[,; older en|Ratisbon|italics=yes ; Noah Webster (1884) ''A Practical Dictionary of the English Language''; bar|Rengschburg or ''Rengschburch'']
is a city in eastern Bavaria
, at the confluence of the Danube
rivers. It is capital of the Upper Palatinate
subregion of the state in the south of Germany. With more than 150,000 inhabitants, Regensburg is the fourth-largest city in the State of Bavaria after Munich
. From its foundation as an imperial Roman river fort, the city has been the political, economic and cultural centre of the surrounding region. Later, during portions of the Holy Roman Empire
rule it housed the Perpetual Diet of Regensburg
The medieval centre of the city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
. In 2014, Regensburg was among the top sights and travel attractions
The first settlements in Regensburg date from the Stone Age
. The Celtic
name Radasbona was the oldest given to a settlement near Regensburg. Around AD 90, the Romans
built a fort there.
In 179, a major new Roman fort, called Castra Regina ("fortress by the river Regen"), was built for Legio III ''Italica''
during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius
It was an important camp at the most northerly point of the Danube; it corresponds to what is today the core of Regensburg's Old City or ''Altstadt'' east of the Obere and Untere Bachgasse and west of the Schwanenplatz. It is believed that as early as in late Roman times the city was the seat of a bishop, and St Boniface
re-established the Bishopric of Regensburg
From the early 6th century, Regensburg was the seat of a ruling family known as the Agilolfings
. From about 530 to the first half of the 13th century, it was the capital of Bavaria. Regensburg remained an important city during the reign of Charlemagne
. In 792, Regensburg hosted the ecclesiastical section of Charlemagne's General Assembly, the bishops in council who condemned the heresy of adoptionism
taught by their Spanish counterparts, Elipandus
and Felix of Urgell
. After the partition of the Carolingian Empire
in 843, the city became the seat of the Eastern Frankish
ruler, Louis II
the German. Two years later, fourteen Bohemia
n princes came to Regensburg to receive baptism
there. This was the starting point of Christianization
of the Czechs
, and the diocese of Regensburg became the mother diocese of that of Prague
. These events had a wide impact on the cultural history of the Czech lands, as they were consequently part of the Roman Catholic and not the Slavic-Orthodox world
. A memorial plate at St John's Church (the alleged place of the baptism) was unveiled a few years ago, commemorating the incident in the Czech
In 800 the city had 23,000 inhabitants, and by 1000 this had increased to 40,000.
On 8 December 899 Arnulf of Carinthia
, descendant of Charlemagne
, died at Regensburg.
In 1096, on the way to the First Crusade
, Peter the Hermit
led a mob of crusaders
that attempted to force the mass conversion of the Jews
of Regensburg and killed all those who resisted.
Between 1135 and 1146, the Stone Bridge
across the Danube
was built at Regensburg. This bridge opened major international trade routes between northern Europe and Venice
, and this began Regensburg's golden age as a residence of wealthy trading families. Regensburg became the cultural
centre of southern Germany and was celebrated for its gold work and fabrics.
Late Middle Ages and early modern period
In 1245 Regensburg became a Free Imperial City
and was a trade centre before the shifting of trade route
s in the late Middle Ages. In 1486, Regensburg became part of the Duchy of Bavaria
, but its independence was restored by the Holy Roman Emperor
ten years later. The first Diet of Regensburg
took place in 1541. The city adopted the Protestant Reformation
in 1542 and its Town Council remained entirely Lutheran
. From 1663 to 1806, the city was the permanent seat of the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire, which became known as the Perpetual Diet of Regensburg
. Thus, Regensburg was one of the central towns of the Empire, attracting visitors in large numbers.
A minority of the population remained Roman Catholic
, and Roman Catholics were denied civic rights ('). Although the Imperial city had adopted the Reformation, the town remained the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop and several abbey
s. Three of these, St. Emmeram
, were free imperial estates within the Holy Roman Empire, meaning that they were granted a seat and a vote at the Imperial Diet
('). So there was the unique situation that the town of Regensburg comprised five independent "states" (in terms of the Holy Roman Empire): the Protestant city itself, the Roman Catholic bishopric, and the three monasteries
. In addition, it was seen as the traditional capital of the region Bavaria (not the state), acted as functional co-capital of the Empire (second to the Emperor's court at Vienna) due to the presence of the Perpetual Diet, and it was the residence of the Emperor's Commissary-Principal to the same diet, who with one very brief exception was a prince himself (for many years the Prince of Thurn and Taxis
, still resident in the town).
