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Republicanism in the United States is the use of the concept of
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

republic
, or the political ideals associated with it in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
. The political ideals have been discussed since before the concept of republic was introduced legally by Article Four of the
United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or organ ...

United States Constitution
. Particularly
modern republicanism Republicanism is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use t ...
has been a guiding political
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real or existen ...
of the United States that has been a major part of American civic thought since its
founding Founding may refer to: * The formation or of a corporation, government, or other organization * The laying of a building's Foundation (engineering), Foundation * The casting of materials in a mold See also

* Foundation (disambiguation) * Inc ...
. It stresses ''
liberty Broadly speaking, liberty is the ability to do as one pleases, or a right or immunity enjoyed by prescription or by grant (i.e. privilege). It is a synonym for the word freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without c ...

liberty
'' and '' inalienable individual rights'' as central values; recognizes the
sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the It ...

sovereign
ty of the people as the source of all authority in law; rejects monarchy, aristocracy, and hereditary political power; expects citizens to be virtuous and faithful in their performance of civic duties; and vilifies
corruption Corruption is a form of dishonesty Dishonesty is to act without honesty. It is used to describe a lack of probity, cheating, lying, or deliberately withholding information, or being deliberately deceptive or a lack in integrity, knavishness, ...
. American republicanism was articulated and first practised by the
Founding Fathers The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing their nation. National founders are typically those who played an influential role in setting up the systems of governance, ...
in the 18th century. For them, "republicanism represented more than a particular form of government. It was a way of life, a core ideology, an uncompromising commitment to liberty, and a total rejection of aristocracy." Republicanism was based on Ancient
Greco-Roman The term "Greco-Roman world" (also "Greco-Roman culture" or ; spelled Graeco-Roman in the ), as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to geographical regions and countries that culturally—and so historically—were directly and ...
, Renaissance, and English models and ideas. It formed the basis for the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) ...
, the
Declaration of Independence#REDIRECT Declaration of independence {{Redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation ...

Declaration of Independence
(1776), the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
(1787), and the
Bill of Rights A bill of rights, sometimes called a declaration of rights or a charter of rights, is a list of the most important rights Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are th ...

Bill of Rights
, as well as the
Gettysburg Address The Gettysburg Address is a speech Speech is human vocal communication using language. Each language uses Phonetics, phonetic combinations of vowel and consonant sounds that form the sound of its words (that is, all English words sound diff ...

Gettysburg Address
(1863). Republicanism includes guarantees of rights that cannot be repealed by a majority vote.
Alexis de Tocqueville#REDIRECT Alexis de Tocqueville Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, comte de Tocqueville (; 29 July 180516 April 1859), colloquially known as Tocqueville (), was a French aristocrat, diplomat, political scientist, political philosopher and historia ...

Alexis de Tocqueville
warned about the "
tyranny of the majority The tyranny of the majority (or tyranny of the masses) is an inherent weakness to majority rule in which the majority of an electorate pursues exclusively its own objectives at the expense of those of the minority factions. This results in oppress ...
" in a democracy, and suggested the courts should try to reverse the efforts of the majority of terminating the rights of an unpopular minority. The term 'republicanism' is derived from the term 'republic', but the two words have different meanings. A '
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

republic
' is a form of government (one without a hereditary ruling class); 'republicanism' refers to the values of the citizens in a republic. Two major parties have used the term in their name – the
Democratic-Republican Party The Democratic-Republican Party, better known at the time under various other names, was an American political party founded by Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat, l ...
of
Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were cr ...

Thomas Jefferson
(founded in 1793, and often called the 'Jeffersonian Republican Party' as it is a political antecedent to the
Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Party *Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea *Gabonese Democratic Party *Democ ...
), and also the
Republican Party Republican Party is a name used by many political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about polit ...
, founded in 1854 and named after the Jeffersonian party.


The American Revolution


Republican virtues

The colonial intellectual and political leaders in the 1760s and 1770s closely read history to compare governments and their effectiveness of rule. The Revolutionists were especially concerned with the history of liberty in
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
and were primarily influenced by the " country party" (which opposed the court party that held power). Country party philosophy relied heavily on the
classical republicanism Classical republicanism, also known as civic republicanism or civic humanism, is a form of republicanism Republicanism is a political ideology centered on citizenship in a state (polity), state organized as a republic. Historically, it ranges f ...
of Roman heritage; it celebrated the ideals of duty and virtuous citizenship in a republic. It drew heavily on ancient Greek city-state and Roman republican examples. The country party shared some of the political philosophy of
Whiggism Whiggism (in North America sometimes spelled Whigism) is a political philosophy that grew out of the Roundhead, Parliamentarian faction in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (1639–1651). The Whigs' key policy positions were the Parliamentary sover ...
as well as Tory critics in England which roundly denounced the corruption surrounding the "court party" in London centering on the royal court. This approach produced a political ideology Americans called "republicanism", which was widespread in colonial America by 1775. "Republicanism was the distinctive political consciousness of the entire Revolutionary generation."
J.G.A. Pocock John Greville Agard Pocock (; born 7 March 1924) is a historian of political thought from New Zealand. He is especially known for his studies of republicanism in the early modern period (mostly in Europe, Britain, and America), his work on the ...
explained the intellectual sources in America: American republicanism was centered on limiting corruption and greed. Virtue was of the utmost importance for citizens and representatives. Revolutionaries took a lesson from ancient Rome; they knew it was necessary to avoid the luxury that had destroyed the empire. A virtuous citizen was one who ignored monetary compensation and made a commitment to resist and eradicate corruption. The republic was sacred; therefore, it was necessary to serve the state in a truly representative way, ignoring self-interest and individual will. Republicanism required the service of those who were willing to give up their own interests for a common good. According to Bernard Bailyn, "The preservation of liberty rested on the ability of the people to maintain effective checks on wielders of power and hence in the last analysis rested on the vigilance and moral stamina of the people. ... " Virtuous citizens needed to be strong defenders of liberty and challenge the corruption and greed in government. The duty of the virtuous citizen became a foundation for the American Revolution.


