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''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' is a 1981 American
action-adventure film Action film is a film genre A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use ...
directed by
Steven Spielberg Steven Allan Spielberg (; born December 18, 1946) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. He began his career in the New Hollywood New Hollywood, sometimes referred to as the American New Wave or the Hollywood Renaissance, r ...

Steven Spielberg
and written by
Lawrence Kasdan Lawrence Edward Kasdan (born January 14, 1949) is an American director, screenwriter, and producer. He is the co-writer of the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic space opera media franchise created by George Lucas, which began ...
, based on a story by
George Lucas George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and entrepreneur. Lucas is best known for creating the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia fr ...

George Lucas
and
Philip Kaufman Philip Kaufman (born October 23, 1936) is an American film director and screenwriter who has directed fifteen films over a career spanning more than six decades. He has been described as a "maverick" and an "iconoclast," notable for his versati ...
. It stars
Harrison Ford Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American actor. His films have grossed more than $5.4billion in North America and more than $9.3billion worldwide, making him the seventh-highest-grossing actor in North America. He is the recipient o ...

Harrison Ford
,
Karen Allen Karen Jane Allen (born October 5, 1951) is an American film and stage actress. After making her film debut in ''Animal House ''National Lampoon's Animal House'' is a 1978 American comedy film A comedy film is a category of film ...
, Paul Freeman,
Ronald Lacey Ronald William Lacey (28 September 1935 – 15 May 1991) was an English-born actor of Welsh descent. He made numerous television and film appearances over a 30-year period and is perhaps best remembered for his roles as Harris (Porridge), Ha ...
,
John Rhys-Davies John Rhys-Davies (born 5 May 1944) is a Welsh actor. He is known for portraying the role of Gimli (Middle-earth), Gimli and the voice of Treebeard in the The Lord of the Rings (film series), ''Lord of the Rings'' trilogy and Sallah in the Indian ...

John Rhys-Davies
, and
Denholm Elliott Denholm Mitchell Elliott, (31 May 1922 – 6 October 1992) was an English actor, with more than 125 film and television credits. His well-known roles include the abortionist in ''Alfie (1966 film), Alfie'' (1966), List of Indiana Jones character ...
. Ford portrays
Indiana Jones ''Indiana Jones'' is an American media franchise based on the adventures of Indiana Jones (character), Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones Jr., a fictional professor of archaeology, that began in 1981 with the film ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. In ...
, a globe-trotting
archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biological, geological, ...

archaeologist
vying with
Nazi German Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi German
forces in 1936 to recover the long-lost
Ark of the Covenant The Ark of the Covenant (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judea ...

Ark of the Covenant
, a relic said to make an army invincible. Teaming up with his tough former lover
Marion Ravenwood Marion Ravenwood is a fictional character who first appeared in the 1981 film ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. Played by Karen Allen, she enters the story when Indiana Jones (character), Indiana Jones visits her in Nepal, needing her help to locate the ...
(Allen), Jones races to stop rival archaeologist Dr. René Belloq (Freeman) from guiding the Nazis to the Ark and its power. Lucas conceived ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' in the early 1970s. Seeking to modernize the
serial film A serial film, film serial (or just serial), movie serial, or chapter play, is a motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting ...
s of the early 20th century, he developed the idea further with Kaufman, who suggested the Ark as the film's goal. Lucas eventually focused on developing his 1977 space opera ''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture Cultural impact of S ...
''. Development on ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' resumed that year when he shared the idea with Spielberg, who joined the project several months later. While the pair had ideas for set pieces and stunts for the film, they hired Kasdan to fill in the narrative gaps between them.
Principal photography Principal photography is the phase of producing a film or television show in which the bulk of shooting takes place, as distinct from the phases of pre-production and post-production. Personnel Besides the main film personnel, such as actor ...
began in June 1980 on a $20million budget and concluded the following September. Filming took place on sets at
Elstree Studios Elstree Studios is a generic term which can refer to several current and defunct British film studio A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a major entertainment company or motion picture company that has its own priv ...
, England, and on location mainly in
La Rochelle, France La Rochelle (, , ; Poitevin-Saintongeais: ''La Rochéle''; oc, La Rochèla) is a city on the south-west coast of France and a seaport File:PorticcioloCedas.jpg, The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola near Trieste, a small local port ...
, Tunisia, and Hawaii. Though prerelease polling showed little audience interest in the film, especially compared to the
superhero film A superhero film (or superhero movie) is a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere ...
''
Superman II ''Superman II'' is a 1980 superhero film directed by Richard Lester and written by Mario Puzo and David Newman (screenwriter), David and Leslie Newman from a story by Puzo based on the DC Comics character Superman. It is the second installment in ...
'', ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' became the highest-grossing film of 1981, earning approximately $330.5million worldwide and played in some theaters for over a year. It was a critical success, receiving praise for its modern take on the serial film, its non-stop action and adventure, and the cast, particularly Ford, Allen, and Freeman. The film was nominated for several awards and, among others, won five Academy Awards, seven Saturn Awards, and one BAFTA. ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' is now considered one of the greatest films ever made and has had a lasting impact on popular culture, spawning a host of imitators across several media, and inspired other filmmakers. The United States
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order ...

Library of Congress
selected it for preservation in the
National Film Registry The National Film Registry (or NFR for short) is the United States National Film Preservation Board The United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contigu ...
in 1999. ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' is the first entry in what would become the ''Indiana Jones'' franchise, which includes three more films—'' Temple of Doom'' (1984), '' Last Crusade'' (1989), and ''
Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
'' (2008)—a
television series A television show – or simply TV show – is any content produced for viewing on a television set A television set or television receiver, more commonly called the television, TV, TV set, tube, telly, or tele, is a device that combines a ...
,
video games#REDIRECT Video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device ...

video games
,
comic books A comic book, also called comic book, comic magazine or (in the United Kingdom and Ireland) simply comic, is a publication that consists of comics a medium Medium may refer to: Science and technology Aviation *Medium bomber, a c ...

comic books
,
novels A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfictional ( memoir, biography, news report, documentary, Travel literature, travelogue, etc.) ...

novels
, theme park attractions, toys, and an amateur remake. A fifth film is scheduled for release in 2023.


Plot

In 1936, American
archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biological, geological, ...
Indiana Jones ''Indiana Jones'' is an American media franchise based on the adventures of Indiana Jones (character), Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones Jr., a fictional professor of archaeology, that began in 1981 with the film ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. In ...
recovers a golden idol from a
booby-trapped A booby trap is a device or setup that is intended to kill, harm, or surprise a human being or an animal. It is triggered by the presence or actions of the victim and sometimes has some form of bait designed to lure the victim towards it. The trap ...
Peruvian temple. Rival archaeologist René Belloq corners him and steals the idol; Jones escapes in a waiting seaplane. After returning to America, Jones is briefed by two Army Intelligence agents that
Nazi German Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi German
forces are excavating at
Tanis Tanis; egy, ḏꜥn.t ; ar, صان الحجر, Ṣān al-Ḥaǧar; ; cop, ϫⲁⲛⲓ or or is the Greek name for ancient Egyptian ''ḏꜥn.t'', an important archaeological site in the north-eastern Nile Delta The Nile Delta ( ar, د ...
,
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
, and one of their telegrams mentions Jones' old mentor Abner Ravenwood. Jones deduces that the Nazis seek the
Ark of the Covenant The Ark of the Covenant (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judea ...

Ark of the Covenant
, which
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
believes will make their army invincible. The agents recruit Jones to recover the Ark first. At a bar in
Nepal Nepal (; ne, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is ma ...
, Jones reunites with Ravenwood's daughter
MarionMarion may refer to: People *Marion (given name) *Marion (surname) *Marion Silva Fernandes, Brazilian footballer known simply as "Marion" *Marion (singer), Filipino singer-songwriter and pianist Marion Aunor (born 1992) Places Antarctica * Marion ...
—with whom Jones once had an illicit relationship—and learns Ravenwood is dead. The bar is set ablaze during a scuffle with
Gestapo The (), abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; for ...

Gestapo
agent Arnold Toht, who arrives to take a medallion from Marion. Toht attempts to recover the medallion from the flames, but only burns its image into his hand. Jones and Marion take the medallion and escape. Traveling to
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
, the pair meet Jones's friend
Sallah Sallah Mohammed Faisel el-Kahir ( ar, صلاح محمد فيصل القاهر), is a fictional character played by Welsh people, Welsh actor John Rhys-Davies in two of the ''Indiana Jones'' films; ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' and ''Indiana Jones and ...
. Sallah reveals Belloq is assisting the Nazis, who have fashioned an incomplete replica medallion from the burns on Toht's hand. Nazi soldiers and mercenaries attack Jones, and Marion is seemingly killed, leaving Jones despondent. An
imam Imam (; ar, إمام '; plural: ') is an Islamic leadership position. For Sunni Islam, Sunni Muslims, Imam is most commonly used as the title of a worship leader of a mosque. In this context, imams may lead Salah, Islamic worship services, ...
deciphers the medallion for Jones, revealing one side bears a warning against disturbing the Ark, and the other bears the correct measurements for the "staff of
Ra
Ra
", an item used to locate the Ark. Jones and Sallah realize the Nazis are digging in the wrong location, infiltrate the Nazi dig site, and use the medallion and the correctly-sized staff of Ra to locate the Well of Souls, the Ark's resting place. They recover the Ark—a golden, intricately decorated chest—but Belloq and the Nazis discover them and seize it. Jones and Marion—whom Belloq has held captive—are sealed inside the well, but the pair escape and flee with a truck carrying the Ark. Alongside Marion, Jones arranges to transport the Ark to
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
aboard a
tramp steamer A boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional proper ...
. A German
U-boat U-boats were naval submarines operated by Germany, particularly in the First First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most importa ...

U-boat
intercepts the steamer and seizes the Ark and Marion; Jones covertly boards the U-boat. The vessel travels to an island in the
Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated Bay, embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between Europe's Geography of Europe, Balkan peninsula and Asia's Anatolia peninsula. The sea has an area of some 215,000 square kilometres. In ...

Aegean Sea
, where Belloq intends to test the power of the Ark before presenting it to Hitler. On the island, Jones ambushes the Nazi group and threatens to destroy the Ark, but surrenders after Belloq deduces that Jones would never destroy something so historically significant, also surmising that Jones wants to know if the Ark's power is real. The Nazis restrain Jones and Marion at the testing site as Belloq ceremonially opens the Ark but finds only sand inside. At Jones' instruction, he and Marion close their eyes to avoid looking at the opened Ark, as it releases spirits, flames, and bolts of energy that kill Belloq, Toht, and the assembled Nazis before sealing itself shut. Jones and Marion open their eyes to find the area cleared of bodies and their bindings removed. Back in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
, the United States government rewards Jones for securing the Ark. Despite Jones' insistence, the agents state only that the Ark has been moved to an undisclosed location for "top men" to study. In a large warehouse, the Ark is crated up and stored among countless other crates.


Cast

*
Harrison Ford Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American actor. His films have grossed more than $5.4billion in North America and more than $9.3billion worldwide, making him the seventh-highest-grossing actor in North America. He is the recipient o ...

