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The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a
trade organization A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association, sector association or industry body, is an organization founded and funded by businesses that operate in a specific Industry (economics), industry. An industry tra ...
that represents the
recording industry A record, recording or records may refer to: An item or collection of data Computing * Record (computer science) In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures ...
in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. Its members consist of record labels and distributors that the RIAA says "create, manufacture, and/or distribute approximately 85% of all legally sold recorded music in the United States". RIAA is headquartered in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscape ...
RIAA was formed in 1952. Its original mission was to administer recording copyright fees and problems, work with trade unions, and do research relating to the record industry and government regulations. Early RIAA standards included the
RIAA equalization RIAA equalization is a specification for the recording and playback of phonograph record A phonograph disc record (also known as a gramophone disc record, especially in ), or simply a phonograph record, gramophone record, disc record, lon ...
curve, the format of the stereophonic record groove and the dimensions of 33 1/3, 45, and 78 rpm records. RIAA says its current mission includes: #to protect
intellectual property rights Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner o ...
and the
First Amendment First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill, ...
rights of artists #to perform research about the music industry #to monitor and review relevant laws, regulations, and policies Between 2001 and 2020, RIAA spent between $2.4 million and $6.5 million annually on
lobbying In politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive process resultin ...

lobbying
in the United States. RIAA also participates in the
collective rights management Collective A collective is a group of entities that share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together to achieve a common objective. Collectives can differ from cooperative A cooperative (also known as co-o ...
of sound recordings, and it is responsible for certifying gold and platinum albums and singles in the United States.


Company structure and sales

Mitch Glazier has been the RIAA's chairman and CEO since 2019. Glazier joined the RIAA 20 years ago and has played a role in the music industry's transition to streaming and "anywhere, anytime" access to music. He was the RIAA's senior executive vice president from 2011 to 2019 and served as executive vice president for public policy and industry relations from 2000 to 2011. The 26-member board of directors is composed of these record executives: *
Mitch Glazier Mitch Glazier (born 1966) is an American lawyer and lobbyist. He is the Chairman and CEO of the Recording Industry Association of America The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a trade organization A trade association, also k ...
(Recording Industry Association of America) *Michele Ballantyne (Recording Industry Association of America) *
Michele Anthony Michele Anthony is an American entertainment executive and the Executive Vice President of Universal Music Group. Career 1990-2012: Sony Music and 7H Entertainment Anthony first worked as a partner of the Beverly Hills entertainment law firmRosenfe ...
(Universal Music Group) *Glen Barros (Exceleration Music) *
Michael L. Nash Michael L. Nash is a media executive and the Executive Vice President of Digital Strategy at Universal Music Group Universal Music Group B.V. (often abbreviated as UMG) is a global Music industry, music corporation that is majority owned by t ...
(Universal Music Group) *Eric Berman (Universal Music Group) *David Bither (
Nonesuch Records Nonesuch Records is an American record company and label owned by Warner Music Group Warner Music Group Corp. (commonly abbreviated as WMG and simply referred to as Warner Music) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Mul ...
) *Ken Bunt (
Disney Music Group Disney Music Group (DMG) is the music recording arm of Disney Platform Distribution Disney Media Distribution is a business unit within Disney Media and Entertainment Distribution (DMED) that manages all third-party media sales efforts for distri ...