Cause of revolution

The commitment of Patriots to republican values was a key intellectual foundation of the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) ...
. In particular, the key was Patriots' intense fear of political corruption and the threat it posed to liberty.
Bernard Bailyn Bernard Bailyn (September 9, 1922 – August 7, 2020) was an American historian, author, and academic specializing in U.S. Colonial and Revolutionary-era History. He was a professor at Harvard University Harvard University is a Private un ...
states, "The fact that the ministerial conspiracy against liberty had risen from corruption was of the utmost importance to the colonists." In 1768 to 1773 newspaper exposés such as
John Dickinson John Dickinson (November 13 Julian_calendar">/nowiki> Julian_calendar">/nowiki>Julian_calendar_November_2">Julian_calendar.html"_;"title="/nowiki>Julian_calendar">/nowiki>Julian_calendar_November_2_1732_–_February_14,_1808),_a_Founding_Fathe ...
's series of "
Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, Object (philosophy ...
" (1767–68) were widely reprinted and spread American disgust with British corruption. The patriot press provided emphasized British corruption, mismanagement, and tyranny. Britain was increasingly portrayed as corrupt and hostile and that of a threat to the very idea of democracy; a threat to the established liberties that colonists enjoyed and to colonial property rights. The greatest threat to liberty was thought by many to be corruption – not just in London but at home as well. The colonists associated it with luxury and, especially, inherited aristocracy, which they condemned. Historian
J.G.A. Pocock John Greville Agard Pocock (; born 7 March 1924) is a historian of political thought from New Zealand. He is especially known for his studies of republicanism in the early modern period (mostly in Europe, Britain, and America), his work on the ...
argues that Republicanism explains the American Revolution in terms of virtuous Republican resistance to British imperial corruption. Historian Sarah Purcell studied the sermons preached by the New England patriot clergy in 1774–1776. They stirred up a martial spirit justified war against England. The preachers cited New England's Puritan history in defense of freedom, blamed Britain's depravity and corruption for the necessity of armed conflict. The sermons called on soldiers to behave morally and in a "manly" disciplined fashion. The rhetoric not only encouraged heavy enlistment, but helped create the intellectual climate the Patriots needed to fight a civil war. Historian Thomas Kidd argues that during the Revolution active Christians linked their religion to republicanism. He states, "With the onset of the revolutionary crisis, a major conceptual shift convinced Americans across the theological spectrum that God was raising up America for some special purpose." Kidd further argues that "new blend of Christian and republican ideology led religious traditionalists to embrace wholesale the concept of republican virtue." Historian Gordon Wood has tied the founding ideas to
American exceptionalism American exceptionalism is the theory that the United States is inherently different from other nations.

Founding Fathers

The "
Founding Fathers The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing their nation. National founders are typically those who played an influential role in setting up the systems of governance, ...
" were strong advocates of republican values, especially
Samuel Adams Samuel Adams ( – October 2, 1803) was an American statesman, Political philosophy, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was a politician in Province of Massachusetts Bay, colonial Massachusetts, a l ...

Samuel Adams
,
Patrick Henry Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736June 6, 1799) was an American attorney, Planter class, planter, politician, and orator best known for his declaration to the Virginia Conventions, Second Virginia Convention (1775): "Give me liberty, or give me death ...

Patrick Henry
,
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American soldier, statesman, and Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Appointed by the Continenta ...

George Washington
,
Thomas Paine Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the ...

Thomas Paine
,
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States that was negotiated on behalf of the United States by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin and John Jay The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simp ...

Benjamin Franklin
,
John Adams John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, attorney, diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific stud ...

John Adams
,
Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were cr ...

Thomas Jefferson
,
James Madison James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751June 28, 1836) was an American statesman, diplomat, expansionist, philosopher, and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited wi ...

James Madison
and
Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was an American statesman, politician, legal scholar, military commander, lawyer, banker, and economist. He was one of the . He was an influential interpreter and promoter of the , ...

Alexander Hamilton
. Thomas Jefferson defined a republic as: The Founding Fathers discoursed endlessly on the meaning of "republicanism." John Adams in 1787 defined it as "a government, in which all men, rich and poor, magistrates and subjects, officers and people, masters and servants, the first citizen and the last, are equally subject to the laws."


Virtue versus commerce

The open question, as Pocock suggested, of the conflict between personal economic interest (grounded in Lockean liberalism) and classical republicanism, troubled Americans. and
MadisonMadison may refer to: People * Madison (name), a given name and a surname * James Madison (1751–1836), fourth president of the United States Place names * Madison, Wisconsin, the state capital of Wisconsin and the largest city known by this ...

