Robert Jay Lifton (born May 16, 1926) is an American
psychiatrist A psychiatrist is a physician A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English), medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a professional who practices medicine, which is con ...
and author, chiefly known for his studies of the psychological causes and effects of wars and political violence, and for his theory of thought reform. He was an early proponent of the techniques of
psychohistory Psychohistory is an amalgam of psychology, history, and related social sciences and the humanities. It examines the "why" of history, especially the difference between stated intention and actual behavior. Psychobiography, childhood, group dynamics, ...


Lifton was born in 1926, in
Brooklyn, New York Brooklyn () is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. It is the most populous Administrative divisions of New York (state)#County, county in the stat ...
, the son of businessman Harold A. Lifton, and Ciel Lifton née Roth. In 1942, he enrolled at
Cornell University Cornell University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
at the age of 16. He was admitted to
New York Medical College New York Medical College (NYMC or New York Med) is a private biomedical health sciences university based in Valhalla, New York. Founded in 1860, it is a member of the Touro College and University System. NYMC offers advanced degrees through its ...
in 1944, graduating in 1948. He interned at the Jewish Hospital of Brooklyn in 1948-49. He had his psychiatric residence training at the Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York in 1949-51. From 1951 to 1953 Lifton served as an
Air Force
Air Force
psychiatrist in Japan and Korea, to which he later attributed his interest in war and politics. He has since worked as a teacher and researcher at the Washington School of Psychiatry,
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
, and the
John Jay College of Criminal Justice The John Jay College of Criminal Justice (John Jay) is a public college focused on criminal justice 350px, United States criminal justice system flowchart. Criminal justice is the delivery of justice Justice, one of the four cardinal vir ...

John Jay College of Criminal Justice
, where he helped to found the Center for the Study of Human Violence. He married the children's writer Betty Jean Kirschner in 1952, and they had two children. She died in Boston on November 19, 2010, from complications of
pneumonia Pneumonia is an condition of the primarily affecting the small air sacs known as . Symptoms typically include some combination of or dry , , , and . The severity of the condition is variable. Pneumonia is usually caused by with es or , a ...

. Lifton has said that
cartooning A cartoonist (also comic strip creator, comic book artist, graphic novel artist, or comic book illustrator) is a visual artist An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art. T ...
is his
avocation An avocation is an activity that someone engages in as a hobby outside their main occupation. There are many examples of people whose professions were the ways that they made their livings, but for whom their activities outside their workplaces wer ...
; he has published two books of humorous cartoons about
bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With ...

s. He is a member of
Collegium InternationalInternational Ethical, Scientific and Political Collegium, also called Collegium International , is a high-level group created in 2002. Origin The International Ethical, Political and Scientific Collegium is committed, according to its founders, "to ...
, an organization of leaders with political, scientific, and ethical expertise whose goal is to provide new approaches in overcoming the obstacles in the way of a peaceful, socially just and an economically sustainable world. In 2012, Lifton was awarded an Honorary Doctorate from
The New School The New School is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two decade ...

Wellfleet Psychohistory Group

During the 1960s, Lifton, together with his mentor
Erik Erikson Erik Homburger Erikson (born Erik Salomonsen; 15 June 1902 – 12 May 1994) was a Danish-German-American developmental psychologist Developmental psychology is the science, scientific study of how and why human beings change over the cour ...

Erik Erikson
and historian Bruce Mazlish of
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private land-grant research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, hi ...
, formed a group to apply psychology and psychoanalysis to the study of history. Meetings were held at Lifton's home in
Wellfleet, Massachusetts Wellfleet is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin an ...
. The Wellfleet Psychohistory Group, as it became known, focused mainly on psychological motivations for war, terrorism, and genocide in recent history. In 1965, they received sponsorship from the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, founded 1780, (abbreviation: AAAS) is one of the oldest learned societies A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization ...

American Academy of Arts and Sciences
to establish psychohistory as a separate field of study. A collection of research papers by the group was published in 1975: ''Explorations in Psychohistory: The Wellfleet Papers'' (see Bibliography; Lifton as editor). Lifton's work in this field was deeply influenced by Erikson's studies of
Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power. A dictatorship A dictatorship is a form of government ...
and other political figures, as well as by
Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud ( , ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian and the founder of , a clinical method for treating through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was born to (from ) parents ...