Late modern period
In 1803 the city lost its status as an imperial city following its incorporation into the Principality of Regensburg
. It was handed over to the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz
and Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire Carl von Dalberg
in compensation for the territory of the Electorate of Mainz located on the left bank of the Rhine which had been annexed by France under the terms of the Treaty of Lunéville
in 1801. The Archbishopric of Mainz was formally transferred to Regensburg. Dalberg united the bishopric, the monasteries, and the town itself, making up the Principality of Regensburg
(''Fürstentum Regensburg''). Dalberg strictly modernized public life. Most importantly, he awarded equal rights to Protestants and Roman Catholics alike. In 1810 Dalberg ceded Regensburg to the Kingdom of Bavaria
, he himself being compensated by the award of Fulda
to him under the title of "Grand Duke of Frankfurt
Between April 19 and April 23, 1809, Regensburg was the scene of the Battle of Ratisbon
between forces commanded by Henri Gatien Bertrand
and Napoleon himself and the retreating Austrian
forces. The city was eventually overrun, after supplies and ammunition
ran out. The city suffered severe damage during the fight, with about 150 houses being burnt and others being looted. Robert Browning
's poem ''Incident at the French Camp'' describes the battle from the French perspective, but is filled with historical errors.
Nazism and World War II
The Jewish community was persecuted after the Nazi Party
came to power in Germany in 1933, many Jews fled in the following years, and some were also expelled to Poland
, however, thanks to a Polish-German agreement they were allowed to return to the city.
On November 9, 1938, during the Kristallnacht
, the Regensburg Synagogue
and several Jewish homes and stores were destroyed, and around 220 Jews were arrested, some were also deported to the Dachau concentration camp
[ During World War II, many Jews emigrated to various countries, and in 1942, over 200 Jews were deported either to Piaski in German-occupied Poland or the Theresienstadt Ghetto in German-occupied Czechoslovakia. In the final months of World War II, in March and April of 1945 a subcamp of the Flossenbürg concentration camp was located in the city, with 460 forced laborers of various nationalities, 40 of whom died.
Regensburg was home to both a Messerschmitt Bf 109 aircraft factory and an oil refinery, which were bombed by the Allies on August 17, 1943, in the Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission, and on February 5, 1945, during the Oil Campaign of World War II. Although both targets were badly damaged, Regensburg itself suffered little damage from the Allied strategic bombing campaign, and the nearly intact medieval city centre is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The city's most important cultural loss was that of the Romanesque church of Obermünster, which was destroyed in a March 1945 air raid and was not rebuilt (the belfry survived). Also, Regensburg's slow economic recovery after the war ensured that historic buildings were not torn down and replaced by newer ones. When the upswing in restoration reached Regensburg in the late 1960s, the prevailing mindset had turned in favour of preserving the city's heritage.
History after 1945
Between 1945 and 1949, Regensburg was the site of the largest displaced persons (DP) camp in Germany. At its peak in 1946–1947, the workers' district of Ganghofersiedlung housed almost 5,000 Ukrainian and 1,000 non-Ukrainian refugees and displaced persons. With the approval of U.S. Military Government in the American Allied Occupation Zone, Regensburg and other DP camps organised their own camp postal service. In Regensburg, the camp postal service began operation on December 11, 1946.
At the beginning of the 1960s, Regensburg invested heavily in technical and social infrastructure to attract industry. Siemens was the first multinational company to come to Regensburg, a significant step in the city's development after World War II. In 1965, Regensburg University was founded; Regensburg University of Applied Sciences was established in 1971. The second multinational company, BMW, arrived in 1986 and set up a large production plant. Since the 1990s, several well-known hightech companies have been located in Regensburg, such as Infineon and OSRAM, contributing to the city's current wealth.
In 1997, Regensburg was awarded the Europe Prize for its outstanding achievements in European integration.
The World Heritage Committee listed Regensburg's Old Town a UNESCO World Heritage Site in July 2006. It is one of the largest medieval old towns north of the Alps and very well preserved, with the nickname "Italy's most northern city". Close to the Stone Bridge, the city of Regensburg established a World Heritage Centre in the historic Salzstadl in 2007, where detailed information on Regensburg's 2000-year history is given.