Madison
roundly denounced the Federalists for creating a national bank as tending to corruption and monarchism;
Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was an American statesman, politician, legal scholar, military commander, lawyer, banker, and economist. He was one of the . He was an influential interpreter and promoter of the , ...

Alexander Hamilton
staunchly defended his program, arguing that national economic strength was necessary for the protection of liberty. Jefferson never relented but by 1815 Madison switched and announced in favor of a national bank, which he set up in 1816.
John Adams John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, attorney, diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific stud ...

John Adams
often pondered the issue of civic virtue. Writing
Mercy Otis Warren Mercy Otis Warren (September 14, eptember 25, New Style1728 – October 19, 1814) was a poet, playwright and pamphleteer during the American Revolution. During the years before the American Revolution, Warren published poems and plays that ...

Mercy Otis Warren
in 1776, he agreed with the Greeks and the Romans, that, "Public Virtue cannot exist without private, and public Virtue is the only Foundation of Republics." Adams insisted, "There must be a positive Passion for the public good, the public Interest, Honor, Power, and Glory, established in the Minds of the People, or there can be no Republican Government, nor any real Liberty. And this public Passion must be Superior to all private Passions. Men must be ready, they must pride themselves, and be happy to sacrifice their private Pleasures, Passions, and Interests, nay their private Friendships and dearest connections, when they Stand in Competition with the Rights of society." Adams worried that a businessman might have financial interests that conflicted with republican duty; indeed, he was especially suspicious of banks. He decided that history taught that "the Spirit of Commerce ... is incompatible with that purity of Heart, and Greatness of soul which is necessary for a happy Republic." But so much of that spirit of commerce had infected America. In New England, Adams noted, "even the Farmers and Tradesmen are addicted to Commerce." As a result, there was "a great Danger that a Republican Government would be very factious and turbulent there."


Other influences

A second stream of thought growing in significance was the
classical liberalism Classical liberalism is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosopher ...
of
John Locke John Locke (; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism Liberalism is a ...

John Locke
, including his theory of the "
social contract In moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power ...
". This had a great influence on the revolution as it implied the inborn right of the people to overthrow their leaders should those leaders betray the agreements implicit in the sovereign-follower relationship. Historians find little trace of
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau (, , ; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Republic of Geneva, Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment throughout Europe, as w ...

Jean-Jacques Rousseau
's influence in America. In terms of writing state and national constitutions, the Americans used
Montesquieu Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, Lot-et-Garonne, Montesquieu (; ; 18 January 168910 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, intellectual, man of letters, historian, and po ...
's analysis of the ideally "balanced" British Constitution. But first and last came a commitment to republicanism, as shown by many historians such as
Bernard Bailyn Bernard Bailyn (September 9, 1922 – August 7, 2020) was an American historian, author, and academic specializing in U.S. Colonial and Revolutionary-era History. He was a professor at Harvard University Harvard University is a Private un ...
and Gordon S. Wood.


Historiography

For a century, historians have debated how important republicanism was to the Founding Fathers. The interpretation before 1960, following Progressive School historians such as Charles A. Beard, Vernon L. Parrington and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Sr., downplayed rhetoric as superficial and looked for economic motivations.
Louis HartzLouis Hartz (April 8, 1919 – January 20, 1986) was an American political scientist and influential liberal proponent of the idea of American exceptionalism. Hartz was born in Youngstown, Ohio Youngstown is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio, ...
refined the position in the 1950s, arguing
John Locke John Locke (; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism Liberalism is a ...

John Locke
was the most important source because his property-oriented
liberalism Liberalism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...

liberalism
supported the materialistic goals of Americans. In the 1960s and 1970s, two new schools emerged that emphasized the primacy of ideas as motivating forces in history (rather than material self-interest).
Bernard Bailyn Bernard Bailyn (September 9, 1922 – August 7, 2020) was an American historian, author, and academic specializing in U.S. Colonial and Revolutionary-era History. He was a professor at Harvard University Harvard University is a Private un ...
, Gordon Wood from Harvard formed the "Cambridge School"; at Washington University the "St. Louis School" was led by
J.G.A. Pocock John Greville Agard Pocock (; born 7 March 1924) is a historian of political thought from New Zealand. He is especially known for his studies of republicanism in the early modern period (mostly in Europe, Britain, and America), his work on the ...
. They emphasized slightly different approaches to republicanism. However, some scholars, especially Isaac Kramnick and the late Joyce Appleby, continue to emphasize Locke, arguing that Americans are fundamentally individualistic and not devoted to civic virtue. The relative importance of republicanism and liberalism remains a topic of strong debate among historians, as well as the politically active of present day.