Sigmund Freud
's concern with the mass social effects of deep-seated drives, particularly attitudes toward death. The attendees include Erikson, Lifton, and Kenneth Keniston at the ‘continuous core’ of annual meetings, along with Bruce Mazlish, Norman Birnbaum, Alexander and Margaret Mitscherlich, Margaret Brennen, Peter Brooks, Robert Coles, Lloyd and Susanne Rudolph, Charles Strozier, Philip Rieff, Kai Erikson, Betty Jean Lifton, Norman Mailer, Howard Zinn, Frederick Wyatt, Noam Chomsky, Richard Sennett, Peter Gay, Ashis Nandy, Richard Goodwin, Harvey Cox, Frank Manuel, Leo Marx, Jonathan Schell, Raoul Hilberg, Sudhir Kakar, David Dellinger, Dan Berrigan, Wendy Doniger, Cathy Caruth, David Riesman, Steve Marcus, Richard Barnet, Daniel Ellsberg, Richard Falk and many others until it closed shop in 2015.

Studies of thought reform

Beginning in 1953, Lifton interviewed American servicemen who had been
prisoners of war A prisoner of war (POW) is a non-combatant—whether a military member, an irregular military fighter, or a civilian—who is held captive by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict War is an intense arm ...
(POWs) during the
Korean War The Korean War (see § Names) was a war fought between North Korea North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. It b ...

Korean War
, in addition to priests and students, or teachers who had been held in prison in China after 1951. In addition to interviews with 25 Americans and Europeans, Lifton interviewed 15 Chinese who had fled after having been subjected to indoctrination in Chinese universities. Lifton's 1961 book '' Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism: A Study of "Brainwashing" in China'', based on this research, was a study of coercive techniques used in the People's Republic of China. He described this process as "thought reform" or "
brainwashing Brainwashing (also known as mind control, menticide, coercive persuasion, thought control, thought reform, and re-education) is the concept that the human mind Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species of prim ...
", though he preferred the former term. The term "
thought-terminating cliché A thought-terminating cliché (also known as a semantic stop-sign, a thought-stopper, bumper sticker logic, or cliché thinking) is a form of loaded language, commonly used to quell cognitive dissonance. Depending on context in which a phrase (or cl ...
" was popularized in this book. Lifton found that after the POWs returned to the United States, their thinking soon returned to normal, contrary to the popular image of "brainwashing" as resulting in permanent changes. A 1989 reprint edition was published by
University of North Carolina Press The University of North Carolina Press (or UNC Press), founded in 1922, is a university press 200px, The Pitt Building in Cambridge, which used to be the headquarters of Cambridge University Press, and now serves as a conference centre for the P ...