Regensburg is situated on the northernmost part of the Danube river at the geological crossroads of four distinct landscapes:
*to the north and northeast lies the Bavarian Forest with granite and gneiss mountains, wide forests and its national park
*to the east and south-east is the fertile Danube plain (Gäuboden) which are highly cultivated loess plains
*the south is dominated by the Tertiary Hill Country, a continuation of Alpine Foreland
*to the West is Franconian Jura
Regensburg straddles the humid continental (''Dfb'') and oceanic (''Cfb'') climate zones under the Köppen climate classification. While the average temperature of in the period from 1971–2000 is slightly above the German average (), still only 5 of the 80 cities in Germany above 100,000 inhabitants are colder. The average precipitation of per year ranges slightly below the German average (approximately ). For the newer period from 1981–2010 the average temperature and precipitation rose up to respectively . As this increase in the average temperature can also be seen in the other cities, Regensburg still ranks fifth place (shared with Ingolstadt and Kiel) in the above-mentioned ranking. With a total of 1670 sunshine hours per year, Regensburg is roughly 120 hours above German average.
The warmest month of the year, on average, is July. The coolest month of the year, on average, is January.
Regensburg includes the largest medieval old town north of the Alps with nearly 1,500 listed buildings and a picturesque cityscape. Its most famous sights are located mainly in the Old Town, such as:
*The ''Dom'' (Cathedral) is an example of pure German Gothic and is regarded as the main work of Gothic architecture in Bavaria. It was founded in 1275 and completed in 1634, with the exception of the towers, which were finished in 1869. The interior contains numerous interesting monuments, including one of Peter Vischer's masterpieces. Adjoining the cloisters are two chapels which predate the cathedral. One of these, known as the old cathedral, goes back perhaps to the 8th century.
[ The official choir for the liturgical music at St Peter's Cathedral is the famous Regensburger Domspatzen ("cathedral sparrows").
*The stone bridge, built 1135–1146, is a highlight of medieval bridge building. The knights of the 2nd and 3rd crusades used it to cross the Danube on their way to the Holy Land.
*The Regensburg Sausage Kitchen is a major tourist destination, but locals eat there as well. It was originally built as the construction headquarters of the stone bridge and now lies adjacent to it.
*Remains of the Roman fortress' walls including the Porta Praetoria
*The Church of St. James, also called ''Schottenkirche'', a Romanesque basilica of the 12th century, derives its name from the monastery of Irish Benedictines (Scoti) to which it was attached; the principal doorway is covered with very unusual grotesque carvings.] [ It stands next to the ''Jakobstor'', a medieval city gate named after it.
*The old parish church of St. Ulrich is a good example of the Transition style of the 13th century, and contains a valuable antiquarian collection.] [ It houses the diocesan museum of religious art.
*Examples of the Romanesque basilica style are the church of Obermünster, dating from 1010, and the abbey church of St. Emmeram, built in the 13th century, remarkable as one of the few German churches with a detached bell tower. The cloisters of the ancient abbey, one of the oldest in Germany, are still in a fair state of preservation. In 1809 the conventual buildings were converted into a palace for the prince of Thurn and Taxis, hereditary postmaster-general of the Holy Roman Empire.] [
*The Adler-Apotheke, located nearby the Regensburg Cathedral, was founded in 1610 and is one of the oldest pharmacies in Regensburg. The ancient interior and historical vessels can be viewed.
*Wealthy patrician families competed against each other to see who could build the highest tower of the city. In 1260, the ''Goldener Turm'' (golden tower) was built on Wahlenstraße.
*The Old Town Hall, dating in part from the 14th century, contains the rooms occupied by the Imperial Diet from 1663 to 1806.] [
*The ''Gasthof zum Goldenen Kreuz'' (Golden Cross Inn) is also of historical interest: it is where Charles V made the acquaintance of Barbara Blomberg, the mother of Don John of Austria.] [
*The statue of John of Austria, born 1547 in Regensburg, was erected 1978 on the fourth centenary of his death and is a copy of a monument in Messina, Italy.
*Perhaps the most pleasant modern building in the city is the Gothic villa of the king of Bavaria on the bank of the Danube.] [ The grounds are now opened to public and known as VillaPark.