Disney Music Group
) *
John Esposito John Louis Esposito (born May 19, 1940) is an Italian Americans, Italian-American academic, professor of Middle Eastern studies, Middle Eastern and religious studies, and scholar of Islamic studies, who serves as Professor of Religion, Internati ...
(
Warner Music Nashville Warner Music Group Corp. (WMG) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Mult ...
) *Victor Gonzalez (Universal Music Latin Entertainment) *Camille Hackney (Atlantic Records) *Rani Hancock (Sire Records) *Jeff Harleston (Universal Music Group) *Terry Hemmings (Provident Music Group/Sony Music Entertainment) *Kevin Kelleher (Sony Music Entertainment) *Sheldra Khahaifa (Sony Music Entertainment) *Dennis Kooker (Sony Music Entertainment) *Eric Chopra (Sony Music Entertainment) *Annie Lee (Interscope Geffen A&M) *Gabriela Maartinez (Warner Music Latina) *Deirdre McDonald (Sony Music Entertainment) *Paul Robinson (Warner Music Group) *
Tom Silverman Tom Silverman is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United Stat ...
(
Tommy Boy Entertainment Tommy Boy Entertainment is an American independent record label and multimedia brand founded in 1981 by Tom Silverman. The label is credited with helping and launching the music careers of Queen Latifah, Afrika Bambaataa, Stetsasonic, Digital Un ...
) *Julie Swidler (Sony Music Entertainment) *
Will Tanous William Lloyd Tanous (born in Paris, France Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of ...
(Universal Music Group) *Zena White (Partisan Records) The RIAA represents over 1,600 member labels, which are private corporate entities such as record labels and distributors, and collectively create and distribute about 90% of recorded music sold in the United States. The largest and most influential of the members are the "Big Three": *
Sony Music Entertainment Sony Music Entertainment (SME), also known as just Sony Music, is an American multinational Music industry, music company. Owned by the parent conglomerate (company), conglomerate Sony, Sony Group Corporation, it is part of the Sony Music Group ...
*
Universal Music Group Universal Music Group N.V. (often abbreviated as UMG and referred to as just Universal Music) is a Dutch–American multinational Music industry, music corporation. UMG's corporate headquarters are located in Hilversum, Netherlands and its op ...
*
Warner Music Group Warner Music Group Corp. (commonly abbreviated as WMG and simply referred to as Warner Music) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Mult ...
The RIAA also represents other record labels such as Atlantic, Capitol, RCA, Warner Bros., Columbia, and Motown. The RIAA reports that total retail value of recordings sold by their members was $10.4 billion at the end of 2007, a decline from $14.6 billion in 1999. Estimated retail revenues from recorded music in the United States grew 11.4% in 2016 to $7.7 billion.


Sales certification

The RIAA operates an award program for albums that sell a large number of copies. The award was launched in 1958; originally, the requirement for a Gold single was one million units sold and a Gold album represented $1 million in sales (at wholesale value, around a third of the list price). In 1975, the additional requirement of 500,000 units sold was added for Gold albums. Reflecting growth in record sales, the Platinum award was added in 1976, for albums able to sell one million units, while singles qualify upon selling two million units. The Multi-Platinum award was introduced in 1984, signifying multiple Platinum levels of albums and singles. In 1989, the sales thresholds for singles were reduced to 500,000 for Gold and 1,000,000 for Platinum, reflecting a decrease in sales of singles. In 1992, RIAA began counting each disc in a multi-disc set as one unit toward certification. Reflecting additional growth in music sales, the Diamond award was instituted in 1999 for albums or singles selling ten million units. Because of these changes in criteria, the sales level associated with a particular award depends on when the award was made. Since 2000, the RIAA also operates a similar program for
Latin music Latin music (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Po ...
sales, called ''Los Premios de Oro y De Platino''. Currently, a "Disco De Oro" (Gold) is awarded for 30,000 units, and a "Disco De Platino" is awarded for 60,000 units. Further, the "Album Multi-Platino" honor is awarded at 120,000, and "Diamante" requires 10 times as many units as "Platino" (600,000). The RIAA defines "Latin music" as a type of release with 51% or more of its content recorded in
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
.


"Digital" single certification

In 2004, the RIAA added a branch of certification for what it calls "digital" recordings, essentially referring to "recordings transferred to the recipient over a network" (such as those sold via the
iTunes Store The iTunes Store is a software-based online digital media Digital media means any media (communication), communication media that operate with the use of any of various encoded machine-readable data formats. Digital media can be created, v ...

iTunes Store
) yet excluding other obviously digital media such as those on , DAT, or
MiniDisc MiniDisc (MD) is a Magneto-optical drive, magneto-optical disc-based data storage device, data storage format offering a capacity of 60, 74, and later, 80 minutes of digitized sound, audio. Sony brand audio players went on the market in Sep ...

MiniDisc
. In 2006, "digital ringtones" were added to this branch of certification. Starting in 2013, streaming from audio and video streaming services such as
Spotify Spotify (Help:IPA/English, /ˈspɒtɪfaɪ/; Swedish: Help:IPA/Swedish, spɔ̂tːɪfaj, is a Sweden, Swedish Streaming media, audio streaming and media services provider, founded in 2006 by Daniel Ek. Spotify is incorporated in Luxembourg a ...