Harrison Ford
as Indiana Jones: An archaeology professor and adventurer *
Karen Allen Karen Jane Allen (born October 5, 1951) is an American film and stage actress. After making her film debut in ''Animal House ''National Lampoon's Animal House'' is a 1978 American comedy film A comedy film is a category of film ...
as Marion Ravenwood: A spirited, tough bar owner and Jones' former lover * Paul Freeman as René Belloq: A rival archaeologist to Jones, in the employ of the Nazis *
Ronald Lacey Ronald William Lacey (28 September 1935 – 15 May 1991) was an English-born actor of Welsh descent. He made numerous television and film appearances over a 30-year period and is perhaps best remembered for his roles as Harris (Porridge), Ha ...
as Major Arnold Toht: A sadistic Gestapo agent *
John Rhys-Davies John Rhys-Davies (born 5 May 1944) is a Welsh actor. He is known for portraying the role of Gimli (Middle-earth), Gimli and the voice of Treebeard in the The Lord of the Rings (film series), ''Lord of the Rings'' trilogy and Sallah in the Indian ...

John Rhys-Davies
as Sallah: An Egyptian excavator and old acquaintance of Jones *
Denholm Elliott Denholm Mitchell Elliott, (31 May 1922 – 6 October 1992) was an English actor, with more than 125 film and television credits. His well-known roles include the abortionist in ''Alfie (1966 film), Alfie'' (1966), List of Indiana Jones character ...
as
Marcus Brody This is a list of characters in the ''Indiana Jones'' series. Introduced in ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' Indiana Jones Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr. ( Harrison Ford), the titular character of the franchise, is an archaeologist Ar ...
: A
museum curator A curator (from la, cura, meaning "to take care") is a manager or overseer. Traditionally, a curator or keeper of a cultural heritage institution (e.g., Art museum, gallery, museum, library or archive) is a content specialist charged with an in ...
and Jones' loyal friend ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' also features
Wolf Kahler Wolf Kahler (born 3 April 1940) is a German stage, film, television, and voice actor. From 1975–2012, he appeared in many English language US and UK television and film productions. One of his early roles was Kaiser Wilhelm II in Michael Yor ...
as Nazi officer Colonel Dietrich, and Anthony Higgins as Major Gobler, Dietrich's right-hand man.
Don Fellows Don Fellows (December 2, 1922 – October 21, 2007) was an American actor known for his roles in British theater and television. Born in Salt Lake City Salt Lake City (often shortened to Salt Lake and abbreviated as SLC) is the Capital (po ...
and
William Hootkins William Michael "Hoot"Austin Mutti-MewseObituary: William Hootkins ''The Guardian'', November 14, 2005, accessed December 13, 2012. Hootkins (July 5, 1948 – October 23, 2005) was an American character actor and voice actor, best known for support ...
appear as United States Army Intelligence agents Colonel Musgrove and Major Eaton, respectively. George Harris plays Simon Katanga, captain of the ''Bantu Wind'' tramp steamer, and Fred Sorenson portrays Jones' pilot Jock. Producer Frank Marshall appears as the Flying Wing pilot.
Pat Roach Francis Patrick Roach (19 May 1937 – 17 July 2004) was an English actor, and professional wrestler. During an acting career between the 1970s and the 1990s, he appeared in multiple films, usually cast as a support player strongman villain. He ...
and
Vic Tablian Vic Tablian (born 10 October 1937) is an Armenian-British actor, known for the Indiana Jones (franchise), Indiana Jones movie ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' in 1981, in which he played both the treacherous Peruvian guide and later in the film as the ...
each portray two different characters in the film: Roach appears as the Nazi who brawls with Jones by the Flying Wing and one of Toht's Nepalese
Sherpas Sherpa is one of the Tibetans, Tibetan ethnic groups native to the most mountainous regions of Nepal in the Himalayas. The term ''sherpa'' or ''sherwa'' derives from the Sherpa language words ("east") and ("people"), which refer to their geog ...
; Tablian plays Jones's treacherous Peruvian guide Barranca, and the Monkey Man in Cairo. The film features the first theatrical appearance of
Alfred Molina Alfredo "Alfred" Molina (born 24 May 1953) is an English actor who has appeared in over 200 film, television, and stage productions. He first rose to prominence in the West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of ...

Alfred Molina
as Jones' guide Satipo. Terry Richards portrays the Cairo swordsman shot by Jones.


Production


Conception

George Lucas George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and entrepreneur. Lucas is best known for creating the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia fr ...

George Lucas
conceived ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' in 1973, shortly after finishing the comedy film ''
American Graffiti ''American Graffiti'' is a 1973 American coming-of-age Coming of age is a young person's transition from being a child to being an adult. It continues through adolescence. The specific age at which this transition takes place varies bet ...
'' (1973). An old movie poster of a heroic character leaping from a horse to a truck reminded Lucas of the early 20th-century
serial film A serial film, film serial (or just serial), movie serial, or chapter play, is a motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting ...
s he enjoyed as a youth, such as ''
Buck Rogers Buck Rogers is a science fiction (and later, particularly space opera) character created by Philip Francis Nowlan in the novella ''Armageddon 2419 A.D.'', subsequently appearing in multiple media. First published in the August 1928 issue of the p ...
'' (1939), ''
Zorro's Fighting Legion ''Zorro's Fighting Legion'' is a 1939 Republic Pictures Republic Pictures Corporation was an American motion picture production-distribution corporation in operation from 1935 to 1967, that was based in Los Angeles Los Angeles (; es ...
'' (1939), ''
Spy Smasher Spy Smasher is the name of two fictional characters appearing in comics published by Fawcett and DC Comics. The first is a superhero A superhero or superheroine is a stock character that possesses abilities beyond those of ordinary people, w ...
'' (1942), and ''
Don Winslow of the Navy ''Don Winslow of the Navy'' is a 1942 Universal Pictures Universal Pictures (legally Universal City Studios LLC, also known as Universal Studios, and formerly named Universal Film Manufacturing Company and Universal-International Pictures Inc.) ...
'' (1942). He wanted to make a
B movie A B movie or B film is a low-budget A low-budget film or low-budget movie is a motion picture shot with little to no funding from a major film studio or private investor. Many independent films are made on low budgets, but films made on the ...

B movie
modeled on those serials and conceived ''The Adventures of Indiana Smith'', featuring an adventurous archaeologist named after his
Alaskan Malamute The Alaskan Malamute () is a large breed of dog A dog breed is a particular strain or dog type that was purposefully bred by humans to perform specific tasks, such as herding, hunting, and guarding. When distinguishing breed from type, the ...

Alaskan Malamute
dog. Around the same time, Lucas was trying to adapt the
space opera Space opera is a subgenre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes a Category of b ...
serial ''
Flash Gordon Flash Gordon is the protagonist of a space opera Space opera is a subgenre of science fiction that emphasizes science fictional space warfare, with use of melodramatic, risk-taking space adventures and chivalric romance. Set mainly or entir ...

Flash Gordon
'' (1936), but could not obtain the rights. He shelved the Indiana Smith project to focus on creating his own space opera, ''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture Cultural impact of S ...
'' (1977). In 1975, Lucas discussed his serial film idea with his friend
Philip Kaufman Philip Kaufman (born October 23, 1936) is an American film director and screenwriter who has directed fifteen films over a career spanning more than six decades. He has been described as a "maverick" and an "iconoclast," notable for his versati ...
. The pair worked on a story for two weeks. Lucas imagined his character as a college professor and archaeologist adventurer, based on his own appreciation for archaeology and famous archaeologists like Hiram Bingham III,
Roy Chapman Andrews Roy Chapman Andrews (January 26, 1884 – March 11, 1960) was an American explorer, adventurer and naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, and plants, in their natural environ ...
, and
Leonard Woolley Sir Charles Leonard Woolley (17 April 1880 – 20 February 1960) was a British archaeologist best known for his Excavation (archaeology), excavations at Ur in Mesopotamia. He is recognized as one of the first "modern" archaeologists who excavated ...
. Kaufman removed Lucas' vision of Smith as a nightclub patron and womanizer, and suggested the Ark of the Covenant as the film's central goal; he learned of the Ark from his childhood dentist. The Ark provided a source of conflict for the hero and the Nazis, playing off Nazi leader Adolf Hitler's historical fascination with the occult. Lucas wanted Kaufman to direct the film, but because he was already committed to working on the western ''
The Outlaw Josey Wales ''The Outlaw Josey Wales'' is a 1976 American revisionist Western DeLuxe Color DeLuxe Color or Deluxe color is a brand of color process for motion pictures. DeLuxe Color is Eastmancolor-based, with certain adaptations for improved compositing ...
'' (1976), Lucas paused the idea again and resumed working on ''Star Wars''. In May 1977, Lucas vacationed in
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
to avoid any potential negative news about the theatrical debut of ''Star Wars''. He invited
Steven Spielberg Steven Allan Spielberg (; born December 18, 1946) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. He began his career in the New Hollywood New Hollywood, sometimes referred to as the American New Wave or the Hollywood Renaissance, r ...

Steven Spielberg
to join him and his wife. On a beach near
Mauna Kea Mauna Kea (; ; abbreviation for ''Mauna a Wākea''); is a dormant volcano A volcano is a rupture in the Crust (geology), crust of a Planet#Planetary-mass objects, planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, an ...

Mauna Kea
, Lucas and Spielberg discussed their next projects. Spielberg wanted to direct a
James Bond The ''James Bond'' series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain ...
film, but Lucas pitched him ''The Adventures of Indiana Smith''. Lucas still hoped Kaufman would direct it, but a few months later it was clear he could not participate and Lucas asked Spielberg to replace him.


Writing

Lawrence Kasdan Lawrence Edward Kasdan (born January 14, 1949) is an American director, screenwriter, and producer. He is the co-writer of the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic space opera media franchise created by George Lucas, which began ...
, Spielberg's recent discovery, was chosen to write the script. Kasdan had been working as a professional screenwriter for only a month but Lucas agreed to hire him after reading his script for ''
Continental Divide A continental divide is a drainage divide on a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as co ...
'' (1981). In January 1978, Lucas, Kasdan, and Spielberg spent about nine hours a day over three to five days at Lucas' assistant's house in
Sherman Oaks, Los Angeles Sherman Oaks is a neighborhood in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles, California, founded in 1927. The neighborhood includes a portion of the Santa Monica Mountains, which gives Sherman Oaks a lower population density than some other are ...
, developing Lucas' outline. Several ideas came from these discussions, including the boulder trap, the monkey in Cairo, Toht burning the medallion's imprint into his hand, and government agents locking the Ark away. Kasdan realized Spielberg and Lucas had several
set piece In film production Filmmaking (or, in any context, film production) is the process by which a film is made. Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through screenwriting, Casti ...
s in mind, but they were looking for someone else to do the hard work of piecing them together. Spielberg hated the name Indiana Smith, believing it would remind audiences of the
Steve McQueen Terrence Stephen McQueen (March 24, 1930November 7, 1980), known as Steve McQueen in his film career, nicknamed the "King of Cool" (during moto races used alias Harvey Mushman), was an American actor. His persona, emphasized during the height ...

Steve McQueen
character Nevada Smith. All three men agreed to use "Jones" instead. Actors
Clint Eastwood Clinton Eastwood Jr. (born May 31, 1930) is an American actor, film director, producer, and composer. After achieving success in the Western (genre), Western TV series ''Rawhide (TV series), Rawhide'', he rose to international fame with his ...

