The Regional Representative Council ( id, Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, DPD; alternatively translatable as the House of Regions or the House of Regional Representatives or the Senate of Indonesia), is one of two parliamentary chambers in
Indonesia Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It consists of over 17,000 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and parts of Borneo and New Guine ...
. Together with the ''Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat,'' (DPR), it makes up the Indonesian national legislative body, the ''Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat'' (MPR). Under Indonesia's constitution, the authority of the DPD is limited to areas related to regional governments and can only propose and give advice on bills to the DPR. Unlike the DPR, the DPD has no direct law-making power. Its members are usually called senators instead of DPD members.


The idea of regional representation in parliament was initially accommodated in the original version of the 1945 Constitution, with the concept of ''Utusan Daerah'' (Regional Representatives) in the MPR, along with ''Utusan Golongan'' (Group Representatives) and members of the DPR. This is regulated in Article 2 of the constitution, which states that ''"The MPR consists of members of the DPR plus representatives from regions and groups, according to the rules established by law".'' This loose arrangement was then further regulated in various laws and regulations. In the Constitution of the
United States of Indonesia The United States of Indonesia ( nl, Verenigde Staten van Indonesiƫ, id, Republik Indonesia Serikat, abbreviated as RIS), was a short-lived federal state to which the Netherlands formally transferred sovereignty of the Dutch East Indies (except ...
enacted in 1949, the idea was realized in the form of ''Senat Republik Indonesia Serikat'' (Senate of the United States of Indonesia), representing the states and working side by side with the DPR. As a replacement of ''Utusan Daerah'', the DPD was created by the third amendment to the 1945 Constitution enacted on 9 November 2001 in a move towards
bicameralism Bicameralism is a type of legislature, one divided into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses, known as a bicameral legislature. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single grou ...
. The DPD does not have the revising powers of an
upper house An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house.''Bicameralism'' (1997) by George Tsebelis The house formally designated as the upper house is usually smaller and often has more restric ...
like the
United States Senate The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, with the House of Representatives being the lower chamber. Together they compose the national bicameral legislature of the United States. The composition and pow ...
. Article 22D restricts the DPD to dealing with bills on "''regional autonomy, the relationship of central and local government, formation, expansion and merger of regions, management of natural resources and other economic resources, and Bills related to the financial balance between the centre and the regions.''" The
International Foundation for Electoral Systems The International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) is an international, non-profit organization founded in 1987. Based in Arlington, Virginia, the organization provides assistance and support for elections and electoral stakeholders in ne ...
conducted a tracking survey in the Indonesian legislative elections in 2004 which showed that not all voters knew how to vote for candidates for the new Regional Representative Council, or were even aware of its existence. The first 128 elected DPD members were sworn in for the first time on 1 October 2004. The DPD is not a true upper house, because power of the DPD is relatively weak compared to the older chamber, the DPR, notably it has no direct law-making or the power to veto bills. According to Indonesian constitutional scholar Jimly Asshiddiqie, the relative weakness of the DPD was a result of a compromise in the committee responsible for the constitutional amendment. The reformist faction wanted a strong second chamber in addition to the existing DPR in order to strengthen
checks and balances Separation of powers refers to the division of a state's government into branches, each with separate, independent powers and responsibilities, so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with those of the other branches. The typica ...
, but this was opposed by the conservative faction.


Article 22C of the
Constitution A constitution is the aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed. When these prin ...
rules that all members of the DPD are elected through the same Legislative Election every five years, along with the members of DPR. The total number of members is limited so that it does not exceed one third of that of DPR. Each
province of Indonesia A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman ''provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outsi ...
elects 4 members to the DPD on a non-partisan basis using Single non-transferable voting, although many candidates in the April 2004 election had links to the parties represented in the People's Representative Council, the ''Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat'' or DPR. The members represents the interests of their provinces, therefore the DPD can be seen as a reform of the ''utusan daerah'' (regional representatives) of the MPR in Suharto era, which were appointed to the MPR at the president's discretion.

Powers and structure

The DPD can propose regional bills to the DPR and must be heard on any regional bill proposed by DPR.

Speakers and Deputy Speakers


The acronym DPD is a common one in Indonesia. In political parties, it usually stands for ''Dewan Pimpinan Daerah'' (Local Leadership Council) and seated at each provincial capital. It should not be confused with the legislative body.


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External links

DPD homepage
(Indonesian) {{Authority control
Indonesia Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It consists of over 17,000 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and parts of Borneo and New Guine ...
Government of Indonesia People's Consultative Assembly