist against apartheid, a medical doctor, an academic and businesswoman. She was a partner of anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko Bantu Stephen Biko (18 ...

Mamphela Ramphele
, chairperson, Circle Capital Ventures, Cape Town, South Africa. * David Rockefeller Jr., 2006–2016, chair of foundation board Dec. 2010- ; vice-chairman of ''Rockefeller Family & Associates''; director and former chair, ''Rockefeller & Co., Inc.''; current trustee of the
Museum of Modern Art The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street (Manhattan), 53rd Street between Fifth Avenue, Fifth and Sixth Avenues. It plays a major role in developing and collecting modern art, ...
. *
John D. Rockefeller John Davison Rockefeller Sr. (July 8, 1839May 23, 1937) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of Am ...

John D. Rockefeller
1913–1923. * chairman: 1917–1939. * John D. Rockefeller III chairman: 1952–1972. *
John D. Rockefeller IV John Davison "Jay" Rockefeller IV (born June 18, 1937) is a retired American politician who served as a United States Senator The United States Senate is the Upper house, upper chamber of the United States Congress, with the United States ...
1976–81. *
Judith Rodin Judith Rodin (born Judith Seitz; September 9, 1944) is a philanthropist Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the Public good (economics), public good, focusing on quality of life". Philanthropy contrasts with business initiatives, w ...
, president of the foundation (2005-2016); ex-officio member of the board *
Julius Rosenwald Julius Rosenwald (August 12, 1862 – January 6, 1932) was an American businessman and philanthropist Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the Public good (economics), public good, focusing on quality of life". Philanthropy contr ...
1917–1931 – chairman of
Sears Roebuck Sears, Roebuck and Co., commonly known as Sears, is an American chain of department store A department store is a retail Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or Service (economics), services to customers through multiple distr ...
, 1932–1939. * John Rowe
M.D. Doctor of Medicine (abbreviated M.D., from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
, 2007–2019, professor at the
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a in . Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of in , Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in and ...

Columbia University
Mailman School of Public Health Mailman School of Public Health, is the public health graduate school of Columbia University. Located on the Columbia University Medical Center campus in the Washington Heights, Manhattan, Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan, New York Ci ...
; former chairman and CEO of
Aetna Aetna Inc. () is an American managed health care The term managed care or managed healthcare is used in the United States to describe a group of activities intended to reduce the cost of providing for-profit health care and providing Health ins ...
Inc. *
Dean Rusk David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State The United States secretary of state implements foreign policy for the U.S. government as the head of the U.S. Department of State. Created in 17 ...

Dean Rusk
1950–1961 – US Secretary of State, 1961–1969. * Raymond W. Smith, chairman,
Rothschild Rothschild () is a name derived from the German language, German ''zum rothen Schild'' (with the old spelling "th"), meaning "with the red sign", in reference to the houses where these family members lived or had lived. At the time, houses were des ...
, Inc., New York; chairman of '' Arlington Capital Partners''; chairman of
Verizon Verizon Communications Inc., commonly known as Verizon, is an American multinational telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical, or ot ...
Ventures; and a trustee of the
Carnegie Corporation of New York The Carnegie Corporation of New York is a philanthropic fund established by Andrew Carnegie in 1911 to support education programs across the United States, and later the world. Carnegie Corporation has endowed or otherwise helped to establi ...
. * Frank Stanton 1961–1966? – president of
CBS CBS is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S ...

CBS
, 1946–1971. *
Arthur Hays Sulzberger Arthur Hays Sulzberger (September 12, 1891December 11, 1968) was the publisher of ''The New York Times'' from 1935 to 1961. During that time, daily circulation rose from 465,000 to 713,000 and Sunday circulation from 745,000 to 1.4 million; the sta ...
1939–1957 – publisher of ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'', 1935–1961. *
Paul Volcker Paul Adolph Volcker Jr. (; September 5, 1927 – December 8, 2019) was an American economist. He served two terms as the 12th Chair of the Federal Reserve The chair of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is the head of the Fed ...
1975–1979 – chairman, board of governors, Federal Reserve Board; president, New York Federal Reserve Bank. * Thomas J. Watson Jr. 1963–1970? – president of
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
, 1952–1971. *
James Wolfensohn Sir James David Wolfensohn Order of the British Empire, KBE Officer of the Order of Australia, AO (1 December 193325 November 2020) was an Australian-American lawyer, investment banker, and economist who served as the ninth president of the Worl ...