Clint Eastwood
and
Toshiro Mifune was a Japanese actor who appeared in over 150 feature films. He is best known for his 16-film collaboration (1948–1965) with Akira Kurosawa was a Japanese film director, screenwriter, and producer who directed 30 films in a career span ...
, and the
James Bond The ''James Bond'' series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain ...
character were the basis of Jones' own. Lucas wanted Jones to be a
kung fu Chinese martial arts, often named under the umbrella terms kung fu (; ), kuoshu () or wushu (), are several hundred fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China. These fighting styles are often classified according to common ...
practitioner and a
playboy ''Playboy'' is an American men's lifestyle Lifestyle often refers to: * Lifestyle (sociology), the way a person lives * ''Otium'', ancient Roman concept of a lifestyle * Style of life (german: Lebensstil), dealing with the dynamics of personal ...
, funding his lifestyle with the spoils of his adventures, but Spielberg and Kasdan felt the character was complicated enough being an adventurer and archaeologist. Spielberg suggested making Jones an avid gambler or an alcoholic, but Lucas wanted Jones to be a role model who is "honest and true and trusting." Both men felt it was important Jones be fallible, vulnerable, and as capable of comedic moments as well as serious ones. They intended he be someone the audience could relate to and idolize. Lucas suggested Marion would have a romantic past with the much older Jones at the age of 11; Spielberg replied, "she had better be older". While Spielberg directed ''
1941 Events Below, the events of World War II have the "WWII" prefix. January * January–August – In the first phase of mass killings under the Action T4 program, 10,072 men, women and children with mental and physical disabilities are ...
'' (1979), Kasdan used his office to write ''Raiders'', taking inspiration from the early 20th-century serials, and adventure films like '' Red River'' (1948), ''
Seven Samurai is a 1954 Japanese epic Epic commonly refers to: * Epic poetry, a long narrative poem celebrating heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation * Epic film, a genre of film with heroic elements Epic or EPIC may also refer to: ...
'' (1954), and ''
The Magnificent Seven ''The Magnificent Seven'' is a 1960 American Western (genre), Western film directed by John Sturges and starring Yul Brynner, Eli Wallach and Steve McQueen. The supporting cast features Charles Bronson, Robert Vaughn, Brad Dexter, James Coburn a ...
'' (1960). He wrote Jones as an
antihero An antihero (sometimes spelled as anti-hero) or antiheroine is a main character Image:Hamlet William Morris Hunt.jpeg, 200px, William Shakespeare, Shakespeare's ''Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.'' William Morris Hunt, oil on canvas, c. 1864 A prot ...
, an archaeologist reduced to grave-robbing. Kasdan wanted a supporting cast with their own unique characteristics and believed it was important these characters had a memorable impact. He described the hardest part of writing was explaining how Jones would fall into successive dangerous events and survive, and how he traveled between locations. In August 1978, after approximately five months, Kasdan completed his first draft. Spielberg described the draft as good but too long; Kasdan and Lucas collaborated to trim and refine it. The script was a globe-spanning tale set in the United States, Egypt,
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
, and Nepal. Several elements were cut, including a journey to
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the sou ...

Shanghai
that would lead to a
minecart A minecart or mine cart (also known as a mine trolley or mine hutch) is a type of rolling stock The term rolling stock in the rail transport Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods ...
chase and Jones using a
gong A gongFrom Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of th ...

gong
to shield himself from gunfire, ideas later used in the prequel ''
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' is a 1984 American action-adventure film Adventure films are a genre of film whose plots feature elements of travel. They typically involve protagonists who must leave their home or place of comfort ...
'' (1984). To his frustration, much of Kasdan's love story between Jones and Marion was trimmed, as were scenes showing the mutual attraction between Marion and Belloq. The
screenplay A screenplay, or script, is a written work by screenwriter A screenplay writer (also called screenwriter for short), scriptwriter or scenarist, is a writer A writer is a person who uses written words in different styles and technique ...
was completed by December 1979.


Development and pre-production

Lucas wanted to fund ''Raiders of the Ark'' himself, but lacked the money.
Lucasfilm Lucasfilm Ltd. LLC is an American film and television production company A production company, production house, production studio, or a production team is a business that provides the physical basis for works in the fields of performing arts, ...
offered the project to several
Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of An ...

Hollywood
studios. They rejected it, in part because of the proposed $20million budget, but also because of the deal Lucas offered. He wanted the studio to provide the budget, have no creative input and allow him to retain control of the licensing rights and any sequels. The studios considered this deal unacceptable. They were also hesitant because of Spielberg's involvement because he had delivered a succession of films over-schedule and over-budget; his recent effort, ''1941'', was both over-budget and a critical failure. Lucas refused to do the project without Spielberg.
Paramount Pictures Paramount Pictures Corporation (common metonym Metonymy () is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric ...

Paramount Pictures
president
Michael Eisner Michael Dammann Eisner (born March 7, 1942) is an American businessman and former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of The Walt Disney Company from September 1984 to September 2005. Prior to Disney, Eisner was President and CEO of rival ...
compromised with Lucas, agreeing to his deal in exchange for exclusive rights to any sequels and severe penalties for exceeding the schedule or budget. Lucas reportedly negotiated a salary between $1million and $4million plus a share of the gross profits, though a separate report stated he received only net profits. Spielberg received up to $1.5million as director and a share of the gross profits. Producer Frank Marshall, who had experience on smaller independent films, was hired because Spielberg believed he would keep the film on schedule and budget. Spielberg also hired cinematographer
Douglas Slocombe Ralph Douglas Vladimir SlocombeDuncan Petrie, "Slocombe, (Ralph) Douglas Vladimir (1913–2016)", ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, Jan 202available online Retrieved 8 July 2020. Order of the British Empire, OBE ...
and production designer Norman Reynolds because he liked their previous works and his long-time collaborator Michael Kahn as editor. Lucas served as a second unit director and the film's executive producer, along with his acquaintance
Howard Kazanjian Howard G. Kazanjian (born July 26, 1942) is an American film producer best known for the ''Star Wars'' films ''The Empire Strikes Back'' (1980) and ''Return of the Jedi'' (1983) and the ''Indiana Jones (franchise), Indiana Jones'' film ''Raiders ...
, whom Lucas believed would be a disciplined influence and not indulge the filmmakers' larger ambitions. He also brought in his long-time collaborator
Robert Watts Robert Watts (born 23 May 1938)Adam Pirani, ''Robert Watts: Secrets of "The Temple of Doom"'', Starlog #94, April 1985, pp 23–26,62. is a British retired film producer who is best known for his involvement with the ''Star Wars ''Star W ...
as associate producer and production manager. Paramount mandated a filming schedule of 85 days; Lucas, Spielberg, and Marshall agreed on a self-imposed 73-day schedule. Spielberg was determined to avoid criticism for another schedule overrun. Six months of pre-production began in December 1979. Spielberg preferred to spend a year in pre-production, but worked at a faster pace to keep the budget low. Spielberg and Lucas were both simultaneously working on other projects. Artists Ed Verreaux, Dave Negron, Michael Lloyd, and
Joe Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston II (born May 13, 1950) is an American film director, writer, and visual effects artist best known for such effects-driven films as ''Honey, I Shrunk the Kids ''Honey, I Shrunk the Kids'' is a 1989 American comic sc ...

Joe Johnston
provided extensive
storyboard A storyboard is a graphic organizer that consists of illustration An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in print and digital published media, such as pos ...

storyboard
ing, with over 80% of the script represented, equaling approximately 6,000 images. This helped Spielberg pre-visualize scenes and limit the time taken to set up shots. The script described the opening of the ark only as "all hell breaks loose", and the artists were tasked with envisioning what should happen. Each offered different aspects: spirits, flames, and weird light effects; Johnston was tasked with combining all three. Spielberg also had miniature sets of larger scenes built to plan layouts and lighting, including the Well of Souls, the Tanis dig site, and the Cairo marketplace. They contained 1-inch tall figurines to suggest how many extras would be required. Among changes made at this stage, Spielberg abandoned his idea for Toht to have a mechanical arm that could be replaced with a machine gun or flamethrower. Lucas said it put the film into a different genre.


Casting

Lucas wanted a relatively unknown actor, willing to commit to a trilogy of films, to play Indiana Jones. Those considered for the role included
Bill Murray William James Murray (born September 21, 1950) is an American actor, comedian and writer. Known for his deadpan delivery, he first rose to fame on ''Saturday Night Live ''Saturday Night Live'' (also known simply as ''SNL'') is an America ...

Bill Murray
,
Nick Nolte Nicholas King Nolte (born February 8, 1941) is an American actor. He won the and was nominated for the for the 1991 film '. He went on to receive Academy Award nominations for ' (1998) and ' (2011). His other film appearances include ' (1977) ...

Nick Nolte
,
Steve Martin Stephen Glenn Martin (born August 14, 1945) is an American actor, comedian, writer, producer, and musician. He has earned five Grammy Awards The Grammy Award (stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or just Grammy, is an aw ...

Steve Martin
,
Chevy Chase Cornelius Crane "Chevy" Chase (; born October 8, 1943) is an American actor, comedian, screenwriter and producer. Born into a prominent family, he had a variety of jobs before moving into comedy and started acting with '' National Lampoon''. He ...

Chevy Chase
,
Tim Matheson Tim Matheson (born Timothy Lewis Matthieson; December 31, 1947) is an American actor and director. Some of his best-known acting roles include the title character The title character in a narrative work is one who is named or referred to in th ...
,
Nick Mancuso Nicodemo Antonio Massimo Mancuso (born May 29, 1948) is an Italian-Canadian actor, artist, playwright, and director. Beginning his career as a stage actor, he had his breakthrough role in the 1981 drama '' Ticket to Heaven'', for which he won ...

Nick Mancuso
,
Peter Coyote Peter Coyote (born Robert Peter Cohon; October 10, 1941) is an American actor, author, director, screenwriter, and narrator of films, theatre, television, and audiobook An audiobook (or a talking book) is a recording of a book or other work b ...

Peter Coyote
,
Jack Nicholson John Joseph Nicholson (born April 22, 1937) is an American retired actor and filmmaker whose career spanned more than 50 years. He is known for having played a wide range of starring and supporting roles, including comic characters, romantic l ...
,
Jeff Bridges Jeffrey Leon Bridges (born December 4, 1949) is an American actor, singer, producer, and composer. One of the most acclaimed actors of his generation, he is the recipient of numerous accolades, including a Screen Actors Guild Award Screen A ...

Jeff Bridges
,
John Shea John Victor Shea III ( ; born April 14, 1949) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), co ...

John Shea
,
Sam Elliott Sam, SAM or variants may refer to: Places * SAM, IATA airport code for Salamo Airport Salamo Airport is an airfield An aerodrome (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West G ...

Sam Elliott
, and
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Harry Hamlin
. Casting director Mike Fenton favored Bridges but Lucas' wife and frequent collaborator
Marcia Lucas Marcia Lou Lucas (née Griffin; born October 4, 1945) is American film editor Film editing is both a creative and a technical part of the post-production process of filmmaking. The term is derived from the traditional process of working with fil ...
preferred
Tom Selleck Thomas William Selleck (; born January 29, 1945) is an American actor and film producer. His breakout role was playing private investigator Thomas Magnum in the television series '' Magnum, P.I.'' (1980–1988). Since 2010, Selleck has co-starr ...