The Constitution

The Founding Fathers wanted republicanism because its principles guaranteed liberty, with opposing, limited powers offsetting one another. They thought change should occur slowly, as many were afraid that a "democracy" – by which they meant a
direct democracy upright=1.5, A Landsgemeinde, or assembly, of the canton of Glarus, on 7 May 2006, Switzerland">canton_of_Glarus.html" ;"title="Landsgemeinde, or assembly, of the canton of Glarus">Landsgemeinde, or assembly, of the canton of Glarus, on 7 May 200 ...
– would allow a majority of voters at any time to trample rights and liberties. They believed the most formidable of these potential majorities was that of the poor against the rich. They thought democracy could take the form of
mob rule Mob rule or ochlocracy ( el, ὀχλοκρατία, translit=okhlokratía; la, ochlocratia) is the rule of government by a mob or mass of people and the intimidation of legitimate authorities. Insofar as it represents a pejorative for majoritar ...
that could be shaped on the spot by a demagogue. Therefore, they devised a written Constitution that could be amended only by a super majority, preserved competing sovereignties in the constituent states, gave the control of the upper house (Senate) to the states, and created an
Electoral College An electoral college is a set of electors who are selected to elect a candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking or being considered for some kind of position; for example: * to be ...
, comprising a small number of elites, to select the president. They set up a House of Representatives to represent the people. In practice the electoral college soon gave way to control by political parties. In 1776, most states required property ownership to vote, but most white male citizens owned farms in the 90% rural nation, so it was limiting to women, Native Americans and slaves. As the country urbanized and people took on different work, the property ownership requirement was gradually dropped by many states. Property requirements were gradually dismantled in state after state, so that all had been eliminated by 1850, so that few if any economic barriers remained to prevent white, adult males from voting.


"Republican" as party name

In 1792–93 Jefferson and Madison created a new "Democratic-Republican party" in order to promote their version of the doctrine. They wanted to suggest that Hamilton's version was illegitimate. According to Federalist
Noah Webster Noah Webster Jr. (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups: * Practical lexicography is the art or craft A craft or trade is a pastime or ...

Noah Webster
, a political activist bitter at the defeat of the Federalist party in the White House and Congress, the choice of the name "Democratic-Republican" was "a powerful instrument in the process of making proselytes to the party. ... The influence of names on the mass of mankind, was never more distinctly exhibited, than in the increase of the democratic party in the United States. The popularity of the denomination of the Republican Party, was more than a match for the popularity of Washington's character and services, and contributed to overthrow his administration." The party, which historians later called the
Democratic-Republican Party The Democratic-Republican Party, also referred to as the Jeffersonian Republican Party and known at the time under various other names, was an American political party founded by Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – J ...
, split into separate factions in the 1820s, one of which became the
Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Party *Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea *Gabonese Democratic Party *Democ ...
. After 1832, the Democrats were opposed by another faction that named themselves "Whigs" after the Patriots of the 1770s who started the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) ...
. Both of these parties proclaimed their devotion to republicanism in the era of the
Second Party System Historians and political scientists use Second Party System to periodize the political party system operating in the United States from about 1828 to 1852, after the First Party System ended. The system was characterized by rapidly rising levels o ...

Second Party System
.


Republican motherhood

Under the new government after the revolution, " republican motherhood" became an ideal, as exemplified by
Abigail Adams Abigail Adams ( ''née'' Smith; November 22, [ O.S. November 11] 1744 – October 28, 1818) was the wife and closest advisor of John Adams John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, attorne ...

Abigail Adams
and
Mercy Otis Warren Mercy Otis Warren (September 14, eptember 25, New Style1728 – October 19, 1814) was a poet, playwright and pamphleteer during the American Revolution. During the years before the American Revolution, Warren published poems and plays that ...

Mercy Otis Warren
. The first duty of the republican woman was to instill republican values in her children, and to avoid luxury and ostentation. Two generations later, the daughters and granddaughters of these "Republican mothers" appropriated republican values into their lives as they sought independence and equality in the workforce. During the 1830s, thousands of female mill workers went on strike to battle for their right to fair wages and independence, as there had been major pay cuts. Many of these women were daughters of independent land owners and descendants of men who had fought in the Revolutionary War; they identified as "daughters of freemen". In their fight for independence at the mills, women would incorporate rhetoric from the revolution to convey the importance and strength of their purpose to their corporate employers, as well as to other women. If the Revolutionary War was fought to secure independence from
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the List of European islands by area, largest European island, and the List of i ...

Great Britain
, then these "daughters of freemen" could fight for the same republican values that (through striking) would give them fair pay and independence, just as the men had.


National debt

Jefferson and
Albert Gallatin Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin, born de Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was an American politician, diplomat, ethnologist and linguist. Biographer Nicholas Dungan states he was "America's Swiss Founding Father." He is known for ...

Albert Gallatin
focused on the danger that the public debt, unless it was paid off, would be a threat to republican values. They were appalled that Hamilton was increasing the national debt and using it to solidify his Federalist base. Gallatin was the Republican Party's chief expert on fiscal issues and as Treasury Secretary under Jefferson and Madison worked hard to lower taxes and lower the debt, while at the same time paying cash for the Louisiana Purchase and funding the War of 1812. Burrows says of Gallatin: :His own fears of personal dependency and his small-shopkeeper's sense of integrity, both reinforced by a strain of radical republican thought that originated in England a century earlier, convinced him that public debts were a nursery of multiple public evils – corruption, legislative impotence, executive tyranny, social inequality, financial speculation, and personal indolence. Not only was it necessary to extinguish the existing debt as rapidly as possible, he argued, but Congress would have to ensure against the accumulation of future debts by more diligently supervising government expenditures. Andrew Jackson believed the national debt was a "national curse" and he took special pride in paying off the entire national debt in 1835. Politicians ever since have used the issue of a high national debt to denounce the other party for profligacy and a threat to fiscal soundness and the nation's future.