James Wolfensohn
– former president of the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...
. * George D. Woods 1961–1967? – president of the World Bank, 1963–1968. * Võ Tòng Xuân, 2002–2010, vice president for academic affairs, Tan Tao University,
Ho Chi Minh City , population_density_km2 = 4292 , population_density_metro_km2 = 697.2 , population_demonym = Saigonese , demographics_type1 = Ethnic groups An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on ...

Ho Chi Minh City
; former rector of An Giang University, the second university in
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
's
Mekong Delta The Mekong Delta ( vi, Đồng bằng Sông Cửu Long, literally ''Nine Dragon river delta'' or simply vi, Đồng Bằng Sông Mê Kông, "Mekong river delta"), also known as the Western Region ( vi, Miền Tây) or South-western region ( vi ...

Mekong Delta
. * 1928–1939 – chairman of GE, 1922–1939, 1942–1945.


Scandal

Bristol-Myers Squibb Bristol Myers Squibb (BMS) is an American pharmaceutical company The pharmaceutical industry discovers, develops, produces, and markets drug File:Aspirine macro shot.jpg, Uncoated aspirin Tablet (pharmacy), tablets, consisting of about 90 ...
,
Johns Hopkins University The Johns Hopkins University (Johns Hopkins, Hopkins, or JHU) is a private university, private research university in Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur ...

Johns Hopkins University
and the Rockefeller Foundation are currently the subject of a $1 billion lawsuit from
Guatemala Guatemala ( ; ), officially the Republic of Guatemala ( es, República de Guatemala, links=no), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, Belize and the Caribbean Sea, Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to t ...

Guatemala
for "roles in a 1940s U.S. government experiment that infected hundreds of Guatemalans with
syphilis Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), are infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues ...
". A previous suit against the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
government was dismissed in 2011 for the Guatemala syphilis experiments when a judge determined that the U.S. government could not be held liable for actions committed outside of the U.S.


Presidents

*
Rajiv Shah Rajiv "Raj" Shah, (born March 9, 1973) is the President of the Rockefeller Foundation '' The Rockefeller Foundation is an American private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough (New York Ci ...
- 1 March 2017 -, distinguished fellow in residence, Georgetown University; previously administrator of the
United States Agency for International Development The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in different ...
(USAID) from 2010 to 2015. *
Judith Rodin Judith Rodin (born Judith Seitz; September 9, 1944) is a philanthropist Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the Public good (economics), public good, focusing on quality of life". Philanthropy contrasts with business initiatives, w ...
- 1 January 2005 – 1 March 2017; former president of the
University of Pennsylvania The University of Pennsylvania (Penn or UPenn) is a in , Pennsylvania. The university, established as the College of Philadelphia in 1740, is one of the nine chartered prior to the . , Penn's founder and first president, advocated an edu ...

University of Pennsylvania
, and provost, chair of the Department of Psychology,
Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
. *
Gordon Conway Sir Gordon Richard Conway (born 6 July 1938) is an agricultural ecologist and former President of the Rockefeller Foundation '' The Rockefeller Foundation is an American private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue Fifth Avenue is a majo ...
– 1 January 1998 – 31 December 2004; an agricultural ecologist and former president of the
Royal Geographical Society The Royal Geographical Society (RGS) is one of the United Kingdom's learned societies and the professional body for geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to ...
. * Peter Goldmark, Jr. – 11 January 1988 – 31 December 1997; former executive director of the
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ; stylized, in logo since 2020, as Port Authority NY NJ) is a joint venture between the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the ...
.Teltsch, Kathleen
"Rockefeller Foundation Selects a New President"
''The New York Times'', May 8, 1988. Goldmark was son of
Peter Carl Goldmark Peter Carl Goldmark (born Péter Károly Goldmark; December 2, 1906 – December 7, 1977) was a Hungarian-American Hungarian Americans (Hungarian language, Hungarian: ''amerikai magyarok'') are United States, Americans of Hungarian people, Hung ...
. See Blumenthal, Ralph
"Remembering the Travel Scandal at the Port Authority"
''The New York Times'' City Room blog, June 24, 2008. Both retrieved 2011-01-09.
* Richard Lyman – 1 January 1980 – 11 January 1988; president of
Stanford University Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a Private university, private research university in Stanford, California. The campus occupies , among the largest in the United States, and enrolls over 17,000 students. Stan ...