*Among the public institutions of the city are the public library, picture gallery, botanical garden, and the institute for the making of stained glass. The city's colleges (apart from the University of Regensburg) include an episcopal clerical seminary, and a school of church music.] [
*St. Emmeram's Abbey, now known as Schloss Thurn und Taxis, is a huge castle owned by the powerful Thurn and Taxis family.
*Schloss Höfling, a castle owned by the Thurn und Taxis family
*The City Park, the oldest and largest park in Regensburg with a lot of artwork.
*The Botanischer Garten der Universität Regensburg is a modern botanical garden located on the University of Regensburg campus.
*Herzogspark also contains several small botanical gardens.
Near Regensburg there are two very imposing classical buildings erected by Ludwig I of Bavaria as national monuments dedicated to German patriotism and greatness:
*The more imposing of the two is the ''Walhalla'', a costly reproduction of the Parthenon, erected as a Teutonic temple of fame on a hill rising from the Danube at Donaustauf, to the east. The interior, which is richly decorated with coloured marble, gilding and sculptures, contains the busts of more than one hundred notable Germans.] [
*The second of King Ludwig's buildings is the ''Befreiungshalle'' at Kelheim, higher up the Danube. It is a large circular monument built for the glorification of the heroes of the 1813 War of Liberation] [
Weltenburg Abbey (Kloster Weltenburg), a Benedictine monastery, is located in Weltenburg near the town of Kelheim. The abbey is situated on a peninsula of the Danube, by what are known as the "Weltenburg Narrows" or "Danube Gorge". The monastery, founded by Irish or Scottish monks in about 620, is said to be the oldest monastery in Bavaria.
To the east of Regensburg lies the Bavarian Forest and its National Park, one of the most visited protected areas in Germany.
Regensburg is on the designated heritage route, the Route of Emperors and Kings.
Museums and exhibitions
There are 20 museums in Regensburg. The Regensburg Museum of History covers the history, culture and arts of Regensburg and Eastern Bavaria from the Stone Age to the present. The Imperial Diet Museum (Reichstagsmuseum) in the Old Town Hall presents life during the Holy Roman Empire. Its main attractions are an original torture chamber and the Reichssaal, the rooms occupied by the Imperial Diet from 1663 to 1806.
The Kepler Memorial House (Keplergedächtnishaus) illustrates the life of the famous astronomer and mathematician Johannes Kepler. The Municipal Art Gallery (Leerer Beutel) houses art collections, film events and cultural festivals. The city has also added several outdoor museums, known as "Document" sites, which give an overview of specific topics such as Roman, Jewish and Bavarian history.
In addition, there are the Diocese Museums (Bistumsmuseen) of Regensburg and a branch of the Bavarian National Museum located in St. Emmeram's Abbey, which contains the Princely Treasure Chamber of the Thurn und Taxis family. The Domschatzmuseum where church treasures, monstrances and tapestries are displayed is in St. Peter's Cathedral. Other museums include the Kunstforum Ostdeutsche Galerie, the Naturkundemuseum Ostbayern, the Reptile Zoo, the Regensburg Museum of Danube Shipping (Donau-Schiffahrts-Museum), the Public Observatory Regensburg as well as the Watch Museum (Uhrenmuseum), the Golf Museum, the Post Museum and the Dinoraeum. To celebrate its centenary in 2018, the State of Bavaria opened the Museum of Bavarian History in Regensburg. There are also guided tours of most of the historical monuments in Regensburg, as well as organized tours of the city available in several languages.
The Theater Regensburg on the Bismarckplatz was established in 1804 and is the city's most important theater. Operas, operettas, musicals and ballets are performed there. In the summer open-air performances also take place. While the theater on the Bismarckplatz is the city's oldest and largest, the Theater Regensburg also has four other stages with programmes that complement each other. In the ''Neuhaussaal'' of the theater on the Bismarckplatz, concerts by the Philharmonic Orchestra Regensburg take place. The Velodrom Theater presents musicals and plays. In the Haidplatz Theater it is mainly literary and modern plays that are performed, whereas the Turmtheater at the Goliathplatz puts on cabarets, musicals and plays for children as well as modern plays.