Spotify
,
Napster Napster is an audio streaming Streaming media is multimedia that is delivered and consumed in a continuous manner from a source, with little or no intermediate storage in network elements. ''Streaming'' refers to the delivery method of co ...

Napster
,
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform Social media are interactive technologies that allow the Content creation, creation or information sharing, sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, an ...

YouTube
and the likes also began to be counted towards the certification, using the formula of 100 streams being the equivalent of one download; thus, RIAA certification for singles no longer reflects actual sales. In the same year, the RIAA introduced the Latin Digital Award for digital recordings in Spanish. , the certification criteria for these recordings are: Digital awards: *Gold: 500,000 units *Platinum: 1,000,000 units *Multi-Platinum: 2,000,000 units (increments of 1,000,000 thereafter) *Diamond: 10,000,000 units The units are defined as: # A permanent digital download counts as 1 unit # 150 on-demand audio and/or video streams count as 1 unit Latin digital awards: *Disco de Oro (Gold): 30,000 copies *Disco de Platino (Platinum): 60,000 copies *Disco de Multi-Platino (Multi-Platinum): 120,000 copies


Album certification

In February 2016, RIAA updated its certification criteria for album-level awards to combine streaming and track sales using the formula for
album-equivalent unit The album-equivalent unit is a measurement unit in music industry to define the consumption of music that equals the purchase of one album copy. This consumption includes streaming media, streaming and music download, song downloads in addition to ...
. *Gold: 500,000 units *Platinum: 1,000,000 units *Multi-Platinum: 2,000,000 units (increments of 1,000,000 thereafter) *Diamond: 10,000,000 units For certification purposes, each unit may be one of: # sale of a digital album or physical album # 10 track downloads from the album # 1,500 on-demand audio and/or video streams from the album


Video longform certification

Along with albums, digital albums, and singles, another classification of music release is called "video longform". This release format includes DVD and VHS releases. Further, certain live albums and compilation albums are counted. The certification criteria are slightly different from other styles. *Gold: 50,000 copies *Platinum: 100,000 copies *Multi-Platinum: 200,000 copies


Efforts against alleged infringement of members' copyrights


Efforts against file sharing

RIAA opposes unauthorized sharing of its members' music. Studies conducted since the association began its campaign against peer-to-peer file-sharing have concluded that losses incurred per download range from negligible to moderate. The association has commenced high-profile lawsuits against file-sharing service providers. Likewise, it has sued individuals suspected of file sharing, notably college students, parents of file-sharing children and at least one dead person. It is accused of employing techniques such as peer-to-peer "decoying" and " spoofing" to combat file sharing. In late 2008, they announced they would stop their lawsuits, and instead attempt to work with ISPs to persuade them to use a three-strike system for file sharing involving issuing two warnings and then cutting off Internet service after the third strike.


Selection of defendants

RIAA names defendants based on ISP identification of the subscriber associated with an
IP address An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label such as that is connected to a computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over to communi ...
, and as such do not know any additional information about a person before they sue. After an Internet subscriber's identity is discovered, but before an individual lawsuit is filed, the subscriber is typically offered an opportunity to settle. The standard settlement is a payment to RIAA and an agreement not to engage in file sharing of music. Such suits are also usually on par with statutory damages of $750 per work, with the RIAA choosing the number of works it deems "reasonable". For cases that do not settle at this amount, the RIAA has gone to trial, seeking statutory damages from the jury, written into The
Digital Theft Deterrence and Copyright Damages Improvement Act of 1999 The Digital Theft Deterrence and Copyright Damages Improvement Act of 1999 is a United States law that increased the possible civil penalties for copyright infringement. It also attempted to clear an administrative hurdle that was preventing the Un ...
as between $750 and $30,000 per work or $750 and $150,000 per work if "willful". The
Electronic Frontier Foundation The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights Digital rights are those human rights Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and ...
and
Public Citizen Public Citizen is a non-profit, Progressivism in the United States, progressive consumer rights advocacy group and think tank based in Washington, D.C., United States, with a branch in Austin, Texas, Austin, Texas. Lobbying efforts Public Citizen ...
oppose the ability of RIAA and other companies to "strip Internet users of anonymity without allowing them to challenge the order in court".. Importantly, US Courts have declared that an IP address is not a person nor personal identifier. This weakened RIAA's ability to sue individuals. RIAA's methods of identifying individual users had, in some rare cases, led to the issuing of
subpoena A subpoena (; also subpœna, supenna or subpena) or witness summons is a writ In , a writ (Anglo-Saxon ''gewrit'', Latin ''breve'') is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial ; in modern usage, this body is gen ...
s to persons dead or otherwise incapable of file-sharing. Two such examples include: a then-recently deceased 83-year-old woman an elderly computer novice, and a family reportedly without any computer at all.