Stanford University
(1970–1980).
John Knowles
– 3 October 1972 – 31 December 1979; physician, general director of the
Massachusetts General Hospital Massachusetts General Hospital (Mass General or MGH) is the original and largest of located in the neighborhood of , . It is the third oldest general hospital in the United States and has a capacity of 999 beds. With , it is one of the two foun ...
(1962–1971).
J. George Harrar
– 20 January 1961 – 3 October 1972; plant pathologist, "generally regarded as the father of 'the Green Revolution.'" *
Dean Rusk David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State The United States secretary of state implements foreign policy for the U.S. government as the head of the U.S. Department of State. Created in 17 ...

Dean Rusk
– 17 July 1952 – 19 January 1961;
United States Secretary of State The United States secretary of state is an officer of the United States who implements foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and intern ...
from 1961 to 1969 *
Chester Barnard Chester is a Walled City, walled cathedral city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, Wales, River Dee, close to the border with Wales. With a population of 79,645 in 2011, it is the most populous settlement of Cheshire West and Chester, wh ...
– 22 August 1948 – 17 July 1952;
Bell System The Bell System was the system of companies, led by the Bell Telephone Company The Bell Telephone Company, a common law joint stock company, was organized in Boston, Massachusetts on July 9, 1877, by Alexander Graham Bell's father-in-law Gar ...
executive and author of landmark 1938 book, '' The Functions of the Executive'' * – 30 May 1936 – 22 August 1948; brother of American clergyman
Harry Emerson Fosdick Harry Emerson Fosdick (May 24, 1878 – October 5, 1969) was an American pastor. Fosdick became a central figure in the Fundamentalist–Modernist controversy within American Protestantism in the 1920s and 1930s and was one of the most prominent ...

Harry Emerson Fosdick
* – 20 September 1929 – 30 May 1936 * George E. Vincent – 6 November 1917 – 20 September 1929; member of the
John D. Rockefeller John Davison Rockefeller Sr. (July 8, 1839May 23, 1937) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of Am ...

John D. Rockefeller
/ Frederick T. Gates
General Education BoardThe General Education Board was a philanthropic non-governmental organization which was used primarily to support higher education and medical schools in the United States, and to help rural white and black schools in the Southern United States, Sout ...
(1914–1929)George E. Vincent Papers
The Rockefeller Archive Center. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
*
John D. Rockefeller, Jr. John Davison Rockefeller Jr. (January 29, 1874 – May 11, 1960) was an American financier and philanthropist, and the only son of Standard Oil Standard Oil Co. was an American oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance A chemic ...
– 11 February 1913 – 6 November 1917


See also

*
Asia Society The Asia Society is a non-profit organization that focuses on educating the world about Asia. It has several centers in the United States (Manhattan, Washington, D.C., Houston, Los Angeles, and San Francisco) and around the world (Hong Kong, Mani ...
* Association Internationale Africaine *
CGIAR CGIAR (formerly the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research) is a global partnership that unites s engaged in research about food security. CGIAR research aims to reduce rural poverty, increase food security, improve human h ...
*
Eugenics in the United States Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the Genetics, genetic quality of the human population, played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States from the late 19th century into the mid-20th cen ...
* Industrial relations *
Philanthropy Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of life Quality of life (QOL) is defined by the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of the ...

Philanthropy
*
Philanthropy in the United StatesPhilanthropy Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the Public good (economics), public good, focusing on quality of life". Philanthropy contrasts with business initiatives, which are private initiatives for private good, focusing on ma ...
*
Rockefeller Brothers Fund The Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF) is a philanthropic foundation created and run by members of the Rockefeller family. It was founded in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities ...
*
Rockefeller family The Rockefeller family () is an American Industrial sector, industrial, political, and List of banking families, banking family that owns one of the List of wealthiest historical figures, world's largest fortunes. The fortune was made in the Hi ...
*
Social sciences Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to refer to the field of socio ...