Regensburg is home to the famous Regensburger Domspatzen. The Regensburger Schlossfestspiele has been held in the inner courtyard of the St. Emmeram's Abbey every July from 2003, sponsored by the former princely house of Thurn und Taxis. Meanwhile, those were attracting musicians like Elton John, David Garrett, Tom Jones, or Plácido Domingo. Modern music styles, especially jazz, are presented every summer during the Bavarian Jazz weekend during which over a hundred bands, combos, and soloists perform in the Old Town. In 2015, the House of Music was opened, giving a home to skilled musicians and their education.
Film and cinema
The international short film season is hosted annually in Regensburg. It is a non-profit event and takes place every March, being one of the most important of its type in Germany. Aside, there are several cinemas, such as CinemaxX, the largest one showing blockbusters and arthouse films, and smaller independent cinemas such as Garbo, Ostentor Kino and Regina Filmtheater. Regensburg has two open air cinemas as well.
Although the German language is of course Germany's official language, Regensburg is considered a part of the Bavarian dialect language area (') which encompasses much of Bavaria, Austria, and the South Tyrolean region of northern Italy. More specifically, the dialect attributed to Regensburg is called Central Bavarian ('). A 2019 report estimates that about half of Bavaria's 12 million inhabitants speak a variation of the Bavarian dialect.
Regarding the dialect, Regensburg has a rich history and culture. The oldest dictionary in the world based on a dialect is thought to be Johann Ludwig Prasch's '. Published in Regensburg in 1689, it contains 500 words from the Bavarian variation spoken in Regensburg. Regensburg's ''Bauerntheater'', a type of farmers' or folk theater, has staged plays delivered in Bavarian for over 90 years. Moreover, premiering in 2011, Joseph Berlinger's play "Mei Fähr Lady," a story about three "students" taking a crash course in Bavarian dialect, has been performed at Regensburg's Turmtheater over 300 times. In fact, the role of the dialect professor is played by Ludwig Zehetner, professor emeritus in Bavarian dialectology at University of Regensburg. Manfred Rohm, whose pen name Sepp Grantelhauer takes on the Bavarian verb ' for "to complain," writes a weekly satirical column solely in Bavarian for the '.
The Old Town of Regensburg with nearly 1,500 listed buildings offers a huge cultural diversity from Roman to modern times.
The Old Town of Regensburg is surrounded completely by a green belt. Numerous inner-city parks like the City Park (''Stadtpark''), the ''Herzogspark'', the ''Dörnbergpark'', the ''Villapark'' or the university's botanical garden are a source for recreation and leisure.
The city of Regensburg has erected several memorials to combat racism, intolerance towards minorities, and all other forms of contempt for human dignity:
* Memorial for victims of the Holocaust
* Memorial for victims of forced "euthanasia"
* Memorial for concentration camp inmates and prisoners of war
* Memorial for violence against women
Particular to Regensburg are the so-called ''Stolpersteine'' (stumbling stones) in honor of Jews deported during Nazism.
Twice a year the Regensburg Dult takes place. This is the city's Volksfest, which is Bavaria's fourth largest. The Bürgerfest (citizen celebration) in the Old Town is held every two years, attracting over 100,000 visitors. Every second weekend in July, people dressed as knights and other medieval characters come together at the Regensburg Spectaculum, a medieval market, near the Stone Bridge. Every December, there are several Christmas markets all over the city.
With over 500 bars, restaurants, clubs, and other venues in the inner city alone, Regensburg provides a rich and diverse nightlife due to its young population.
In May 2017, Regensburg had 164,896 inhabitants, making it the fourth largest city in Bavaria. Over the last hundred years, the city has experienced a strong increase in population, surpassing 100,000 inhabitants in 1945 due to Germans who were ethnically cleansed from eastern parts of the Third Reich, especially from the Sudetenland. Today, Regensburg is one of the fastest-growing cities in Germany.
Nearly 12% of the total population are foreign residents. Most of them come from Middle east and Southeastern Europe:
A majority of Regensburg's population is Catholic. In 2017, about 51.4% of the city's inhabitants identified with the Catholic Church, 13.1% were registered Protestants and about 35.5% identified with other religions or did not have any registered religious affiliation.
The mayor and the City Council are elected for a period of six years. Both elections take place at the same time. The City Council is composed of 51 members and includes the mayor, two deputy mayors, five counsellors and the other council members.