Studies of war and atrocity survivors

Several of his books featured mental adaptations that people made in extreme wartime environments: ''Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima'' (1967), ''Home from the War: Vietnam Veterans—Neither Victims nor Executioners'' (1973), and '' The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide'' (1986). Regarding Hiroshima and Vietnam survivors or Nazi perpetrators, Lifton believed that the psychic fragmentation suffered by his subjects was an extreme form of the pathologies that arise in peacetime life due to the pressures and fears of modern society. His studies of the behavior of people who had committed
war crime A war crime is a violation of the laws of war The law of war is the component of international law that regulates the conditions for initiating war (''jus ad bellum'') and the conduct of warring parties (''jus in bello''). Laws of war d ...
s, both individually and in groups, concluded that while human nature is not innately cruel and only rare
sociopath Psychopathy, sometimes considered synonymous with sociopathy, is traditionally a personality disorder characterized by persistent Anti-social behaviour, antisocial behavior, impaired empathy and remorse, and Boldness, bold, Disinhibition, disi ...
s can participate in atrocities without suffering lasting emotional harm, such crimes do not require any unusual degree of personal evil or mental illness. He says that they are nearly sure to happen given certain conditions (either accidental or deliberately arranged), which Lifton called "atrocity-producing situations". ''The Nazi Doctors'' was the first in-depth study of how medical professionals rationalized their participation in
the Holocaust The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify wi ...
, from the early stages of the T-4 Euthanasia Program to the
extermination camp Nazi Germany used six extermination camps (german: Vernichtungslager), also called death camps (''Todeslager''), or killing centers (''Tötungszentren''), in Central Europe during World War II to systematically murder over 2.7 million peoplem ...
s. In the Hiroshima and Vietnam studies, Lifton also concluded that the sense of personal disintegration that many people experienced after witnessing death and destruction on a mass scale could ultimately lead to a new emotional resilience—but that without the proper support and counseling, most survivors would remain trapped in feelings of unreality and guilt. In her 2005 autobiography ''My Life So Far'',
Jane Fonda Jane Seymour Fonda (born December 21, 1937) is an American actress, political activist, environmentalist, and former fashion model. She is the recipient of various accolades including two Academy Awards The Academy Awards, popularly kn ...
described Lifton's work with Vietnam veterans, along with that of fellow psychiatrists
Leonard Neff
Leonard Neff
, Chaim Shatan, and Sarah Haley, as "tireless and empathetic". In 1975, the
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London. It is the world's oldest national broadcaster, and the largest broadcasting, broadcaster in the world by ...

adapted Lifton's book ''Death in Life'' as Episode 31 in Season 11 of their program
Horizon The horizon is the apparent line that separates the surface of a celestial body In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that st ...
.  The documentary, ''To Die, To Live, The Survivors of Hiroshima'', was written and directed by Robert Vas, and edited by Peter Goodchild. The program aired on August 6, 1975.  In a ''
New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publicatio ...

New York Times
'' review, John Leonard wrote, "I didn't want to watch a whole hour of it. I got the point. I was suspicious of the cultivated European voices translating the words of the survivors. I resented the ominous music, the pregnant pauses, the mechanical alternations of scenes of modern Hiroshima in livid, living color with the black‐and-white disaster footage of 1945 newsreels. Where was the center of this irony and at whose expense? I disliked the manipulation of my emotions by crude juxtaposings of disfigured women and department store mannequins with American wigs, of missing ears and honky‐tonk acts, of a river of corpses and night baseball. I thought the subtleties of Dr. Lifton's book were obscured by a piling‐on of images intended, and guaranteed, to shock. Mutilated bodies look the same, don't they, at death camps and at Dresden and at train wrecks? What, in this wretched century, is so special about Hiroshima?" Lifton was one of the first organizers of therapeutic discussion groups on this subject in which mental health practitioners met with veterans face-to-face. He and Dr. Neff successfully lobbied for the inclusion of
post-traumatic stress disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental Mental may refer to: * of or relating to the mind Films * Mental (2012 film), ''Mental'' (2012 film), an Australian comedy-drama * Mental (2016 film), ''Mental'' (2016 film), a Bangladeshi r ...
in the
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders The ''Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders'' (DSM; latest edition: DSM-5 The ''Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition'' (DSM-5), is the 2013 update to the ''Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of ...
(DSM). His book on Hiroshima survivors won the 1969
National Book Award The National Book Awards are a set of annual U.S. literary awards. At the final National Book Awards Ceremony every November, the National Book Foundation presents the National Book Awards and two lifetime achievement awards to authors. The Nat ...
in Science."National Book Awards – 1969"
National Book Foundation The National Book Foundation (NBF) is an American nonprofit organization established "to raise the cultural appreciation of great writing in America". Established 1989 by National Book Awards, Inc.,Edwin McDowell. "Book Notes: 'The Joy Luck Club' i ...
. Retrieved 2012-03-05.

Theories of totalism and the protean self

Totalism Totalism is a style of art music that arose in the 1980s and 1990s as a response to minimalism music, minimalism. It paralleled postminimalism but involved a younger generation of creators, born in the 1950s. This term, invented by writer and compos ...
'', a word which he first used in ''Thought Reform'', is Lifton's term for the characteristics of ideological movements and organizations that desire total control over human behavior and thought. Lifton's usage differs from theories of
totalitarianism 259x259px, Democracy Index by the Economist Intelligence Unit (2020): perceived authoritarian regimes in red, democracies in green, and color intensity ≈ regime intensity Totalitarianism is a form of government and a political system that prohi ...