Social sciences


References


Bibliography

* Berman, Edward H. ''The Ideology of Philanthropy: The influence of the Carnegie, Ford, and Rockefeller foundations on American foreign policy'', New York: State University of New York Press, 1983. * Brown, E. Richard, ''Rockefeller Medicine Men: Medicine and Capitalism in America'', Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979. * Chernow, Ron, ''Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr.'', London: Warner Books, 1998. * Dowie, Mark, ''American Foundations: An Investigative History'', Boston: The MIT Press, 2001. * Farley, John. ''To Cast Out Disease: A History of the International Health Division of the Rockefeller Foundation (1913–1951)'' (2005) * Fisher, Donald, ''Fundamental Development of the Social Sciences: Rockefeller Philanthropy and the United States Social Science Research Council'', Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1993. * Fosdick, Raymond B., ''John D. Rockefeller, Jr., A Portrait'', New York: Harper & Brothers, 1956. * Fosdick, Raymond B., ''The Story of the Rockefeller Foundation'', New York: Transaction Publishers, Reprint, 1989. * Harr, John Ensor, and Peter J. Johnson. ''The Rockefeller Century: Three Generations of America's Greatest Family''. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988. * Harr, John Ensor, and Peter J. Johnson. ''The Rockefeller Conscience: An American Family in Public and in Private'', New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1991. * Jonas, Gerald. ''The Circuit Riders: Rockefeller Money and the Rise of Modern Science''. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1989. * Kay, Lily, ''The Molecular Vision of Life: Caltech, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Rise of the New Biology'', New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. * Lawrence, Christopher. ''Rockefeller Money, the Laboratory and Medicine in Edinburgh 1919–1930: New Science in an Old Country'', Rochester Studies in Medical History, University of Rochester Press, 2005. * Nielsen, Waldemar, ''The Big Foundations'', New York: Cambridge University Press, 1973. * Nielsen, Waldemar A., ''The Golden Donors'', E. P. Dutton, 1985. Called Foundation "unimaginative ... lacking leadership and 'slouching toward senility.'" * Palmer, Steven,
Launching Global Health: The Caribbean Odyssey of the Rockefeller Foundation
', Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan Press The University of Michigan Press is part of University of Michigan Library#Michigan Publishing, Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library. It publishes 170 new titles each year in the humanities and social sciences. Titles from the ...
, 2010. * Rockefeller, David, ''Memoirs'', New York: Random House, 2002. * Shaplen, Robert, ''Toward the Well-Being of Mankind: Fifty Years of the Rockefeller Foundation'', New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1964. * Theiler, Max and Downs, W. G., ''The Arthropod-Borne Viruses of Vertebrates: An Account of The Rockefeller Foundation Virus Program, 1951–1970''. (1973) Yale University Press. New Haven and London. . * Uy, Michael Sy. ''Ask the Experts: How Ford, Rockefeller, and the NEA Changed American Music'', (Oxford University Press, 2020) 270pp.
Rockefeller Foundation 990


Further reading


CFR Website – Continuing the Inquiry: The Council on Foreign Relations from 1921 to 1996
The history of the council by Peter Grose, a council member – mentions financial support from the Rockefeller foundation.
Interview with Norman Dodd
An investigation of a hidden agenda within tax-free foundations, including the Rockefeller Foundation (Video).
Foundation Center: Top 50 US Foundations by total giving


* ttps://www.sfgate.com/opinion/article/Eugenics-and-the-Nazis-the-California-2549771.php SFGate.com: "Eugenics and the Nazis: the California Connection"
Press for Conversion! magazine, Issue # 53: "Facing the Corporate Roots of American Fascism," Bryan Sanders, Coalition to Oppose the Arms Trade, March 2004


External links

*
Rockefeller Foundation website
including
timeline

Hookworm and malaria research in Malaya, Java, and the Fiji Islands; report of Uncinariasis commission to the Orient, 1915–1917
The Rockefeller foundation, International health board. New York 1920 {{Coord, 40.75083, -73.98333, display=title Rockefeller family Institutions founded by the Rockefeller family 1913 establishments in New York (state) Eugenics organizations