Settlement programs

In February 2007, RIAA began sending letters accusing Internet users of sharing files and directing them to web site P2PLAWSUITS.COM, where they can make "discount" settlements payable by credit card. The letters go on to say that anyone not settling will have lawsuits brought against them. Typical settlements are between $3,000 and $12,000. This new strategy was formed because the RIAA's legal fees were cutting into the income from settlements. In 2008, RIAA sued 19-year-old Ciara Sauro for allegedly sharing 10 songs online. RIAA also launched an "early settlement program" directed to ISPs and to colleges and universities, urging them to pass along letters to subscribers and students offering early settlements, prior to the disclosure of their identities. The settlement letters urged ISPs to preserve evidence for the benefit of the RIAA and invited the students and subscribers to visit an RIAA website for the purpose of entering into a "discount settlement" payable by credit card. By March 2007, the focus had shifted from ISPs to colleges and universities. In October 1998, RIAA filed a lawsuit in the Ninth U.S. Court of Appeals in
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
claiming the
Diamond Multimedia Diamond Multimedia is an American company that specializes in many forms of multimedia technology. They have produced graphics cards A graphics card (also called a video card, display card, graphics adapter, video adapter, or display adapter) i ...
Rio PMP300 The Rio PMP300 is one of the first portable consumer MP3 MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is a coding format for digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Di ...
player violated the 1992
Audio Home Recording Act The Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 (AHRA) amended the United States copyright law The Copyright Law of the United States grants monopoly protection for "original works of authorship". With the stated purpose to promote art and culture, copyri ...
. The Rio PMP300 was significant because it was the second portable consumer MP3 digital audio player released on the market. The three-judge panel ruled in favor of Diamond, paving the way for the development of the portable digital player market. In 2003, RIAA sued college student developers of LAN search engines
PhyndPhynd (Find) is a LAN-indexing search engine A search engine is a software system that is designed to carry out Web search query, web searches. They search the World Wide Web in a systematic way for particular information specified in a textual ...
and Flatlan, describing them as "a sophisticated network designed to enable widespread music thievery". In September 2003, RIAA filed suit in civil court against several private individuals who had shared large numbers of files with
Kazaa#REDIRECT Kazaa Kazaa Media Desktop (once stylized as "KaZaA", but later usually written "Kazaa") was a peer-to-peer file sharing application using the FastTrack protocol licensed by Joltid Ltd. and operated as Kazaa by Sharman Networks. Kazaa w ...
. Most of these suits were settled with monetary payments averaging $3,000. Kazaa publisher Sharman Networks responded with a lawsuit against RIAA, alleging that the terms of use of the network were violated and that unauthorized client software was used in the investigation to track down the individual file sharers (such as Kazaa Lite). An effort to throw out this suit was denied in January 2004, but that suit was settled in 2006. Sharman Networks agreed to a global settlement of litigation brought against it by the Motion Picture Association of America, the
International Federation of the Phonographic Industry The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) is the organisation that represents the interests of the recording industry The music industry consists of the companies and independent artists that earn money by creating ne ...
, and by RIAA. The creators of the popular Kazaa file-sharing network would pay $115 million to RIAA, plus unspecified future amounts to MPAA and the software industry; and, they would install filters on its networks to prevent users from sharing copyrighted works on its network. RIAA also filed suit in 2006 to enjoin digital
XM Satellite Radio XM Satellite Radio (XM) was one of the three satellite radio Satellite radio is defined by the International Telecommunication Union 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the ...
from enabling its subscribers from playing songs they had recorded from its satellite broadcasts. It is also suing several Internet radio stations. Later, XM was forced to impose an industry fee upon subscribers. The fee still exists and has always been paid, in-full, directly to RIAA. On October 12, 2007, RIAA sued Usenet.com seeking a permanent injunction to prevent the company from "aiding, encouraging, enabling, inducing, causing, materially contributing to, or otherwise facilitating"
copyright infringement Copyright infringement (at times referred to as piracy) is the use of works Works may refer to: People * Caddy Works Pierce "Caddy" Works (January 2, 1896 – July 19, 1982) was an American basketball and baseball coach. He was the head b ...
. This suit, the first that RIAA has filed against a Usenet provider, has added another branch to RIAA's rapidly expanding fight to curb the unauthorized distribution of copyrighted materials. Unlike many of RIAA's previous lawsuits, this suit was filed against the provider of a service. Providers have no direct means of removing infringing content. RIAA's argument relies heavily on the fact the Usenet.com, the only defendant that had been named, promoted their service with slogans and phrases that strongly suggested that the service could be used to obtain free music. On April 28, 2008, RIAA member labels sued Project Playlist, a web music search site, claiming that most of the sound recordings in the site's index of links are infringing. Project Playlist's website denies that any of the music is hosted on Project Playlist's own servers. On June 30, 2009, RIAA prevailed in its fight against Usenet.com, in a decision, that the U.S. District Judge Harold Baer of the Southern District of New York ruled in favor of the music industry on all its main arguments: that Usenet.com was guilty of direct, contributory, and vicarious infringement. In addition, and perhaps most importantly for future cases, Baer said that Usenet.com cannot claim protection under the Sony Betamax decision. That ruling states that companies cannot be held liable for contributory infringement if the device they create is "capable of significant noninfringing uses". Furthermore, the parties had appealed to a federal court for damage assessments and awards, which could amount to several millions of dollars for the music industry. On October 26, 2010, RIAA members won a case against LimeWire, a P2P file-sharing network, for illegal distribution of copyrighted works. On October 29, in retaliation, riaa.org was taken offline via
denial-of-service attacks In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended user (computing), users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting network ...
executed by members of
Operation Payback Operation Payback was a coordinated, decentralized group of attacks on high-profile opponents of Internet piracy by Internet activists using the "Anonymous (group), Anonymous" moniker. Operation Payback started as retaliation to denial-of-service ...
and
Anonymous Anonymous may refer to: * Anonymity, the state of an individual's identity, or personally identifiable information, being publicly unknown ** Anonymous work, a work of art or literature that has an unnamed or unknown creator or author Organiza ...
.