Tom Selleck
. Selleck was contractually obligated to filming the television series ''
Magnum, P.I. ''Magnum, P.I.'' is an American crime drama Crime films, in the broadest sense, is a film genre inspired by and analogous to the crime fiction literary genre. Films of this genre generally involve various aspects of crime and its detection. S ...
'' if it were to be made into a full series. Lucas and Spielberg asked the show's studio,
CBS CBS is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S ...

CBS
, to release him 10 days early from his contract. Realizing Selleck was in demand, CBS
greenlit To green-light is to give permission to move forward with a project. The term is a reference to the green traffic signal, indicating "go ahead". Film industry In the context of the Film industry, film and Television programs#Development, t ...
''Magnum P.I.'', forcing him to drop out and leaving the production with no lead actor only weeks before filming. The actors' strike of 1980 later put the show on hiatus for three months, which would have allowed Selleck to star as Jones. Spielberg said Ford was perfect for the role after seeing him in ''
The Empire Strikes Back ''The Empire Strikes Back'' (also known as ''Star Wars: Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back'') is a 1980 American epic Epic commonly refers to: * Epic poetry, a long narrative poem celebrating heroic deeds and events significant to ...
''; Kanzanjian said Ford had always been considered but not cast because he was already a well-known actor. Lucas was concerned about seeming reliant on Ford by casting him in another film after ''Star Wars'', and he also did not think he would commit to three films. However, Ford thought it would be a fun project and agreed to the deal. He negotiated a seven-figure salary, a percentage of the gross profits, and the option to re-write his dialogue. Ford undertook extensive exercise to enhance his physique and trained for several weeks under stunt coordinator Glenn Randall to use a
bullwhip A bullwhip is a single-tailed whip (implement), whip, usually made of braided leather, designed as a tool for working with livestock. Bullwhips are pastoral tools, traditionally used to control livestock in open country. A bullwhip's length, fl ...

bullwhip
, becoming proficient enough to disarm the Monkey Man (Vic Tablian); his wrist had to be rehabilitated to compensate for an old injury. Ford's interpretation of the character was as an academic first and an adventurer second. For Jones' love interest Marion, Spielberg wanted someone akin to early 20th-century leading ladies like
Irene Dunne Irene Dunne (born Irene Marie Dunn; December 20, 1898 – September 4, 1990) was an American actress who appeared in films during Classical Hollywood cinema, the Golden Age of Hollywood. She is best known for her comedic roles, though she perf ...

Irene Dunne
,
Barbara Stanwyck Barbara Stanwyck (born Ruby Catherine Stevens; July 16, 1907 – January 20, 1990) was an American actress, model, and dancer. A stage, film, and television star, she was known during her 60-year career as a consummate and versatile professional ...
, and
Ann Sheridan Clara Lou Sheridan (February 21, 1915 – January 21, 1967), known professionally as Ann Sheridan, was an American actress and singer. She worked regularly, first in film and later in television, from 1934 until her death. Notable roles include '' ...
, who equaled their male counterparts. Lucas wanted
Debra Winger Debra Lynn Winger (born May 16, 1955) is an American actress. She starred in the films ''An Officer and a Gentleman ''An Officer and a Gentleman'' is a 1982 American romantic drama film Romance films or romance movies are romantic love stor ...
, but she was not interested, and Spielberg wanted his girlfriend
Amy Irving Amy Davis Irving (born September 10, 1953) is an American actress of film, stage, and television. Her accolades include an Obie Award, two Golden Globe Awards, Golden Globe Award nominations, and one Academy Awards, Academy Award nomination. Born ...

Amy Irving
, but she was unavailable. They also considered
Stephanie Zimbalist Stephanie Zimbalist (born October 8, 1956) is an American actress best known for her role as Laura Holt in the NBC The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English-language commercial terrestrial radio Radio is the techno ...
,
Barbara Hershey Barbara Hershey (born February 5, 1948) is an American actress. In a career spanning more than 50 years, she has played a variety of roles on television and in cinema in several genres, including westerns and comedies. She began acting at age 1 ...
and
Sean Young Mary Sean Young (born November 20, 1959) is an American actress. She is best known for her performances in the films '' Stripes'' (1981), ''Blade Runner ''Blade Runner'' is a 1982 science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott Sir Ridle ...
. Spielberg was aware of Karen Allen from her performance in ''
Animal House ''National Lampoon's Animal House'' is a 1978 American comedy film A comedy film is a category of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as ...

Animal House
'' (1978), portraying an independent female character, and she impressed him with her professionalism during auditions for ''Raiders''. One of the first things Spielberg asked Allen was "how well do you spit?". Allen developed a backstory for Marion that included her mother's death and her relationship with Jones when she was 15–16, but Spielberg said it belonged in a different movie. Kasdan named Marion after his grandmother-in-law, and took Ravenwood from a Los Angeles street. Belloq was intended to be a sophisticated villain to counter the "beer-drinking" hero. Spielberg cast Freeman after seeing him in the
docudrama A docudrama (or documentary drama) is a genre of Radio programming, radio and television show, television programming, feature film, and staged theatre, which features Drama (film and television), dramatized Historical reenactment, re-enactments ...
''
Death of a Princess ''Death of a Princess'' is a British 1980 drama-documentary produced by ATV in cooperation with WGBH in the United States. The drama is based on the true story of Princess Mishaal, a young Saudi Arabian princess and her lover who had been pu ...
'' (1980); Freeman's piercing eyes had captivated him.
Giancarlo Giannini Giancarlo Giannini (born 1 August 1942) is an Italy, Italian actor, voice actor, film director and screenwriter. He won a Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Actor for his performance in ''Love and Anarchy'' (1973) and received an Academy Award f ...

Giancarlo Giannini
and singer
Jacques Dutronc Jacques Dutronc (born 28 April 1943) is a French singer, songwriter, guitarist, composer, and actor. He has been married to singer Françoise Hardy since 30 March 1981 and the two have a son (jazz guitarist Thomas Dutronc, born 1973). He also h ...
were also considered.
Danny DeVito Daniel Michael DeVito Jr. (born November 17, 1944) is an American actor, director, producer, and screenwriter. He gained prominence for his portrayal of the taxi dispatcher Louie De Palma in the television series ''Taxi A taxi, also known ...
was approached to portray Sallah, described as a skinny, tall Egyptian like Gunga Din in ''
Gunga Din "Gunga Din" is an 1890 poem by Rudyard Kipling set in British Raj, British India. The poem is much remembered for its final line: "You're a better man than I am, Gunga Din". Background The poem is a rhyming narrative from the point of view o ...
'' (1939). DeVito could not participate because of scheduling conflicts with his sitcom ''
Taxi A taxi, also known as a cab or a taxicab, is a type of vehicle for hire A vehicle for hire is a vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wagons, bicycles, motor vehic ...
'' and because his agent wanted too much money. Rhys-Davies was cast based on his performance in the 1980 miniseries ''
Shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns were usually the ''de facto'' rulers of th ...
''. Spielberg asked him to play the character as a mix of his ''Shōgun'' role and the character
John Falstaff Sir John Falstaff is a fictional character who appears in three plays by William Shakespeare and is eulogized in a fourth. His significance as a fully developed character is primarily formed in the plays '' Henry IV, Part 1'' and ''Henry IV, P ...
. Ronald Lacey was cast as Toht because he reminded Spielberg of the late actor
Peter Lorre Peter Lorre (born László Löwenstein; June 26, 1904 – March 23, 1964) was a Hungarian-American actor. Lorre began his stage career in Vienna, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, before moving to Germany where he worked first on the stage, then ...
.
Klaus Kinski Klaus Kinski (, born Klaus Günter Karl Nakszynski; 18 October 1926 – 23 November 1991) was a German actor, equally renowned for his intense performance style and notorious for his volatile personality. He appeared in over 130 film roles in a c ...
was offered the role but chose to appear in the horror film ''
Venom Venom is a type of poison In biology, poisons are Chemical substance, substances that can cause death, injury or harm to organs, Tissue (biology), tissues, Cell (biology), cells, and DNA usually by chemical reactions or other activity (chemi ...
'' (1981) because it offered more money.


Filming

Principal photography Principal photography is the phase of producing a film or television show in which the bulk of shooting takes place, as distinct from the phases of pre-production and post-production. Personnel Besides the main film personnel, such as actor ...
began on June 23, 1980. Filming took place on location in
La Rochelle La Rochelle (, , ; Poitevin-Saintongeais: ''La Rochéle''; oc, La Rochèla ) is a city on the south west coast of France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Charente-Maritime Departments o ...

La Rochelle
in France,
Tunisia ) , image_map = Tunisia location (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = Location of Tunisia in northern Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous , after in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11. ...

Tunisia
in North Africa, and Hawaii, and on sets at
Elstree Studios Elstree Studios is a generic term which can refer to several current and defunct British film studio A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a major entertainment company or motion picture company that has its own priv ...
, England. Elstree was chosen because it was well-staffed with artists and technicians who had worked on ''Star Wars''. On-location shooting cost around $100,000 a day in addition to crew salaries; sets cost an additional $4million. The production could afford certain equipment only for a limited time, including a Panaglide camera stabilizer for smoother shots, and a for higher angles. To maintain the tight schedule, Spielberg said he "...didn't do 30 or 40 takes; usually only four... Had I had more time and money, it would have turned out a pretentious movie." Filming began in La Rochelle, depicting the capture of the ''Bantu Wind'' by a Nazi U-boat. Watts borrowed a submarine from the war film ''
Das Boot ''Das Boot'' (, English: "The Boat") is a 1981 West German war film written and directed by Wolfgang Petersen, produced by Günter Rohrbach, and starring Jürgen Prochnow, Herbert Grönemeyer, and Klaus Wennemann. It has been exhibited both as a ...
'' (1981) on condition it not be taken into deep waters.
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
German U-boat pens in La Rochelle represented the U-boat dock. An original coal-fired tramp steamer boat could not be found for filming, so an Egyptian boat found in an Irish port was decorated appropriately and sailed to France. The production moved to Elstree Studios by June30. Interiors included the scene featuring an imam deciphering the staff headpiece and the Peruvian temple. There were repeated delays while filming the Well of Souls scene: there were too few snakes, a lack of anti-venom, and
Stanley Kubrick Stanley Kubrick (; July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and photographer. He is frequently cited as one of the greatest filmmakers Filmmaking (or, in any context, film production) is ...
's daughter
Vivian Vivian may refer to: *Vivian (name) Vivian (and variants such as Vivien and Vivienne) is a given name, and less often a surname, derived from a Latin name of the Roman Empire period, masculine ''Vivianus'' and feminine ''Viviana (given name), Vivia ...
—who was visiting Kubrick on the set of '' The Shining'' — called the
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) is a charity Charity may refer to: Giving * Charitable organization or charity, a non-profit organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being * Char ...
(RSPCA) about the treatment of the snakes. The interior of Jones' school was filmed at
The Royal Masonic School for Girls The Royal Masonic School for Girls is an independent school An independent school is independent in its finances and governance. Also known as private schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, they are not admin ...
in
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Rickmansworth
, near Hertfordshire; the exterior was the University of the Pacific in
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
. Tunisia was used to portray Egypt. Spielberg described this phase as one of his worst filming experiences: the temperature was often over , and over 150 crew members became sick with
amoebic dysentery Amoebiasis or amoebic dysentery Dysentery () is a type of gastroenteritis that results in bloody diarrhea. Other symptoms may include fever, abdominal pain, and a feeling of incomplete defecation. Complications may include dehydration In ...
from the local food. Spielberg was one of the few to remain healthy because he ate food and water he brought from England. Lucas also suffered a severe sunburn and facial swelling. The Cairo village was filmed in the city of
Kairouan Kairouan, also spelled Al Qayrawān or Kairwan ( ar, ٱلْقَيْرَوَان, al-Qayrawān , aeb, script=Latn, Qeirwān ), is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The city was founded by the Uma ...