, as it can be applied to the ideology of groups that do not wield governmental power. In Lifton's opinion, though such attempts always fail, they follow a common pattern and cause predictable types of psychological damage in individuals and societies. He finds two common motives in totalistic movements: the fear and denial of death, channeled into violence against scapegoat groups that set up to represent a metaphorical threat to survival, and a reactionary fear of social change. In his later work, Lifton has focused on defining the type of change to which totalism is opposed, for which he coined the term ''the
self''. In the book of the same title, he states that the development of a "fluid and many-sided personality" is a positive trend in modern societies. He said that mental health now requires "continuous exploration and personal experiment", which requires the growth of a purely relativist society that is willing to discard and diminish previously established cultures and traditions.

Critiques of modern war and terrorism

Following his work with Hiroshima survivors, Lifton became a vocal opponent of
nuclear weapons A nuclear weapon (also known as an atom bomb, atomic bomb, nuclear bomb or nuclear warhead, and colloquially as an A-bomb or nuke) is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reaction In nuclear physics and nucl ...

nuclear weapons
, arguing that
nuclear strategy Nuclear strategy involves the development of doctrine Doctrine (from la, Wikt:doctrina, doctrina, meaning "teaching, instruction") is a codification (law), codification of beliefs or a body of teacher, teachings or instructions, taught Value ...
and warfighting doctrine made even mass genocide banal and conceivable. While not a strict
pacifist Pacifism is the opposition or resistance to war War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. ...
, he has spoken against U.S. military actions in his lifetime, particularly the
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars The Indochina Wars ( vi, Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled ...
Iraq War The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the Second Gulf War or the Third Gulf War by those who consider the Iran–Iraq War the first Gulf War. The war was also called the Second Iraq War referring to the Gulf War as the first Iraq war. The p ...
, believing that they arose from irrational and aggressive aspects of American politics motivated by fear. In 1993, he said:
What's happening there n Bosniamerits the use of the word genocide. There is an effort to systematically destroy an entire group. It's even been conceptualized by
Serbian nationalist Serbian nationalism asserts that Serbs The Serbs ( sr, Срби, Srbi, ) are a South Slavs, South Slavic ethnic group and nation, native to the Balkans in Southeastern Europe. The majority of Serbs live in their nation state of Serbia, as ...
s as so-called "ethnic cleansing." That term signifies mass killing, mass relocation, and that does constitute genocide.
Lifton regards
terrorism Terrorism, in its broadest sense, is the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. The term is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the ...
as an increasingly serious threat due to the proliferation of nuclear and chemical weapons and totalist ideologies. He has, however, criticized the Bush administration's "
War on Terrorism The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism and U.S. War on Terror, is an international military campaign launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks The September 11 attacks, often referr ...
" as a misguided and dangerous attempt to "destroy all vulnerability". His 1999 book, ''Destroying the World to Save It,'' described the apocalyptic terrorist sect
Aum Shinrikyo , formerly , is a Japanese doomsday cult and terrorist organisation founded by Shoko Asahara in 1984. It carried out the deadly Tokyo subway sarin attack The was an act of domestic terrorism Domestic terrorism or homegrown terrorism ...
as a forerunner of "the new global terrorism".


Lifton is featured in the 2003 documentary ''Flight From Death'', a film that investigates the relationship of human violence to fear of death, as related to subconscious influences. In 2006, Lifton appeared in a documentary on
cult In modern English, a cult is a social group In the social sciences, a social group can be defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity. Regardless, soc ...

s on the
History Channel History (formerly The History Channel from 1995 to 2008; stylized as HISTORY) is a pay television Pay television also known as subscription television, premium television or, when referring to an individual service, a premium channel, refers to ...
, ''Decoding the Past'', along with fellow psychiatrist Peter A. Olsson. On May 18, 2008 Lifton delivered the commencement address at
Stonehill College Stonehill College is a private Catholic The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptis ...
and discussed the apparent "Superpower Syndrome" experienced by the United States in the modern era. In 2018 he also appears in the documentary Metamorphosis, about climate change and positive changes towards a more sustainable future.