Democracy

Ellis and Nelson argue that much constitutional thought, from Madison to Lincoln and beyond, has focused on "the problem of majority tyranny." They conclude, "The principles of republican government embedded in the Constitution represent an effort by the framers to ensure that the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness would not be trampled by majorities." Madison, in particular, worried that a small localized majority might threaten inalienable rights, and in Federalist No. 10 he argued that the larger the population of the republic, the more diverse it would be and the less liable to this threat. More broadly, in Federalist No. 10, Madison distinguished a ''democracy'' from a ''republic''. Jefferson warned that "an elective despotism is not the government we fought for." As late as 1800, the word "democrat" was mostly used to attack an opponent of the Federalist party. Thus,
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American soldier, statesman, and Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Appointed by the Continenta ...

George Washington
in 1798 complained, "that you could as soon scrub the blackamoor white, as to change the principles of a profest Democrat; and that he will leave nothing unattempted to overturn the Government of this Country." The
Federalist Papers ''The Federalist Papers'' is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was an American statesman, politician, legal scholar, military commander, lawyer ...

Federalist Papers
are pervaded by the idea that pure democracy is actually quite dangerous, because it allows a majority to infringe upon the rights of a minority. Thus, in encouraging the states to participate in a strong centralized government under a new constitution and replace the relatively weak
Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, ...
, Madison argued in Federalist No. 10 that a special interest may take control of a small area, e.g. a state, but it could not easily take over a large nation. Therefore, the larger the nation, the safer is republicanism. By 1805, the "Old Republicans" or " Quids", a minority faction among Southern Republicans, led by Johan Randolph,
John Taylor of Caroline John Taylor (December 19, 1753August 21, 1824), usually called John Taylor of Caroline, was a politician and writer. He served in the Virginia House of Delegates The Virginia House of Delegates is one of the two parts of the Virginia General A ...

John Taylor of Caroline
and
Nathaniel Macon Nathaniel Macon (December 17, 1757June 29, 1837) was an American politician who represented North Carolina North Carolina () is a U.S. state, state in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. North Carolina i ...
, opposed Jefferson and Madison on the grounds that they had abandoned the true republican commitment to a weak central government.


Property rights

Supreme Court Justice
Joseph Story Joseph Story (September 18, 1779 – September 10, 1845) was an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from 1812 to 1845. He is most remembered for his opinions in ''Martin v. Hunter's Lessee'' and ''United States v. ...

Joseph Story
(1779–1845), made the protection of property rights by the courts a major component of American republicanism. A precocious legal scholar, Story was appointed to the Court by James Madison in 1811. He and Chief Justice
John Marshall John Marshall (September 24, 1755July 6, 1835) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the fourth chief justice of the United States The chief justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United Stat ...

John Marshall
made the Court a bastion of nationalism (along the lines of Marshall's
Federalist Party The Federalist Party was the first political party in the United States American electoral politics has been dominated by two major political parties since shortly after the founding of the republic. Since the 1850s, they have been the Histo ...
) and a protector of the rights of property against runaway democracy. Story opposed
Jacksonian democracy Jacksonian democracy was a 19th-century political philosophy in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily locat ...
because it was inclined to repudiate lawful debts and was too often guilty of what he called "oppression" of property rights by republican governments. Story held that, "the right of the citizens to the free enjoyment of their property legally acquired" was "a great and fundamental principle of a republican government." Newmyer (1985) presents Story as a "Statesman of the Old Republic" who tried to rise above democratic politics and to shape the law in accordance with the republicanism of Story's heroes,
Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was an American statesman, politician, legal scholar, military commander, lawyer, banker, and economist. He was one of the . He was an influential interpreter and promoter of the , ...

Alexander Hamilton
and
John Marshall John Marshall (September 24, 1755July 6, 1835) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the fourth chief justice of the United States The chief justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United Stat ...

John Marshall
, as well as the New England Whigs of the 1820s and 1830s, such as
Daniel Webster Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852) was an American lawyer and statesman who represented and in the and served as the under Presidents , , and . As one of the most prominent American lawyers of the 19th century, he argued ...

Daniel Webster
. Historians agree that Justice Story – as much or more than Marshall or anyone else – did indeed reshape American law in a conservative direction that protected property rights.


Military service

Civic virtue required men to put civic goals ahead of their personal desires, and to volunteer to fight for their country. Military service thus was an integral duty of the citizen. As
John Randolph of Roanoke 200px, Gilbert Stuart painting of a youthful Randolph John Randolph (June 2, 1773May 24, 1833), commonly known as John Randolph of Roanoke,''Roanoke'' refers to Roanoke Plantation in Charlotte County, Virginia, not to the city A city is a ...

John Randolph of Roanoke
put it, "When citizen and soldier shall be synonymous terms, then you will be safe." Scott (1984) notes that in both the American and French revolutions, distrust of foreign mercenaries led to the concept of a national, citizen army, and the definition of military service was changed from a choice of careers to a civic duty. Herrera (2001) explains that an appreciation of self-governance is essential to any understanding of the American military character before the Civil War. Military service was considered an important demonstration of patriotism and an essential component of citizenship. To soldiers, military service was a voluntary, negotiated, and temporary abeyance of self-governance by which they signaled their responsibility as citizens. In practice self-governance in military affairs came to include personal independence, enlistment negotiations, petitions to superior officials, militia constitutions, and negotiations regarding discipline. Together these affected all aspects of military order, discipline, and life.