Kairouan
. A day of filming was lost there because over 300 TV antennas had to be removed from the surrounding houses. Budget constraints affected Spielberg's desire to have 2,000 extras as diggers; he had to settle for 600. Stuntman Terry Richards, who portrayed the swordsman nonchalantly dispatched by Jones, spent weeks practicing sword skills for an extended fight scene. Ford was unable to perform for long periods while suffering from dysentery, and it was decided to shorten the fight scene significantly. The Sidi Bouhlel canyon near the city of
Tozeur Tozeur ( ar, توزر, ; ber, ⵜⵓⵣⴻⵔ, Tuzər) is a city in southwest Tunisia ) , image_map = Tunisia location (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = Location of Tunisia in northern Africa Africa is the world's seco ...

Tozeur
is where a rocket launcher-equipped Jones confronts the Nazis for the Ark. Lucas had used the canyon in ''Star Wars'' to portray the planet
Tatooine Tatooine () is a fictional desert planet that appears in the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic space opera media franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide pop ...
. During the scene, a fly crawled onto Freeman's lip during his dialogue, but he continued to deliver his lines. Although it appeared to be eaten, Freeman clarified it flew away. In late September, filming moved to Hawaii for exterior shots for the film's Peruvian opening. The Paramount logo dissolving into a natural mountain was an improvisation by Spielberg based on his own childhood habit of doing the same while making films; the mountain is Kalalea Mountain on the island of
Kauaʻi Kauai, () anglicized as Kauai ( ), is geologically the second-oldest of the main Hawaiian Islands (after Niʻihau). With an area of 562.3 square miles (1,456.4 km2), it is the fourth-largest of these islands and the List of islands of the U ...
. Though the scene appears to be a single location, it was shot across 10 different areas in Hawaii, including the
Huleia National Wildlife Refuge The Hulēia National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge on the island of Kauai, Kauai in Hawaii, Hawaii. It is adjacent to the Menehune Fish Pond, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, on the southeast side of the island. T ...
. It was originally more elaborate and longer, featuring an added betrayal by one of Jones' guides, resulting in a fight, and it had more dialogue; this was deemed unnecessary and removed for a tighter paced sequence. The cave's exterior was considered a perfect location, though a nearby pool was a mosquito breeding ground; even with anti-mosquito equipment the crew was bitten. The donkeys used for the trek suffered
lameness A limp is a type of asymmetric abnormality of the gait Gait is the pattern of Motion (physics), movement of the limb (anatomy), limbs of animals, including Gait (human), humans, during Animal locomotion, locomotion over a solid substrate. Mos ...
. It was difficult to find replacements, and eventually, a pair of grey donkeys were painted brown with colored hairspray and flown by helicopter to the Nā Pali Coast State Park to finish the scene. The loosely detailed script led to much improvisation; where the script described three people talking in a room, in the film it would take place in a quarry alongside 500 extras. Scenes like the young girl with "Love You" written across her eyelids and Marion putting on a dress to conceal a weapon were also improvised. Allen believed the latter scene focused on her character seducing Belloq, undermining her loyalty and love for Jones. She and Freeman collaborated to develop the idea of Marion getting Belloq drunk instead. Allen, Lacey, Freeman, and Rhys-Davies often spent time together between filming to talk and discuss their characters. Allen described Ford as a private person who would not discuss his character in detail, and it took her a while to adapt to his working style. Filming concluded in September 1980, after 73 days. Lucas described it as the film he had the least problems with because of the lack of studio interference.


Post-production

Post-production lasted about two months and focused mainly on special effects and pick-up shots. Spielberg's first cut was close to three hours long before he and Kahn re-edited it to just under two hours. Lucas was happy with this edit, but later asked if he could shorten the ending. He and Kahn collaborated on the edit; Spielberg said he was happy with their changes. The final cut of the film runs for 115minutes. Marcia Lucas opined there was no emotional closure for Jones and Marion because she was absent following the closure of the Ark. Marcia is not credited in the film, but her suggestion led Spielberg to shoot a final exterior sequence on the steps of
San Francisco City Hall San Francisco City Hall is the seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Politics'') "the building, complex of buildings or the city from which a government A government is the system or group of peopl ...

San Francisco City Hall
showing Jones and Marion together. Other changes included the addition of a scene where the Ark makes a humming noise in the ''Bantu Wind'' hold and the removal of a scene showing Jones holding on to the U-boat periscope to follow the Nazis; Spielberg thought it looked poor and hoped the audiences would not care how Jones accomplished the feat. Lucas removed a scene of a man fainting at the sight of Indiana and Marion emerging from the Well of Souls because he thought the joke did not fit with the tone of the movie. Shots of the
Douglas DC-3 The Douglas DC-3 is a propeller . A propeller is a device with a rotating hub and radiating blades that are set at a pitch to form a helical spiral, that, when rotated, exerts linear thrust upon a working fluid, such as water or air. Prope ...

Douglas DC-3
in which Jones flies to Nepal were repurposed from the adventure film ''
Lost Horizon ''Lost Horizon'' is a 1933 novel by English writer James Hilton. The book was turned into a film, also called ''Lost Horizon ''Lost Horizon'' is a 1933 novel by English writer James Hilton. The book was turned into a film, also called ...
'' (1973), and a street scene outside Jones' home was taken from '' The Hindenburg'' (1975). Spielberg said it was cost-effective and only sharp-eyed viewers would ever notice. Special effects supervisor
Richard Edlund Richard Edlund, A.S.C. (born December 6, 1940) is a multi-Academy Award-winning US special effects cinematographer. Edlund was born in Fargo, North Dakota and raised in Fergus Falls, Minnesota. After first joining the United States Navy ), ...
maintained the street scene was done with miniatures.


Music

John Williams John Towner Williams (born February 8, 1932) is an American composer A composer (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken ...
served as composer for ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. He said the music did not have to be serious for the film and was instead theatrical and excessive. Williams spent a few weeks working on the Indiana Jones theme, more commonly known as "The Raiders March" that plays during the main character's heroic scenes. Two separate pieces were played for Spielberg, who wanted to use both. These pieces became the main theme and musical bridge of "The Raiders March". For the romantic theme, Williams took inspiration from older films like the drama ''
Now, Voyager ''Now, Voyager'' is a 1942 American drama film In film and television show, television, drama is a category of narrative fiction (or docudrama, semi-fiction) intended to be more serious than humour, humorous in tone. Drama of this kind is us ...
'' (1942) to create something more emotionally monumental that he felt would contrast well with the film's humor and lighter moments. Williams used "dark" orchestral pieces to represent the actions of the Nazis, using the "seventh
degree Degree may refer to: As a unit of measurement * Degree symbol (°), a notation used in science, engineering, and mathematics * Degree (angle), a unit of angle measurement * Degree (temperature), any of various units of temperature measurement ...
on the
scale Scale or scales may refer to: Mathematics * Scale (descriptive set theory)In the mathematical discipline of descriptive set theory, a scale is a certain kind of object defined on a set (mathematics), set of point (mathematics), points in some Poli ...
of the bottom". He said this signified a militaristic evil. To create something suitably biblical for the Ark of the Covenant, he used a mix of chorus and orchestra.


Design


Stunts

The Peruvian temple interiors used in the film were life-sized sets. The giant boulder—made of fiberglass, plaster and wood—was designed to be wide, but this was reduced to , with the resulting prop weighing . Spielberg liked the effect and had its ramp extended to give it more screen time. The boulder was controlled by a steel rod concealed in the wall by rubber rock outcroppings. Ford performed the stunt ten times for the different camera angles. Spielberg said he was an idiot for letting Ford do it, but it would not have looked as good with a stuntman concealing their face. Ford performed as many of his stunts as was allowed throughout ''Raiders'', suffering various injuries. The tarantulas on Molina's body would not move because they were male and non-aggressive. A female spider was put on his chest to encourage movement. Abandoned ideas for the temple included a crushing wall trap and a pit concealed by spider-webs. The golden idol also had mechanically operated eyes that could follow Jones. For the last part of the scene where Jones flees by plane, the first take ended in near-disaster when the plane crashed from a height of because Ford's dangling leg was blocking the aircraft's right flap. Filming of the Well of Souls scene was delayed initially by a lack of snakes. There were 500–600 snakes to use for close shots and some mechanical snakes for wider shots, but Spielberg wanted more. A request was made to snake handlers from around London and Europe who produced between 6,000 and 10,000 snakes in a few days. Afterward, they struggled to obtain anti-venom; with local supplies having expired, it had to be imported from India. Many of the snakes were harmless
grass snake The grass snake (''Natrix natrix''), sometimes called the ringed snake or water snake, is a Eurasian Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), co ...

grass snake
s or non-venomous
pythons The Pythonidae, commonly known as pythons, are a Family (biology), family of Venomous snake, nonvenomous snakes found in Africa, Asia, and Australia. Among its members are some of the largest snakes in the world. Ten Genus, genera and 42 species ...
, but the
cobra Cobra is the common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is someti ...

cobra
s were positioned behind
plexiglas Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as acrylic, acrylic glass, or plexiglass, as well as by the trade names Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Astariglas, Lucite, Perclax, and Perspex, among several others (#Names, see below), is a transpare ...
to protect the cast and crew. The stage doors were kept open during filming for quick access to a waiting ambulance. Spielberg recounted that Allen was so scared she could not scream on cue. He dropped a dead serpent on her to elicit a genuine reaction. Allen said she got used to the creatures after 3–4 days. Animal handler Steve Edge donned a dress and shaved his legs to stand in for Allen at specific points. Vivian Kubrick's complaint to the RSPCA about the perceived poor treatment of the snakes required production to cease while safeguards were added. Reynolds and production artist Ron Cobb created the BV-38 flying wing based on the , the
Northrop N-1M The Northrop N-1M (''Northrop Model 1 Mockup''), also known by the nickname "Jeep", was an American experimental aircraft used in the development of the flying wing concept by Northrop Aircraft during the 1940s. Design and development Jack N ...

Northrop N-1M
and the
Vought V-173 The Vought V-173 "Flying Pancake" was an United States, American experimental test aircraft built as part of the Vought XF5U "Flying Flapjack program" during World War II. Both the V-173 and the XF5U featured an unorthodox "all-wing" design consi ...