* ; Reprinted, with a new preface: University of North Carolina Press, 1989
Internet Archive The Internet Archive is an American digital library A digital library, also called an online library, an internet library, a digital repository, or a digital collection is an online databaseAn online database is a database In computing ...
). * ''Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima'', Random House (New York City), 1968. * ''Revolutionary Immortality: Mao Tse-Tung and the Chinese Cultural Revolution'', Random House, 1968. * ''Birds, Words, and Birds'' (cartoons), Random House, 1969. * ''History and Human Survival: Essays on the Young and the Old, Survivors and the Dead, Peace and War, and on Contemporary Psychohistory'', Random House, 1970. * ''Boundaries'', Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Toronto), 1969, published as ''Boundaries: Psychological Man in Revolution'', Random House, 1970. * ''Home from the War: Vietnam Veterans—Neither Victims nor Executioners'', Simon & Schuster (New York City), 1973. * (With Eric Olson) ''Living and Dying'', Praeger, 1974. * ''The Life of the Self: Toward a New Psychology'', Simon & Schuster, 1976. * ''Psychobirds'', Countryman Press, 1978. * (With Shuichi Kato and Michael Reich) ''Six Lives/Six Deaths: Portraits from Modern Japan'' (originally published in Japanese as Nihonjin no shiseikan, 1977), Yale University Press (New Haven, CT), 1979. * ''The Broken Connection: On Death and the Continuity of Life'', Simon & Schuster, 1979. * (With Richard A. Falk) ''Indefensible Weapons: The Political and Psychological Case against Nuclearism'', Basic Books (New York City), 1982. * ''The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide'', Basic Books, August 2000 (first edition 1986). * ''The Future of Immortality and Other Essays for a Nuclear Age'', Basic Books, 1987. * (With Eric Markusen) ''The Genocidal Mentality: Nazi Holocaust and Nuclear Threat'', Basic Books, 1990. * ''The Protean Self: Human Resilience in an Age of Fragmentation'', Basic Books, 1993. * (With Greg Mitchell) ''Hiroshima in America: Fifty Years of Denial'', Putnam's (New York City), 1995. * ''Destroying the World to Save It: Aum Shinrikyo, Apocalyptic Violence, and the New Global Terrorism'', Owl Books, 2000. * (With Greg Mitchell) ''Who Owns Death? Capital Punishment, the American Conscience, and the End of Executions'', Morrow, 2000. * ''Superpower Syndrome: America's Apocalyptic Confrontation With the World'', Nation Books, 2003. *

Lifton as editor

* (With Jacob D. Lindy)''Beyond Invisible Walls: The Psychological Legacy of Soviet Trauma, East European Therapists and Their Patients'', Edwards Brothers (Lillington, NC), 2001. * ''The Woman in America'', Houghton (Boston), 1965. * ''America and the Asian Revolutions'', Trans-Action Books, 1970, second edition, 1973. * (With Richard A. Falk and Gabriel Kolko) ''Crimes of War: A Legal, Political-Documentary, and Psychological Inquiry into the Responsibilities of Leaders, Citizens, and Soldiers for Criminal Acts of War'', Random House, 1971. * (With Eric Olson) ''Explorations in Psychohistory: The Wellfleet Papers'', Simon & Schuster, 1975. * (With Eric Chivian, Susanna Chivian, and John E. Mack) ''Last Aid: The Medical Dimensions of Nuclear War'', W. H. Freeman, 1982. * (With
Nicholas Humphrey Nicholas Keynes Humphrey (born 27 March 1943) is an English neuropsychologist based in Cambridge, who is known for his work on the evolution of primate intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction A ...
) ''In a Dark Time: Images for Survival'', Harvard University Press, 1984.