Role of the South

In reaction to the
Kansas–Nebraska Act The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 () was a territorial organic act that created the territories of Kansas Kansas () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publi ...
of 1854 that promoted democracy by saying new settlers could decide themselves whether or not to have slavery, antislavery forces across the North formed a new party. The party officially designated itself "Republican" because the name resonated with the struggle of 1776. "In view of the necessity of battling for the first principles of republican government," resolved the Michigan state convention, "and against the schemes of aristocracy the most revolting and oppressive with which the earth was ever cursed, or man debased, we will co-operate and be known as Republicans." J. Mills Thornton argues that in the antebellum South the drive to preserve republican values (in particular the system of checks and balances) was the most powerful force, and led Southerners to interpret Northern policies against slavery as a threat to their republican values. After the war, the Republicans believed that the Constitutional guarantee of republicanism enabled Congress to Reconstruct the political system of the former Confederate states. The main legislation was explicitly designed to promote republicanism. Radical Republicans pushed forward to secure not only citizenship for freedmen through the 14th amendment, but also to give them the vote through the 15th amendment. They held that the concept of republicanism meant that true political knowledge was to be gained in exercising the right to vote and organizing for elections. and other advocates of woman suffrage said republicanism covered them too, as they demanded the vote.


Progressive Era

A central theme of the progressive era was fear of corruption, one of the core ideas of republicanism since the 1770s. The Progressives restructured the political system to combat entrenched interests (for example, through the direct election of Senators), to ban influences such as alcohol that were viewed as corrupting, and to extend the vote to women, who were seen as being morally pure and less corruptible. Questions of performing civic duty were brought up in presidential campaigns and
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. In the presidential election of 1888, Republicans emphasized that the Democratic candidate
Grover Cleveland Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837June 24, 1908) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States from 1885 to 1889 and from 1893 to 1897. Cleveland is the only president in American ...

Grover Cleveland
had purchased a substitute to fight for him in the Civil War, while his opponent General
Benjamin Harrison Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 March 13, 1901) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 23rd from 1889 to 1893. He was a grandson of the ninth president, , and a great-grandson of , a who signed the . Harrison was born o ...

Benjamin Harrison
had fought in numerous battles. In 1917, a great debate took place over
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th from 1913 to 1921. A member of the , Wilson served as the and as the before winning the . As President, Wilson chang ...

Woodrow Wilson
's proposal to draft men into the U.S. Army after war broke out in Europe. Many said it violated the republican notion of freely given civic duty to force people to serve. In the end, Wilson was successful and the
Selective Service Act of 1917 The Selective Service Act of 1917 or Selective Draft Act () authorized the United States federal government to raise a national army for American entry into World War I, service in World War I through conscription. It was envisioned in Decemb ...
was passed.


Legal terminology

The term ''republic'' does not appear in the
Declaration of Independence#REDIRECT Declaration of independence {{Redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation ...
, but does appear in Article IV of the Constitution which "guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government." What exactly the writers of the constitution felt this should mean is uncertain. The
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...

Supreme Court
, in '' Luther v. Borden'' (1849), declared that the definition of ''republic'' was a "
political question In United States constitutional law United States constitutional law is the body of law governing the interpretation and implementation of the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the Un ...
" in which it would not intervene. During Reconstruction the Constitutional clause was the legal foundation for the extensive Congressional control over the eleven former Confederate states; there was no such oversight over the border slave states that had remained in the Union. In two later cases, it did establish a basic definition. In '' United States v. Cruikshank'' (1875), the court ruled that the "equal rights of citizens" were inherent to the idea of republic. The opinion of the court from ''In re Duncan'' (1891) held that the "right of the people to choose their government" is also part of the definition. It is also generally assumed that the clause prevents any state from being a monarchy – or a dictatorship. Due to the 1875 and 1891 court decisions establishing basic definition, in the first version (1892) of the
Pledge of Allegiance The Pledge of Allegiance of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 ...
, which included the word ''republic'', and like Article IV which refers to a Republican form of government, the basic definition of ''republic'' is implied and continues to do so in all subsequent versions, including the present edition, by virtue of its consistent inclusion.


Democracy

Over time, the pejorative connotations of "democracy" faded. By the 1830s, democracy was seen as an unmitigated positive and the term "Democratic" was assumed by the
Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Party *Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea *Gabonese Democratic Party *Democ ...
and the term "Democrat" was adopted by its members. A common term for the party in the 19th century was "The Democracy." In debates on
Reconstruction Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new company *''Perestroika'' (Russian for "reconstruction"), a late 20th century Soviet Union ...
,
Radical Republicans The Radical Republicans were a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party of the United States from around 1854 (before the American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by Names of the American Civil War, othe ...
, such as Senator
Charles Sumner Charles Sumner (January 6, 1811March 11, 1874) was an American statesman and United States Senate, United States Senator from Massachusetts. As an academic lawyer and a powerful orator, Sumner was the leader of the anti-slavery forces in the s ...