Vought V-173
. Constructed by the British engineering firm
Vickers Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 1999. History Early history Vickers was formed in Sheffield as a steel foundry by Edward Vickers and his father-in-law George Naylor (busines ...

Vickers
, it was dismantled and shipped to Tunisia. It was not designed to be flight-worthy, only to serve as a source of danger from its propellers. The plane was abandoned in Tunisia and slowly dismantled over the following decade by souvenir hunters before being demolished. The fight between Jones and the German underneath the plane was mainly improvised; Spielberg had to restrain himself from making it too long as each new idea led to another. During the fight, the moving vehicle rolled over Ford's foot and towards his knee before it was stopped. It took 40 crew members to move it off of him. He avoided injury through a combination of the extreme Tunisian heat making the tire soft and the ground being covered in sand. Dysentery had left the production with a lack of stuntmen, and Spielberg had Marshall stand in as the flying wing pilot. The three-day shoot was one of Spielberg's more difficult scenes to film, and he was reported saying he wanted to go home. Second unit director Michael D. Moore filmed most of the truck chase. Spielberg had not used a second director before but agreed to it as the scene would take a long time to film being set in multiple locations. Moore completed wider shots where stuntmen stood in for Ford. He closely followed Spielberg's storyboarding but innovated a few shots Spielberg considered improvements. Stuntman Glenn Randall suggested the scene of Jones traversing the underside of the truck. Ford sat in a concealed bicycle seat attached to the truck underside when clinging to its front. One of the convoy cars going over a cliff was a combination of matte painting background and
stop motion Stop motion is an animation, animated filmmaking technique in which objects are physically manipulated in small increments between individually photographed frames so that they will appear to exhibit independent motion or change when the series ...

stop motion
animation of miniature figures falling out of the car.


Special effects

Lucas'
Industrial Light & Magic Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) is an American Film, motion picture visual effects company that was founded in May 1975 by George Lucas. It is a division of the film production company Lucasfilm, which Lucas founded, and was created when Lucas beg ...
(ILM) handled the film's special effects, under the supervision of Richard Edlund. The team worked on both ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' and the dark fantasy '' Dragonslayer'' (1981). He felt special effects were a financially economical method of delivering a good film; as long as they were emotionally involved in the story, he said audiences would buy into even a poor special effect. Spielberg liked practical effects because he could regularly check the
raw footage ''Raw Footage'' is the eighth studio album by American Rapping, rapper Ice Cube. It was released on August 19, 2008, by his record label Lench Mob Records and EMI. The album features guest appearances from The Game (rapper), The Game, Butch Cass ...
during filming, rather than waiting months for the completed composite effects. Freeman said he had no idea what was happening when he opened the Ark. He was told to imagine something coming towards him and to scream. Special effects artist Steve Gawley created the Ark's spirits by suspending small robed puppets in a clouded water tank in front of a . They were shaken to create a natural movement that was composited into the live footage. A Lucasfilm receptionist, dressed in a long white robe, was suspended in the air in front of a blue screen for the close-up of the ghost. She was filmed moving away from the camera and the footage was reversed to create an inhuman movement. Her visage was composited with a skeletal model for the monstrous transformation. Freeman, Lacey, and Kahler's death scenes were created using different models. A mold was made of Kahler's face; it was lined with bladders filled with air. Controlled by up to ten people, the air was removed to make the head shrivel. Special effects artist
Chris Walas Chris Walas (born 1955) is an United States, American special effects/make-up artist and film director. Biography His main body of work is with special effects in a wide variety of films, from science fiction film, science fiction to action-advent ...

Chris Walas
sculpted Lacey's melting face using different colored layers of gelatin placed over a carved, heat-resistant stone skull. Propane heaters were used to melt the gelatin and filmed using a slower-than-normal camera so the effect appears to take place rapidly when played at normal speed. Belloq's head mold contained a thin-plaster skull filled with blood bags and detritus. It was blown up using explosives, shotguns, and an air cannon. It took three attempts to get the desired effect. Belloq's death was considered so extreme the Motion Picture Association of America initially classified the film with an R rating restricting it to those over the age of 17 without an adult. Flames were superimposed over the scene to conceal the effect. Kasdan scripted detailed montages during the transition between locations, but Spielberg saved money by showing a map and an animated line traveling between destinations. Skulls and rotting bodies made by chief make-up artist
Tom SmithTom Smith may refer to: Sports *Tom Smith (horse trainer) (1878–1957), American thoroughbred racehorse trainer of Seabiscuit *Tom Smith (second baseman) (1851–1889), Major League player *Tom Smith (pitcher) (1871–1929), Major League player ...
filled the Well of Souls catacombs. To get the monkey to perform a
Nazi salute The Nazi salute, Hitler salute (german: link=no, Hitlergruß, , Hitler greeting, , , also called in german: link=no, deutscher Gruß, , German greeting, IPA: , , by the Nazi Party), or ''Sieg Heil'' salute, is a gesture that was used as a greeti ...
, the trainer hit it on the head to make it touch the affected area. When this did not work, the filmmakers hung a grape over its head to encourage it to reach up; it took 50 takes to capture. A partially deaf rat was used for the scene of the ark humming in the hold of the ''Bantu Wind'', giving it a unique and unnatural head movement.


Visuals and sound

Matte painting :''For the technique used in photography and special effects filmmaking to combine two or more image elements into a single, final image, see Matte (filmmaking)''. 250px, The government warehouse in '' Raiders of the Lost Ark'' (1981) was painted ...
s were used to create more elaborate backgrounds: these included the establishing shot of Marion's Nepalese bar and the warehouse where the Ark is later stored, the latter painted by Michael Pangrazio. Spielberg disliked the painting of the
China Clipper ''China Clipper'' (NC14716) was the first of three Martin M-130 The Martin M-130 was a commercial flying boat designed and built in 1935 by the Glenn L. Martin Company in Baltimore, Maryland Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the List of municipa ...

China Clipper
plane (by Alan Maley) as he did not think it looked real against the water they had filmed. Jones' attire—a leather jacket and khaki pants—was based on
Humphrey Bogart Humphrey DeForest Bogart (; December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957), nicknamed Bogie, was an American film and stage actor. His performances in Classical Hollywood cinema Classical Hollywood cinema is a term used in film criticism Film c ...
's in '' The Treasure of the Sierra Madre'' (1948) and
Charlton Heston Charlton Heston (born John Charles Carter; October 4, 1923April 5, 2008) was an American actor and political activist. As a Hollywood star, he appeared in almost 100 films over the course of 60 years. He played Moses in the epic film ''The Ten ...

Charlton Heston
in ''
Secret of the Incas ''Secret of the Incas'' is a 1954 adventure film Adventure films are a genre of film whose plots feature elements of travel. They typically involve protagonists who must leave their home or place of comfort and go to far away lands to fulfill ...
'' (1954). Costume designer Deborah Nadoolman Landis dumped boxes of hats on the floor for Ford to try on. After picking the right style, she purchased an Australian model she aged with
Fuller's earth Fuller's earth is any clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil File:Stagnogley.JPG, Surface-water-Gley soil, gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, an ...
and
mineral oil Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes Higher alkanes are alkanes having nine or more carbon atoms. Nonane is the lightest alkane to have a flash point above 25 °C, and is not classified as da ...
, and then scrunched beneath a bed. The hat allowed them to create a recognizable image even in silhouette. Designer
Ralph McQuarrie Ralph Angus McQuarrie (; June 13, 1929 – March 3, 2012) was an American conceptual designer and illustrator. His career included work on the original ''Star Wars'' trilogy, the original ''Battlestar Galactica ''Battlestar Galactica'' is an ...

Ralph McQuarrie
was responsible for the Ark decorations. Spielberg wanted a moodier
film noir Film noir (; ) is a cinematic term used primarily to describe stylish Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language Englis ...
lighting style like in '' The Informer'' (1935). In contrast, Slocombe wanted to make things brighter and used backlighting to create a greater depth of field; Spielberg preferred his changes. Slocombe often employed natural light, using solar position predictions to plot a scene's layout. Spielberg liked the beams of sunlight glimpsed through scenery and tasked special effects artist Kit West with using a smoke machine to create artificial sunlight shards. For the bar fight, Spielberg wanted pitch-black shadows on the wall, but the lighting required to achieve this would have shrouded the actors' eyes; he settled for subtler shadings. He also wanted to illuminate the Well of Souls with a lighting effect through the ceiling opening, but once this was sealed it no longer made sense. The flaming torches used in the scene did not provide enough light, so he opted to use an artificial light source. Spielberg noted Allen always looked beautiful in her scenes because Slocombe would spend twice as long setting up her lighting as he would Ford's. Sound effects supervisor
Ben Burtt Benjamin Burtt Jr. (born July 12, 1948) is an American sound designer, film editor Film editing is both a creative and a technical part of the post-production process of filmmaking. The term is derived from the traditional process of working w ...
recorded the film's many sounds. The snake slithering is a mix of Burtt running his hands through cheese casserole and wet sponges being dragged across grip tape; the rolling boulder is a
Honda Civic The is a series of automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on Track (rail ...

Honda Civic
driving down a gravel hill; and the Ark lid opening is the sound of a toilet cistern being opened. The Ark spirits are the cries of sea lions and dolphins filtered through a
vocoder A vocoder (, a contraction (grammar), contraction of ''voice'' and ''encoder'') is a Speech coding#Categories, category of voice codec that Synthesizer#Analysis/resynthesis, analyzes and synthesizes the human voice signal for audio data compress ...

vocoder
. Jones' revolver is the sound of a
Winchester rifle Winchester rifle is a comprehensive term describing a series of lever-action repeating rifles manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company. Developed from the 1860 Henry rifle The Henry repeating rifle is a lever-action tubular magazi ...

Winchester rifle
firing, while his whip-crack was made by recording Ford using the whip.


Release


Context

By the summer of 1981 (June–September), the film industry had been in decline for over a year. This was the result of few box office successes, rising film production costs, diminishing audiences, and increasing ticket prices. The season was predicted to be down 10% or $250million against the previous year. Over 60 films were scheduled for release—more than the previous year—by studios eager to make the next
blockbuster Blockbuster may refer to: Corporations * Blockbuster LLC, a defunct video and game rental chain TV and entertainment * Blockbuster (entertainment), any very successful movie, theatrical play, etc. * Blockbusters (American game show), ''Blockbuste ...
film. This increased competition to attract audiences, mainly those aged 12 to 24, at the most profitable time of the year. The superhero film ''
Superman II ''Superman II'' is a 1980 superhero film directed by Richard Lester and written by Mario Puzo and David Newman (screenwriter), David and Leslie Newman from a story by Puzo based on the DC Comics character Superman. It is the second installment in ...
'' was expected to dominate the season, and based on industry experts and audience polling, films including ''
History of the World, Part I ''History of the World, Part I'' is a 1981 American sketch comedy, sketch comedy film written, produced, and directed by Mel Brooks. Brooks also stars in the film, playing five roles: Moses, Comicus the Stand-up comedy, stand-up philosopher, ...
'', the latest James Bond film, '' For Your Eyes Only'' and ''
The Great Muppet Caper ''The Great Muppet Caper'' is a 1981 Musical film, musical heist film, heist comedy film, comedy directed by Jim Henson (in his feature directorial debut). It is the second theatrical film in The Muppets (franchise), ''The Muppets'' franchise. Th ...
'', were also expected to perform well. Conversely, audience polling by
CinemaScore CinemaScore is a firm based in . It surveys film audiences to rate their viewing experiences with letter grades, reports the results, and forecasts box office receipts based on the data. Background Ed Mintz founded CinemaScore in 1979 after di ...