The municipal elections in Bavaria of 2014 delivered the following results:
After 18 years of a City Council with a conservative majority, the social-democratic candidate, Joachim Wolbergs, became mayor of Regensburg in May 2014. He was succeeded by Gertrud Maltz-Schwarzfischer in May 2020, who is also a social-democratic politician.
Regensburg is subdivided into 18 boroughs (Stadtbezirke): Innenstadt, Stadtamhof, Steinweg-Pfaffenstein, Sallern-Gallingkofen, Konradsiedlung-Wutzlhofen, Brandlberg-Keilberg, Reinhausen, Weichs, Schwabelweis, Ostenviertel, Kasernenviertel, Galgenberg, Kumpfmühl-Ziegetsdorf-Neuprüll, Großprüfening-Dechbetten-Königswiesen, Westenviertel, Ober- und Niederwinzer-Kager, Oberisling-Graß, Burgweinting-Harting. Each borough contains a number of localities (Ortsteile), which can have historic roots in older municipalities that became urbanized and incorporated into the city.
Twin towns – sister cities
Regensburg is twinned with:
* Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom (1955)
* Brixen, Italy (1969)
* Clermont-Ferrand, France (1969)
* Tempe, United States (1976)
* Plzeň, Czech Republic (1993)
* Odessa, Ukraine (1980)
* Budavár (Budapest), Hungary (2005)
* Qingdao, China (2009)
Regensburg's economy counts among the most dynamic and fastest growing in Germany.
Focus is on manufacturing industries, such as automotive, industrial and electrical engineering.
There are several multinational corporations located in Regensburg, such as BMW, Continental, E.ON, General Electric, Infineon, Osram, Schneider Electric, Siemens, Telekom and Toshiba as well as hidden champions (Krones, MR).
BMW operates an automobile production plant in Regensburg; the Regensburg BMW plant produces 3 Series, 1 Series and (previously) Z4 vehicles. Continental AG, with the headquarters of its car component business, Osram Opto-Semiconductors and Siemens as well as Infineon, the former Siemens semiconductor branch, provide a high level of innovation and technical development in Regensburg. Other well known international companies, such as AREVA, Schneider Electric and Toshiba, have built plants in or near Regensburg. GE Aviation founded a greenfield site to innovate, develop and produce turbinemachinery components with a new manufacturing casting technology. Amazon.com located its first German customer service centre in Regensburg. The hidden champions Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen (MR) and Krones both are headquartered in or close to Regensburg and are among the major employers.
Aside from the industrial sector, tourism contributes a lot to Regensburg's economical growth, especially since 2006, when the city gained status as UNESCO World Heritage site. The University of Regensburg, the Regensburg University of Applied Sciences and mercantile trade also play major roles in Regensburg's economy. Increasingly, biotech companies were founded in Regensburg over the last two decades and have their headquarters and laboratories in the city's "BioPark". Another focus is on information technology, with the city running a start-up centre for IT firms. One of these former start-ups, CipSoft GmbH, now is a known video game company still based in Regensburg.
OTTI, the Eastern Bavaria Technology Transfer-Institut e.V., is headquartered in Regensburg.
The city recorded 912,238 overnight hotel stays and 531,943 hotel guests in 2012.
Tourism figures have nearly doubled within the last 15 years and Regensburg has become one of the most-visited German cities from 100,000 to 500,000 residents. In 2014, Regensburg was ranked as a Top-30 travel attraction in Germany by international tourists.
Regensburg Hauptbahnhof (central station) is connected to lines to Munich, Nuremberg, Passau, Weiden and Hof and Ingolstadt and Ulm. The city lies also on two motorways, the A3 from Cologne and Frankfurt to Vienna, and the A93 from Holledau to Hof.
The local transport is provided by a bus network run by the RVV (Regensburger Verkehrsverbund).
Regensburg's energy is mainly supplied by the German company E.ON, one of the world's largest electric utility service providers. Its subsidiary Bayernwerk runs the local hydropower station in the Danube River. In 2012, about 9.1% of the total electricity consumption was generated by renewable energy sources, about 5.1% of the total heat consumption were generated by renewables.
Both figures show, that Regensburg is behind other Bavarian cities in this context. Therefore, the municipal government presented an energy plan in 2014, which should enhance the transformation towards renewable energy sources over the next decade.