Charles Sumner
, argued that the republican "guarantee clause" in Article IV supported the introduction by force of law of democratic suffrage in the defeated South. After 1800 the limitations on democracy were systematically removed; property qualifications for state voters were largely eliminated in the 1820s."Suffrage" in Paul S. Boyer and Melvyn Dubofsky, ''The Oxford Companion to United States history'' (2001) p. 754 The
initiative In political science, an initiative (also known as a popular initiative or citizens' initiative) is a means by which a petition signed by a certain number of Voter registration, registered voters can force a government to choose either to enac ...

initiative
,
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number th ...

referendum
,
recall Recall may refer to: * Recall (bugle call), a signal to stop * Recall (information retrieval), a statistical measure * ReCALL (journal), ''ReCALL'' (journal), an academic journal about computer-assisted language learning * Recall (memory) * Recal ...

recall
, and other devices of direct democracy became widely accepted at the state and local level in the 1910s; and senators were made directly electable by the people in 1913. The last restrictions on black voting were made illegal in 1965.


See also

*
Corruption in the United States Corruption in the United States is the act of government officials abusing their political powers for private gain, typically through bribery or other methods. Corruption in the United States is a growing problems across many areas, particularl ...
*
First Party System First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill, ...

First Party System
*
Second Party System Historians and political scientists use Second Party System to periodize the political party system operating in the United States from about 1828 to 1852, after the First Party System ended. The system was characterized by rapidly rising levels o ...

Second Party System
*
Third Party System The Third Party System is a term of periodization Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time.Adam Rabinowitz. It’s about time: historical periodization and Linked Ancient Wor ...

Third Party System


References


Further reading

* Appleby, Joyce. ''Liberalism and Republicanism in the Historical Imagination'' (1992) * Appleby, Joyce. "Commercial Farming and the 'Agrarian Myth' in the Early Republic," ''Journal of American History'' 68 (1982), pp. 833–4
online
* Appleby, Joyce. "Republicanism in Old and New Contexts," ''William & Mary Quarterly'', 43 (January, 1986), pp. 3–3
online
* Appleby, Joyce. ''Capitalism and a New Social Order: The Republican Vision of the 1790s'', 1984, her reprinted essays * Appleby, Joyce, ed. "Republicanism in the History and Historiography of the United States," special issue of ''American Quarterly'', Vol. 37, No. 4, (1985) with these articles: here ** Joyce Appleby, "Republicanism and Ideology," pp. 461–7
in JSTOR
** Linda K. Kerber, "The Republican Ideology of the Revolutionary Generation," pp. 474–9
in JSTOR
** Cathy Matson and Peter Onuf, "Toward a Republican Empire: Interest and Ideology in Revolutionary America," pp. 496–53
in JSTOR
** Jean Baker, "From Belief into Culture: Republicanism in the Antebellum North," pp. 532–5
in JSTOR
**James Oakes. "From Republicanism to Liberalism: Ideological Change and the Crisis of the Old South," pp. 551–7
in JSTOR
** John Patrick Diggins, "Republicanism and Progressivism," pp. 572–9
in JSTOR
* Ashworth, John, "The Jeffersonians: Classical Republicans or Liberal Capitalists?" ''Journal of American Studies'' 18 (1984), pp. 428–30 * Bailyn, Bernard. ''The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution.'' (1967). * Bailyn, Bernard. ''The Origins of American Politics'' (1966) * Banning, Lance. ''The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology'' (1978) * Becker, Peter, Jürgen Heideking and James A. Henretta, eds. ''Republicanism and Liberalism in America and the German States, 1750–1850.'' (2002). * Brown, David. "Jeffersonian Ideology And The Second Party System" ''Historian'', Fall, 1999 v62#1 pp. 17–4
online edition
* Brown; Stuart Gerry. ''The First Republicans: Political Philosophy and Public Policy in the Party of Jefferson and Madison'
(1954)
* Buel, Richard. ''Securing the Revolution: Ideology in American Politics, 1789–1815'' (1972) * Clark, J. C. D.. ''The Language of Liberty 1660–1832: Political Discourse and Social Dynamics in the Anglo-American World, 1660–1832'' * Colbourn, Trevor. ''The Lamp of Experience: Whig History and the Intellectual Origins of the American Revolution'' (1965
online version
* Currie, James T., ''The Constitution in Congress: The Federalist Period, 1789–1801,'' (1997); ''The Constitution in Congress: The Jeffersonians, 1801–1829,'' U. of Chicago Press, 2001 * Elkins, Stanley M., and Eric McKitrick. ''The Age of Federalism'' (1993) standard political history of 1790s * Ellis, Joseph J. ''American Creation: Triumphs and Tragedies in the Founding of the Republic'' (2007) * Everdell, William R. ''The End of Kings: A History of Republics and Republicans,'' (2nd ed. 2000) * * Ferling, John E. ''A Leap in the Dark: The Struggle to Create the American Republic.'' (2003
online edition