* 1987:
National Jewish Book Award The Jewish Book Council (Hebrew language, Hebrew: ) founded in 1944, is an organization encouraging and contributing to Jewish literature.
in the Holocaust category for ''The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide''

See also

Destructive cult * List of cult researchers


External links

Evil, the Self, and Survival
interview by Harry Kreisler, 1999
Doctors and Torture
Lifton discusses "atrocity-producing situations" in the case of the
Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse During the early stages of the Iraq War The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the Second Gulf War or the Third Gulf War by those who consider the Iran–Iraq War the first Gulf War. The war was also called the Second Iraq War referring t ...
, 2004
Superpower Syndrome articles
Robert Jay Lifton on superpower syndrome

"Doctors and Death" Transcript,
All Things Considered ''All Things Considered'' (''ATC'') is the flagship news program on the American network National Public Radio (NPR). It was the first news program on NPR, premiering on May 3, 1971. It is broadcast live on NPR affiliated stations in the United ...
, Jan. 4
Hiroshima and the World: The Wisdom of Survivors
article in the
Chugoku Shimbun Image:Chugoku Shimbun Headquarters 2.jpg, Headquarters of Chugoku Shimbun in Hiroshima. The or Midland News is a Japanese local daily newspaper based in Hiroshima. It serves the Chūgoku region of Japan with a market share in Hiroshima Prefecture, ...
. ;Media
Talk on Apocalyptic Violence

Flight From Death
Robert Jay Lifton is interviewed in this documentary film.

about the aftermath of
September 11 terrorist attacks The September 11 attacks, often referred to as 9/11, were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Wahhabi Wahhabism ( ar, الوهابية, ') is a religious reform movement and doctrine associated with the teachings of ...
, 2002
Religious and Ethnic Conflict Abroad
Talk of the Nation ''Talk of the Nation'' (''TOTN'') is an American talk radio Talk radio is a radio format containing discussion about topical issues and consisting entirely or almost entirely of original spoken word content rather than outside music. Most shows ...
, September 15, 1999
Doomsday Cults/Apocalyptic Groups
Morning Edition ''Morning Edition'' is an American radio news program produced and distributed by NPR. It airs weekday mornings (Monday through Friday) and runs for two hours, and many stations repeat one or both hours. The show feeds live from 05:00 to 09:00 ...
, April 7, 2000 *
Interview with Steven Hassan
Freedom of Mind, July 13, 2011
Interview with Steven Hassan
Freedom of Mind, August, 2012
with Robert Jay Lifton
by Stephen McKiernan, Binghamton University Libraries Center for the Study of the 1960s, August 10, 2010 * ''To Die, To Live, The Survivors of Hiroshima'' (1975), hosted on the Internet Archive
NPR National Public Radio (NPR, stylized in all lowercase, npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit media organization based in Washington, D.C. NPR is based in two locations: main NPR headquarters in Washington, D.C. (often re ...

Fresh Air ''Fresh Air'' is an American radio talk show broadcast on National Public Radio National Public Radio (NPR, stylized in all lowercase, npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit media organization based in Washington, D.C. ...

Fresh Air
October 19, 2001

December 18, 2001

September 11, 2002

June 6, 2002

February 5, 2003

April 8, 2003
{{DEFAULTSORT:Lifton, Robert Jay 1926 births
Living people Related categories * :Year of birth missing (living people) / :Year of birth unknown * :Date of birth missing (living people) / :Date of birth unknown * :Place of birth missing (living people) / :Place of birth unknown * :Year of death mi ...
Weill Cornell Medical College alumni Harvard University staff John Jay College of Criminal Justice faculty American psychiatrists Mind control theorists Researchers of new religious movements and cults National Book Award winners 21st-century American non-fiction writers 20th-century American historians Jewish American historians Jewish American social scientists American psychology writers American anti-war activists American anti–nuclear weapons activists New York Medical College alumni
20th-century American male writers {{CatAutoTOC 20th-century male writers, American 20th-century American writers, Male American male writers ...
American male non-fiction writers Category, plural categories, may refer to: Philosophy and general uses *Categorization, categories in cognitive science, information science and generally *Category of being *Categories (Aristotle), ''Categories'' (Aristotle) *Category (Kant) * ...
Historians from New York (state) 21st-century American male writers 21st-century American Jews