Advocacy

RIAA filed briefs in '' Allen v. Cooper'', which was decided in 2020. The
Supreme Court of the United States The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or Americ ...

Supreme Court of the United States
abrogated the
Copyright Remedy Clarification Act The Copyright Remedy Clarification Act (CRCA) is a United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It ...
as unconstitutional, while RIAA had argued the opposite view.


The "work made for hire" controversy

In 1999, Mitch Glazier, a Congressional staff attorney, inserted, without public notice or comment, substantive language into the final markup of a "technical corrections" section of copyright legislation, classifying many music recordings as " works made for hire", thereby stripping artists of their copyright interests and transferring those interests to their record labels. Shortly afterwards, Glazier was hired as Senior Vice President of Government Relations and Legislative Counsel for the RIAA, which vigorously defended the change when it came to light. The battle over the disputed provision led to the formation of the Recording Artists' Coalition, which successfully lobbied for repeal of the change.


GitHub and youtube-dl takedown request

On October 23, 2020, the
code repository In Revision control, revision control systems, a repository is a data structure that stores metadata for a set of files or directory structure. Depending on whether the version control system in use is distributed like (Git (software), Git or Mercur ...
hosting service
GitHub __FORCETOC__ GitHub, Inc. is a provider of Internet hosting service, Internet hosting for software development and version control using Git. It offers the distributed version control and source code management (SCM) functionality of Git, plus ...

GitHub
(owned by
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation which produces Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best-know ...