Foner, Eric. "Radical Individualism in America: Revolution to Civil War," ''Literature of Liberty,'' vol. 1 no. 3, July/September 1978 pp. 1–31 online
* Gould, Philip. "Virtue, Ideology, and the American Revolution: The Legacy of the Republican Synthesis," ''American Literary History,'' Vol. 5, No. 3, Eighteenth-Century American Cultural Studies (Autumn, 1993), pp. 564–77 * Greene, Jack P. and J. R. Pole, eds. ''The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution'' (1991), 845 pp; emphasis on political ideas and republicanism; revised edition (2004) titled ''A Companion to the American Revolution'' * Haakonssen, Knud. "Republicanism" in Robert E. Goodin et al. eds. ''A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy'' (2017) ch 43. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405177245.ch43 * Hartz, Louis. ''The Liberal Tradition in America'' (1952) * Hart, Gary. ''Restoration of the Republic: The Jeffersonian Ideal in 21st-Century America'' (2002) * Herrera, Ricardo A. ''For Liberty and the Republic: The American Citizen as Soldier, 1775–1861'' (New York University Press, 2015
online review
* Jacobs, Meg, ed. ''The Democratic Experiment: New Directions in American Political History'' * Kerber, Linda K. "The Republican Mother: Women and the Enlightenment-An American Perspective," ''American Quarterly,'' Vol. 28, No. 2, (Summer, 1976), pp. 187–20
in JSTOR
* Kerber, Linda K. '' Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America'' (1997) * Keyssar, Alexander. ''The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States'' (2001) * Klein, Milton, ''et al.'', eds., ''The Republican Synthesis Revisited'' (1992). * Kloppenberg, James T. ''The Virtues of Liberalism'' (1998) * Kramnick, Isaac. ''Republicanism and Bourgeois Radicalism: Political Ideology in Late Eighteenth-Century England and America'' (1990) * Kramnick, Isaac and Theodore Lowi. '' American Political Thought'' (2006), primary sources * McCoy, Drew R. ''The Elusive Republic: Political Economy in Jeffersonian America'' (1980) on economic theories * McCoy, Drew R. ''The Last of the Fathers: James Madison and the Republican Legacy'' (1989). * Morgan. Edmund. ''Inventing the People'' (1989) * Mushkat, Jerome, and Joseph G. Rayback, ''Martin Van Buren: Law, Politics, and the Shaping of Republican Ideology'' (1997). * Nabors, Forrest A. ''From Oligarchy to Republicanism: The Great Task of Reconstruction'' (2017) the South in late 1860
excerpt
* Norton, Mary Beth. ''Liberty's Daughters: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750–1800'' (1980) * J. G. A. Pocock, Pocock, J.G.A.. ''The Machiavellian Moment: Florentine Political Thought and the Atlantic Republican Tradition'' (1975) ** J. G. A. Pocock, Pocock, J.G.A.. "The Machiavellian Moment Revisited: A Study in History and Ideology," ''Journal of Modern History'' Vol. 53, No. 1 (Mar., 1981), pp. 49–7
in JSTOR
* Postell, Joseph. "Regulation during the American Founding: Achieving Liberalism and Republicanism." ''American Political Thought'' 5.1 (2016): 80-108. * Rakove, Jack N. ''Original Meanings: Politics and Ideas in the Making of the Constitution'' (1997) * Rodgers, Daniel T. "Republicanism: the Career of a Concept," ''Journal of American History,'' Vol. 79, No. 1 (June, 1992), pp. 11–3
online in JSTOR
* Ross, Steven J. "The Transformation of Republican Ideology," ''Journal of the Early Republic,'' 10#3 (1990), pp. 323–30 in JSTOR * Sandoz, Ellis. ''Republicanism, Religion, and the Soul of America'' (2013). * Shaffer, Arthur H. ''The Politics of History: Writing the History of the American Revolution, 1783-1815'' (2017). * Shalhope, Robert E. "Toward a Republican Synthesis: The Emergence of an Understanding of Republicanism in American Historiography," ''William and Mary Quarterly'', 29 (January 1972), pp. 49–8
in JSTOR
als
online
* Shalhope, Robert E. "Republicanism and Early American Historiography," ''William and Mary Quarterly'', 39 (April 1982), pp. 334–5
in JSTOR
* Shields, David S., and Fredrika J. Teute. "The republican court and the historiography of a women's domain in the public sphere." ''Journal of the Early Republic'' 35.2 (2015): 169–183. * Watson, Harry L. ''Liberty and Power: The Politics of Jacksonian America'' (1990) () * White, Ed. "The Ends of Republicanism," ''Journal of the Early Republic,'' Summer 2010, Vol. 30 Issue 2, pp. 179–99, focus on literature * Wilentz, Sean. ''The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln.'' (2005). * Wiltse, Charles Maurice. ''The Jeffersonian Tradition in American Democracy'' (1935) * Wood, Gordon S. ''The Radicalism of the American Revolution: How a Revolution Transformed a Monarchical Society into a Democratic One Unlike Any That Had Ever Existed''. (1992). * Wood, Gordon S. ''The Creation of the American Republic 1776–1787'' (1969), one of the most influential studies * Wood, Walter Kirk. "Before Republicanism: Frank Lawrence Owsley and the Search for Southern Identity, 1865–1965." ''Southern Studies'' (1995) 6(4): 65–77. * Yirush, Craig. "Bailyn, the Republican Interpretation, and the Future of Revolutionary Scholarship." ''Eighteenth-Century Studies'' 50.3 (2017): 321–325. * Zagari, Rosemarie. "Morals, Manners, and the Republican Mother," ''American Quarterly'' Vol. 44, No. 2 (June 1992), pp. 192–21
in JSTOR


External links

*
"Inventing a New Republican Culture for America"
Lesson plan for grades 9–12 from National Endowment for the Humanities {{DEFAULTSORT:Republicanism In The United States Republicanism in the United States, Political movements in the United States Republicanism by country, United States