CinemaScore
showed little awareness or anticipation for ''Raiders'' until nationwide previews a week before its release. ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'' reported Paramount had provided theater owners with a more beneficial deal than usual to ensure ''Raiders'' was screened in the best theaters and locations. Featuring two camels, an elephant, and a python, the press event for the film cost $10,000. Film prints were supplied to theaters in lead-sealed containers to prevent tampering alongside a letter to theater managers stating they were responsible for any misuse of the film. This letter inspired a whistleblower at one theater to alert Paramount of the planned theft of a ''Raiders'' print to make pirated copies. The 1,200 film prints cost an estimated $1.7million. The theatrical release poster was created by
Richard Amsel Richard Amsel (December 4, 1947 – November 13, 1985) was an American illustrator and graphic designer. His career was brief but prolific, including movie posters, album covers, and magazine covers. His portrait of comedian Lily Tomlin for the c ...
.


Box office

In the United States (U.S.) and Canada, ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' was released on June12, 1981, in 1,078 theaters. The film earned $8.3million—an average of $7,705 per theater, and finished as the number one film of the weekend, ahead of the debuts of '' Clash of the Titans'' ($6.6million) and ''History of the World, Part I'' ($4.9million). The film fell to the number three position in its second weekend with an additional gross of $8million—a decline of only four percent—behind the debuts of ''
The Cannonball Run ''The Cannonball Run'' is a 1981 action comedy film. It was directed by Hal Needham, produced by Hong Kong's Orange Sky Golden Harvest, Golden Harvest films, and distributed by 20th Century Fox. Filmed in Panavision, it features an all-star suppo ...
'' ($11.8million) and ''Superman II'' ($14.1million). By its fourth week, ''Raiders'' began climbing box office charts, reaching the number two position with a gross of $7.3million, behind ''Superman II'' ($10.9million). In its sixth week, it regained the number one position with $6.4million. The film spent most of the following nine weeks as the number one film, and forty-weeks straight as one of the top ten highest-grossing films. It was declared the top box office film of the summer by early September, with a total approximate gross of $125million. Of this figure, $72 million was estimated to have been returned to the studio; the profit-sharing deal with Spielberg and Lucas meant that after marketing costs, Paramount had earned $23million in profit. The film remained a steady success; six months after its release, industry executives joked ''Raiders'' would be the year's big Christmas film. The film officially left theaters on March18, 1982, although some were still playing it by July. ''Raiders'' earned an approximate total box office gross of $212.2million, making it the highest-grossing film of 1981, ahead of '' On Golden Pond'' ($119.3million), ''Superman II'' ($108.1million), and '' Stripes'' ($85.3million). An estimate by
Box Office Mojo Box Office Mojo is an American website that tracks box-office A box office or ticket office is a place where tickets are sold to the public for admission to an event. Patrons may perform the transaction at a countertop A stainless steel c ...
suggests over 77million tickets were bought to see the film. ''Raiders'' remains the "leggiest" film ever released, referring to the difference between the highest-weekend gross and the time taken to achieve the overall total gross. Outside the U.S. and Canada, ''Raiders'' earned a further $141.7million, making it the highest-grossing film ahead of ''For Your Eyes Only'' ($140.5million) and ''Superman II'' ($82.2million). In total, the film earned a worldwide gross of $354million, making it the highest-grossing film of 1981 worldwide, again ahead of ''For Your Eyes Only'' ($195.3million) and ''Superman II'' ($190.4million). ''Raiders'' has been re-released several times, first in July 1982, when it earned an additional $21.4million and again in March 1983, when the film earned an additional $11.4million. A remastered
IMAX IMAX is a proprietary system of high-resolution cameras, film format A film format is a technical definition of a set of standard characteristics regarding image capture on photographic film Photographic film is a strip or sheet of ...

IMAX
version, supervised by Spielberg, was released in 267 U.S. and Canadian theaters. The success of the release led to the run being extended to 300 additional theaters. These releases have raised the film's worldwide theatrical gross to an estimated $389.9million. The record $1.95billion summer box-office of 1981 represented a 15.6% increase over 1980, with a 22.5% increase in ticket sales. This success was attributed mainly to ''Raiders'' and ''Superman II''. The most successful film genres of the year offered fun, comedy, and escapism. ''Superman II'' broke box office records, but it was ''Raiders'' that earned the most money and played in theaters for over a year. ''The New York Times'' reported that audiences considered other films only if both ''Superman II'' and ''Raiders'' were sold out. It became one of the top-four highest-grossing films ever, a list dominated by Lucas and Spielberg with ''The Empire Strikes Back'', ''Jaws'', and ''Star Wars''.


Reception


Critical response

''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' was released to general acclaim by critics and audiences. The
National Board of Review The National Board of Review of Motion Pictures is an organization in the United States dedicated to discussing and selecting what its members regard as the best film works of each year. Origins The National Board of Review of Motion Picture ...
and critic
Vincent Canby Vincent Canby (July 27, 1924 – October 15, 2000) was an American film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, fee ...
listed it as one of the ten best films of the year. Canby labelled the film an "instant classic" and one of the most humorous and stylish American films ever made. He described it as having refined the old serial films into their most perfect form for a modern audience.
Roger Ebert Roger Joseph Ebert (; June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American Film criticism, film critic, film historian, journalist, screenwriter, and author. He was a film critic for the ''Chicago Sun-Times'' from 1967 until his death in 2013. In ...

Roger Ebert
called it a series of "breathless and incredible" adventures inspired by and celebrating childhood stories told in comic books and movies. He concluded the film was successful in its singular goal of entertaining, creating an adventure epic in the vein of ''Star Wars'', the
James Bond films The List of James Bond films, James Bond film series is a British series of spy films based on the fictional character of Secret Intelligence Service, MI6 agent James Bond filmography, James Bond, "007", who originally appeared in a List of Jam ...
, and ''Superman''. Writing for ''
The Hollywood Reporter ''The Hollywood Reporter'' (''THR'') is an American digital and print magazine, and website, which focuses on the Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard d ...
'', Arthur Knight said a constant stream of thrills kept the film moving at a steady pace. Writing for ''
Variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of algebraic structures defined by equations in universal algebra Hort ...
'', Stephen Klain called the film "exhilarating escapist entertainment". He continued that the film successfully balanced action, comedy, and suspense with mystical mythologies.
Michael Sragow Michael Sragow (born June 26, 1952 in New York) is a film critic and columnist who has written for ''The Orange County Register The ''Orange County Register'' is a paid daily newspaper published in California. The ''Register,'' published in An ...
described it as the "ultimate Saturday action matinee".
Gene Siskel Eugene Kal Siskel (January 26, 1946 – February 20, 1999) was an American film critic Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films and the film medium. In general, film criticism can be divided into two categories: journalistic ...
said it was as entertaining as a "commercial movie" could be, the kind of film that makes children excited about cinema.
Richard Schickel Richard Warren Schickel (February 10, 1933 – February 18, 2017) was an American film historian Although the advent of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulat ...
called it a return to form for Spielberg, demonstrating a competence not seen since ''Jaws''. He described it as a film
Walt Disney Walter Elias Disney (; December 5, 1901December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, writer, voice actor, and film producer. A pioneer of the American animation industry, he introduced several developments in the production of ...
would have made were he still alive, featuring an "enchanting" combination of fantasy and cinematic movement.
Stanley Kauffmann Stanley Kauffmann (April 24, 1916 – October 9, 2013) was an American author An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is also considered a writer. More broadly defined, an author is "the person w ...
said while the film's thrills did work on him, the frequency eventually irritated him. He criticized the film's reliance on nostalgia and updating older films instead of innovating new ideas.
Pauline Kael Pauline Kael (; June 19, 1919 – September 3, 2001) was an American film critic Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art Th ...
was critical of the film, saying Lucas and Spielberg had thought like marketeers, in creating a film that would appeal to the broadest masses. Kael said though ''Raiders'' was a sophisticated update of older serials, avoiding cliches with clever editing, it was too focused on surpassing each previous action spectacle to the detriment of characterization or plot progression. She opined the failure of ''1941'' had made Spielberg too cautious, and scenes evidenced he was rushing and not achieving the best possible take as in his previous work. Lucas later named a villain in his 1988 fantasy film ''
Willow Willows, also called sallows and osiers, from the genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining ( ...
'' after Kael.
Dave Kehr David Kehr (born 1953) is an American film critic. For many years a critic at the ''Chicago Reader The ''Chicago Reader'', or ''Reader'' (stylized as ЯEADER), is an American alternative weeklyAn alternative newspaper is a type of newspaper ...
said the constant rush between setpieces felt monotonous. He also criticized the story for allowing the hero to choose to rescue the Ark over his romantic interest on multiple occasions, believing it made Indiana Jones difficult to support. The principal cast was generally well-received. Ebert said the amusing and unusual characters elevated the film beyond just a technical accomplishment. He described Ford's performance as taciturn and stubborn character in the vein of Humphrey Bogart in ''The Treasure of the Sierra Madre'', but with the ability to laugh at himself. Klain said Ford's performance was "riveting", marking a major career highlight. Canby described Ford and Allen as both "endearingly resilient". Ebert said Allen gives Marion a charming toughness. Knight appreciated Marion did not become idiotic when the male star was in danger. His review concluded the character was the definition of an
activist Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, direct, or intervene in social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whe ...

activist
. Sragow said Allen's physical performance made her every bit the equal of Ford, and her vitality provided a positive counter to Ford's deadpan performance. Kael was critical of many cast performances, feeling they were stilted and heavily scripted. She singled out Freeman for praise, however, for continuing his performance after a fly crawled into his mouth; Freeman jokingly called it the best review of his career. Klain called Lacey's Toht one of the most offensive Nazi stereotypes seen in cinema since World War II. However, he praised Rhys-Davies' and Elliott's performances. Several reviewers singled out the opening of the Ark as one of the film's best special effects. Knight said the effects artists deserved a "special accolade" for their work. Canby described it as a visual display as "dazzling" as the denouement of Spielberg's ''Close Encounters of the Third Kind''. Ebert said the truck chase stunt was the best he had ever seen, ahead of those in films like ''
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'' (1968) and '' The French Connection'' (1971).
Aljean Harmetz Aljean Meltsir Harmetz (born December 30, 1929) is an American journalist and film historian. She was the Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English, Hiberno-English, Hibernian English, Australian English ...
, Klain, and Siskel asserted the film's PG rating—meaning any child could see it unsupervised—was too lenient for such a scary film filled with a variety of on-screen deaths. An intermediate rating between PG and R, PG-13, would not be introduced until 1984, in part a response to the violence of the Indiana Jones prequel, ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom''. Some children were reported to have suffered nightmares afterward.