Microsoft
) released a
DMCA The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a 1998 United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in ...
request from RIAA. This request listed the
open-source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized softwa ...
software project
youtube-dl youtube-dl is an open-source software, open-source download manager for video and audio from YouTube and over 1000 other video hosting websites. It is released under the Unlicense software license. As of September 2021, youtube-dl is one of the ...
(and
forks In cutlery or kitchenware, a fork (from la, furca 'pitchfork') is a utensil, now usually made of metal, whose long handle terminates in a head that branches into several narrow and often slightly curved tine (structural), tines with which one ...
of the project) as
copyright violation Copyright infringement (at times referred to as piracy) is the use of Copyright#Scope, works protected by copyright without permission for a usage where such permission is required, thereby infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the co ...
s. The request cited the United States law Title 17 U.S.C. §1201. Critics of this action say that the
software library In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of ...
can be used by archivists to download videos of social injustice. According to Parker Higgins, former Director of Copyright Activism at the
Electronic Frontier Foundation The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights Digital rights are those human rights Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and ...
(EFF), this takedown request was a "throwback threat" analogous to the
DeCSS DeCSS is one of the first free computer programs capable of decrypting content on a commercially produced DVD video disc. Before the release of DeCSS, open source operating systems (such as Berkeley Software Distribution, BSD and Linux) could n ...

DeCSS
controversy.


Criticism

RIAA is heavily criticized for both policy and for their method of suing individuals for copyright infringement. Particularly strong critic-advocates are Internet-based, such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and
Students for Free Culture #REDIRECT Students for Free Culture Students for Free Culture, formerly known as FreeCulture.org, is an international student organization working to promote free culture ideals, such as cultural participation and access to information. It was i ...
. To date, RIAA has sued more than 20,000 people in the United States suspected of distributing copyrighted works. Of these, approximately 2,500 were settled pre-trial.
Brad Templeton Brad Templeton (born June 1960 near Toronto) is a Canadian software developer, internet entrepreneur, online community pioneer, publisher of news, comedy, science fiction and e-books, writer, photographer, civil rights advocate, futurist, public s ...

Brad Templeton
of the Electronic Frontier Foundation has called these types of lawsuits spamigation and implied they are done merely to
intimidate Intimidation (also called cowing) is intentional behavior that would cause a person of reasonable apprehension to fear injury Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by an external force. This may be caused by a ...
people.


Executive leadership of RIAA

*
Goddard Lieberson Goddard Lieberson (April 5, 1911 – May 29, 1977) was the president of Columbia Records from 1956 to 1971, and again from 1973 to 1975. He became president of the Recording Industry Association of America in 1964. He was also a composer, and ...
1964–1972 (president) *Stanley Gortikov 1972 - 1987 (president) *Jay Berman 1988-1998 (president and Chair) *
Hilary Rosen Hilary Rosen (born 1958) is the former head of the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). She was a columnist for ''The Washington Post'', became the first Washington editor-at-large and political director of ''The Huffington Post'', ...

Hilary Rosen
1998–2001 (president) *
Mitch Bainwol Mitchell Burt Bainwol (born March 2, 1959) is an American lobbyist currently serving as Chief Government Relations Officer of Ford Motor Company. He previously was President and CEO of the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers. Before the Alliance, ...
2003-2011 (chairman and CEO) *
Cary Sherman Cary Sherman is the former Chairman and CEO of the Recording Industry Association of America The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a trade organization that represents the recording industry in the United States. Its members c ...
2011–2019 (chairman and CEO) *
Mitch Glazier Mitch Glazier (born 1966) is an American lawyer and lobbyist. He is the Chairman and CEO of the Recording Industry Association of America The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a trade organization A trade association, also k ...
, 2019–present (chairman and CEO)


See also

*
Center for Copyright Information The Center for Copyright Information (CCI) is an American organization focused on advocacy and initiatives in support of copyright law. The CCI aims to educate the public about copyright law; coordinates with copyright owners and Internet service ...
*
Federal Communications Commission The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in different jurisdictions. I ...
*
Global music industry market share data The world's largest recorded music Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a c ...
*
International Intellectual Property Alliance The International Intellectual Property Alliance (IIPA), formed in 1984, is a private sector coalition of seven trade associations representing U.S. companies that produce Copyright law of the United States, copyright-protected material, including ...
*
Music Canada Music Canada (formerly Canadian Recording Industry Association (CRIA)) is a non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and ...
*
Parental Advisory The Parental Advisory label (abbreviated PAL) is a warning label introduced by the Recording Industry Association of America The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a trade organization A trade association, also known a ...
*
Strategic lawsuit against public participation A strategic lawsuit against public participation (SLAPP), SLAPP suit, or intimidation lawsuit is intended to censor Censor may refer to: People with the name *Cato the Elder Marcus Porcius Cato (; 234–149 BC), also known as Cato the Cen ...


References


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Recording Industry Association Of America Trade associations based in the United States Organizations established in 1952 1952 establishments in the United States