Regensburg has one of the most modern university hospitals in Europe, the ''Universitätsklinikum Regensburg''. In addition there are several other well-known hospitals such as the ''Krankenhaus Barmherzige Brüder'' and the ''St. Josef-Krankenhaus''. Psychiatric illnesses are treated in the ''Bezirksklinikum''. With 19.4 hospital beds per 1000 residents, Regensburg has the fourth-highest ratio of beds to residents in Germany
as well as the third-highest ratio of medical doctors to residents in Germany (339 per 100,000 residents).
The city's BioPark, home to Bavaria's second largest biotech cluster, hosts numerous research institutions and biotech companies.
Universities and academia
Regensburg is known for its higher education institutions, the largest being the University of Regensburg. Founded in 1962, it is one of Germany's newest universities and ranked among the Top 400 universities worldwide. Among the prominent intellectuals associated with the university are Pope Benedict XVI, Udo Steiner and Wolfgang Wiegard. The campus is situated in a single location together with the Regensburg University of Applied Sciences.
Since 1874 there has been a College of Catholic Music in the city, the Hochschule für Katholische Kirchenmusik und Musikpädagogik Regensburg.
In addition to the research centres and institutes of the universities, there are several research institutions situated in the city of Regensburg. Among them are the Leibniz-Institute for East and Southeast European Studies (IOS), the Regensburg Centre for Interventional Immunology (RCI), the Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM) and the BioPark, the Bavarian biotech cluster.
There are eighteen elementary schools in Regensburg. The city also has several secondary education institutions, both public and private, representing all levels of the German school system. There are eight ''Gymnasien'', five ''Realschulen'', six ''Hauptschulen'' and four vocational schools (''Berufsschulen''). In addition, there are several folk high schools with different specialisations.
The SIS Swiss International School provides international educational. Founded in 2002, the ''Sportinternat Regensburg'' was Europe's first baseball boarding school.
SSV Jahn Regensburg is the local football club and attracts a fairly large local following. The team was part of a larger sports club founded in 1889 as ''Turnerbund Jahn Regensburg'' which took its name from Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, whose ideas of gymnastics greatly influenced German sport in the 19th century. The football department was created in 1907. The footballers and swimmers left their parent club in 1924 to form ''Sportbund Jahn Regensburg''.
is the local ice hockey club, currently playing in the Oberliga Süd, Germany's third highest professional league.
Regensburg Legionäre is the baseball and softball club from Regensburg. The team is also known as Buchbinder Legionäre, following a sponsorship of the Buchbinder company. The club plays in the German Bundesliga and is one of the most famous and most successful baseball clubs in Germany. Several players now in the MLB formerly played at the club. Its arena, Armin-Wolf-Arena, was built in 1996 and has a capacity of 10,000 spectators, making it to Germany's largest baseball stadium.
The local athletics club, LG TELIS FINANZ Regensburg, offers a wide range of different competitions and is counted among the most successful clubs in Germany.
* Pope Benedict XVI, professor of theology at the University of Regensburg from 1969 to 1977, who retains the title honorary professor; he is not a former resident of the city of Regensburg, but his house, less than 1 kilometer from the city, lies in Pentling in the district of Regensburg. He has been an honorary citizen since 2006.
* The Princely House of Thurn und Taxis, a German noble family and one of Europe's largest landowners
* John of Austria, born 1547 in Regensburg
* Joseph Hanisch, musician, composer and organist.
* Albrecht Altdorfer (printmaker, painter of landscapes, historical and Biblical subjects of the Renaissance)
* Benjamin Appl (born 1982), German-British lyric baritone
* Willie Duncan (Spider Murphy Gang)
* Ulrich Eberl, science and technology journalist
* The Rev. Dr. Franz Xaver Haberl, one of the most important Roman Catholic musicians in history, teacher of Perosi (see also Cecilian Movement)
* Johann Georg Gichtel (1638-1710) was a German mystic and religious leader who was a critic of Lutheranism
* Johannes Kepler (mathematician and astronomer)
* Konrad of Megenberg, scholar and academic
* Simone Laudehr (German national team footballer, women's world cup champion 2007)
* Albertus Magnus (13th century polymath)
* Judah ben Samuel of Regensburg, a 12th–13th century rabbi and mystic, founder of Chassidei Ashkenaz
* Maximilian Oberst, physician who introduced the Oberst method of block anesthesia
* Petachiah of Ratisbon, a 12th–13th century rabbi, best known for his extensive travels throughout Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and the Middle East.
* Elise Barensfeld (1796–after 1820) soprano
* Hisham Zreiq (born 1968), award-winning Palestinian Christian Independent filmmaker, poet and visual artist.
* Walter Röhrl (racing driver)
* Saint Emmeram, Christian bishop and a martyr, St. Emmeram's Abbey
* Andrea Maria Schenkel, best-selling author of Tannöd and other works.
* Emanuel Schikaneder (Librettist of The Magic Flute)
* Oskar Schindler (1908–1974), German industrialist (after World War II until his emigration to Argentina)
* Ulrich Schmidl (supposed co-founder of Buenos Aires)
* Anton Vilsmeier, (1894–1962), German chemist best known for the Vilsmeier-Haack reaction, born in Burgweinting, which is now part of Regensburg, and attended the ''Altes Gymnasium'' in Regensburg
* Charles von Hügel, (1795–1870), Austrian army officer, diplomat, botanist, and explorer
* Ulrich of Zell, a Cluniac reformer of Germany, abbot, founder and saint
* Wolfgang of Regensburg, Bishop of Regensburg
* Elisabeth Elli Erl, winner of German Pop Idol 2004 – singer and teacher at a German secondary school in Düsseldorf
* Ludwig Bemelmans, (1898–1962), Austro-Hungarian born American writer of children's books and internationally renowned gourmet, spent his early life in Regensburg
* Anton Hackl, Luftwaffe Flying Ace
* Christian Jagodzinski, multimillionaire, entrepreneur, and investor; Co-founder of Telebuch.de which later became Amazon.com's presence in Germany; grew up in Regensburg, now Miami
* Allan Zeman, Hong Kong businessman
File:Dom St. Peter.JPG|The Interior of Regensburg Cathedral
File:Regensburg-steinerne-Bruecke.jpg|The Stone Bridge and Regensburg Cathedral by night
File:210704 regensburg-neupfarrplatz-aus-richtung-kassiansplatz 1-480x640.jpg|New Parish Church (Neupfarrkirche)
File:270404 regensburg-kapelle-st-georg-und-afra 1-640x480.jpg|The romanic chapel ''St. George and Afra''
File:RegensburgDonauAnsicht2012.JPG|The Danube seen from the Stone Bridge
File:020704 regensburg-reichstagssaal-erker 1-480x640.jpg|The bay window of the Old Town Hall
File:Regensburg Goliathhaus 06 2006.JPG|Goliath House
File:130404 regensburg-don-juan-d'austria 1-480x640.jpg|Monument of Don Juan de Austria
File:Kloster Sankt Emmeram 01.jpg|St. Emmeram's Abbey
File:DampfnudelbaeckereiRegensburg 0047.jpg|Dampfnudel bakery in the Baumburger Turm
File:Regensburg - Steinerne Bruecke ohne Dom.jpg|The Stone Bridge
File:Regensburg Bruckmanndl 07 2006.JPG|Little Boy (Bruckmandl) on the Stone Bridge
File:Old city gate.jpg|Old city gate
* History of the Jews in Regensburg
* List of mayors of Regensburg
* List of the prince-bishops and bishops of Regensburg
* Regensburg (district)
* David L. Sheffler, ''Schools and Schooling in Late Medieval Germany: Regensburg, 1250–1500'' (Leiden, Brill, 2008) (Education and Society in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, 33).
Old town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof
UNESCO Officiel Website
Old town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof on Google Arts and Culture Platform
Virtual tour of Regensburg
Stone Bridge of Regensburg Digital Media Archive
(creative commons-licensed photos, laser scans, panoramas), mainly covering the medieval Stone Bridge but also including surrounding areas, with data from a Christofori und Partner/CyArk research partnership
– Pictures, Sights and more
Great privilege for Regensburg by King Philip of Swabia for Regensburg from 1207
taken from the collections of the Lichtbildarchiv älterer Originalurkunden at Marburg University
"Here Their Stories Will Be Told…" The Valley of the Communities at Yad Vashem, Regensburg
at Yad Vashem website.
Category:States and territories established in 1245
Category:Populated places on the Danube
Category:Medieval German architecture
Category:Displaced persons camps in the aftermath of World War II
Category:World Heritage Sites in Germany
Category:University towns in Germany
Category:Roman fortifications in Rhaetia
Category:States and territories disestablished in 1803