Awards and accolades

At the 1982
Academy Awards The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., ...
, ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' received five awards: Best Art Direction (Norman Reynolds, Leslie Dilley, and Michael D. Ford); Best Film Editing (Michael Kahn);
Best SoundThis is a list of categories of awards commonly awarded through organizations that bestow List of film awards, film awards, including those presented by various film, festivals, and people's awards. Best Actor/Best Actress *See Best Actor#Film award ...
( Bill Varney, Steve Maslow, Gregg Landaker, and Roy Charman); Best Sound Editing (Ben Burtt and Richard L. Anderson); and Best Visual Effects (Richard Edlund, Kit West, Bruce Nicholson, and Joe Johnston). The film received a further four nominations: Academy Award for Best Picture, Best Picture; Academy Award for Best Director, Best Director; Academy Award for Best Cinematography, Best Cinematography; and Academy Award for Best Original Score, Best Original Score. It tied with the drama film ''Ragtime (film), Ragtime'' for the third-most nominations, behind ''On Golden Pond'' and ''Reds''. For the 39th Golden Globe Awards, ''Raiders'' received one nomination for Golden Globe Award for Best Director, Best Director. At the 9th Saturn Awards, ''Raiders'' won seven awards, including Saturn Award for Best Fantasy Film, Best Fantasy Film, Saturn Award for Best Actor, Best Actor (Ford), Saturn Award for Best Actress, Best Actress (Allen), Saturn Award for Best Director, Best Director, Saturn Award for Best Music, Best Music (Williams), Saturn Award for Best Writing, Best Writing (Kasdan), and Saturn Award for Best Special Effects, Best Special Effects (Edlund). Spielberg received a 34th Directors Guild of America Awards, Directors Guild Award nomination. The 35th British Academy Film Awards earned the film one award for BAFTA Award for Best Production Design, Best Production Design (Reynolds), and a further six nominations: BAFTA Award for Best Film, Best Film; BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role, Best Supporting Actor for Elliott; BAFTA Award for Best Original Music, Best Original Music; BAFTA Award for Best Cinematography, Best Cinematography; BAFTA Award for Best Editing, Best Editing; and Best Sound for Charman, Burtt, and Bill Varney. The film also received a Grammy Award for Best Score Soundtrack for Visual Media, Grammy Award for Williams' score, a 8th People's Choice Awards, People's Choice Award for Favorite Motion Picture, a Hugo Award for Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, Best Dramatic Presentation, and a nomination for Writers Guild of America Award for Best Original Screenplay, Best Original Screenplay at the 34th Writers Guild of America Awards.


Post-release


Home media

In the early 1980s, the Videocassette recorder (VCR) home video market was rapidly gaining popularity. In previous years, VHS sales were not a revenue source for studios, but by 1983 they could generate up to 13% of a film's total revenue; the U.S. and Canadian cassette rights could generate $500,000 alone. In November 1983, Paramount released a record 500,000 home video copies of ''Raiders'', priced at $39.95. Paramount priced their home videos significantly lower than their competition, reasoning it would broaden the sales audience and promote home video watching. By September 1985, over one million copies of the film had sold, making it the best-selling VHS of its time. In 1991, McDonald's launched possibly "the largest video sales promotion...to date" during which videocassettes of the first three Indiana Jones movies were sold at their restaurants for $5.99 each. Almost 10 million cassettes of the Indiana Jones series had been sold by this point. This promotion was expected to sell at least 5 million more. By 2000, the film was marketed as ''Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark'' for consistency with other titles in the franchise. In 2003, the film was released on DVD-Video, DVD as a bundle with its then-two sequels. Like the VHS, it was a success, selling over one million units and becoming the fastest-selling DVD box set. This set introduced additional materials including ''Making the Films'', a two-hour documentary about the making of the films including deleted scenes, and ''Behind the Scenes'', a series of archival featurettes. The film and its sequels were released as a collection on Blu-ray disc in 2012, as ''Indiana Jones: The Complete Adventures''. Spielberg worked on the films' restoration for the higher-quality format. This release included the additional content of previous releases. For its 40th anniversary in 2021, the film was released in a remastered 4K resolution Ultra-high-definition television, Ultra HD Blu-ray based on the original film negative, as part of a boxset including the series' other films.


Other media

''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' has been represented across a wide variety of merchandise, including comic books, video games, novels, Lego Indiana Jones, Lego sets, action figures and vehicles, playsets, candles, and board games. It has received several game adaptations. ''Raiders of the Lost Ark (video game), Raiders of the Lost Ark'' was released in 1982 for the Atari 2600 console. A pinball game, ''Indiana Jones: The Pinball Adventure'', was released in 1993, and a platform game, ''Indiana Jones' Greatest Adventures'', was released for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System the following year. ''Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine'' (1999) includes a bonus level that returns players to the Peruvian temple. The Lego-themed adventure game ''Lego Indiana Jones: The Original Adventures'' (2008) and its 2009 sequel ''Lego Indiana Jones 2: The Adventure Continues'' represent the film and its sequels. A 1984 boardgame, ''The Adventures of Indiana Jones Role-Playing Game, The Adventures of Indiana Jones role playing game'', was poorly received, and when the manufacturer lost the license later that decade, all remaining copies had to be burned. All that remained from the destruction were encased in plastic and turned into the Diana Jones Award—"...diana Jones" being the only legible part of the burnt remains. A novelization of the film, written by Campbell Armstrong, Campbell Black, was released in 1981. The book was a worldwide sales success and included details not present in the film. Among them is Marion was aged 15 when she and Jones began their relationship, the staff of Ra headpiece has explicit instructions not to look at the opened Ark, and Brody finds Jones at home after having just entertained one of his students. Black, who was paid $35,000 plus royalties, sued Lucasfilm in 2005 for not paying him his percentage of the book sales profits. Marvel Comics produced a comic book adaptation of the film shortly after its release. The Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular! is a live amusement show at Walt Disney World Resort, Florida, that has been in operation since 1989. It features several live stunts based on set pieces from the film. ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' was also one of several films that made up the Great Movie Ride (1989–2017).


Thematic analysis


Rejection of Nazism

''Raiders'' can be interpreted as a Jewish fantasy about punishing the Nazis for the Holocaust. Spielberg is Jewish, and the Ark is a Jewish artifact described as holding the Ten Commandments passed down to the Jewish people by God. In biblical descriptions, the Ark is a gold-plated wooden box that must be carried with poles because it is too holy to be touched. Although the Nazi regime persecuted the Jewish people, in the film, they needed to use a Jewish artifact to subjugate the world; however, the artifact was too pure and holy for them to touch and actively rejected them by destroying their symbol emblazoned on the Ark's transportation crate while leaving the crate itself unharmed. Eventually, it also destroys the Nazi forces that open it. The Nazis are stopped by the literal intervention of Godly power that leaves the perceived protagonists unharmed. In another scene, Jones falls underneath a moving truck when its hood-ornament, a Mercedes logo, snaps, mocking Mercedes' involvement in aiding the Nazis. Elizabeth Hirschman identified elements of the metaphysics, metaphysical, believing the standard heroic quest was offset by the religious importance of the Ark, an item of Judeo-Christian belief. The image of God is one that is inherently on the side of the good, and the destruction of the Nazi villains draws parallels to Yahweh visiting Plagues of Egypt, plagues on Egypt for enslaving the Israelites.


Cinematic homage and nostalgia

''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' is a pastiche of cinematic history, inspired by and referencing many films. Spielberg stated explicitly the film is about movies and designed as a tribute to filmmaking. Alongside directly referenced inspirations like early 20th-century serials, the film contains references to ''Citizen Kane'' (1941), the film noir ''Kiss Me Deadly'' (1955), the Samurai cinema, samurai film ''Yojimbo'' (1961), and the epic ''Lawrence of Arabia (film), Lawrence of Arabia'' (1962), among others. ''Citizen Kane'' is referenced directly in ''Raiders''s last scene where the Ark is secured in a vast warehouse, a fate similar to that of the beloved childhood sled belonging to ''Citizen Kane''s principal character. ''Raiders'' also references several of Lucas' own films: the translation of the German U-boat announcement is "1138", a reference to science fiction film ''THX 1138'' (1971); and numerous nods to ''Star Wars'' including the characters of R2-D2 and C-3PO appearing as hieroglyphics inside the Well of Souls. Richard Crinkley recounted audience members of ''King David (film), King David'' (1985) associated its use of the Ark explicitly with ''Raiders'' instead of its biblical origins. He deemed this an example of "cinemate visual literacy", an increasing number of people educated by visual media rather than text. A common theme shared by ''Raiders'' and another 1981 film, ''Superman II'', is American security is at risk. These films are emblematic of their time and the contemporary fears of American citizens. The Nazi characters are based on a former threat to America, and like ''Superman II'', ''Raiders'' requires the intervention of a superhuman, fantasy character to prevent destruction at the hands of enemy forces—a character audiences can admire, but never possibly emulate. Janet Maslin argues the fantasy of these films and the larger-than-life characters are designed to satisfy audiences who do not want to reflect on the world around them. Jones is striving to recover the Ark both to stop the Nazis but also for personal glory, but the film never dwells on the regular people around the world who would be affected by an invincible Nazi army. ''Raiders'' offers a counter to the American national embarrassments of its defeat in the Vietnam War (1955–1975), the political scandal of Watergate scandal, Watergate (1972), a Early 1980s recession, recession, and the growing influence of foreign nations. The period setting of the film also presents audiences with a time tinged in romantic nostalgia and filled with the possibility for adventure. Robin Wood wrote that ''Raiders'', ''Superman'', and ''Star Wars'' provide a familiar, comforting content using the nostalgic memories of the older serial films of which they are derivative, presenting an idealized vision of older traditional values. Wood opined the purpose of this was to subdue contemporary radical social movements eager for change. Jennifer Barker suggested ''Raiders'' offers audiences what they want, and does not challenge their values or beliefs as anything but correct.


Masculinity and colonialism

The macho male action hero archetype of the era, conveyed by Jones, can also be seen as reinforcing traditional masculinity in the face of growing feminism. Describing the typical interpretation of this archetype, Latham Hunter said films such as ''Raiders'', ''Lethal Weapon'' (1987), and ''Die Hard'' (1988) evolve the everyman character into someone who can overcome impossible odds and promote American might. Jones is an American hero who steps in reluctantly to save the world by overcoming almost exclusively foreign enemies. Barker argued Jones is an individualist placed in opposition to a fascist or totalitarian regime, making ''Raiders'' a "conservative serial fantasy" film. Hunter believed this focus on masculinity was short-sighted, and these films succeeded because they offered escapism from reality, and presented an outclassed hero who reflected the audiences' own feelings of powerlessness. Jones has been criticized as a poor portrayal of an archaeologist and that his actions amount to theft. Archaeologist Winifred Creamer described Jones as the "worst thing to happen to archaeology" as he "walks a fine line between what's an archaeologist and what's a professional looter." Kevin McGeough wrote that the archetypal film archaeologist in older films was never the hero, but often a subject to be saved or conquered by the actual hero. Jones is imbued with the self-reliance and physical competence of the traditional hero, but with an intelligence that is recognized and celebrated, setting him apart from older heroes. Even so, Jones is hunting the Ark, in part, for personal glory attached to its recovery. When given the opportunity to destroy it to prevent its misuse, Belloq calls his bluff and Jones backs down. Belloq suggests he is a skewed reflection of Jones, and only a small change would turn Jones into Belloq. In her argument that the film is about colonialism, Tatiana Prorokova identified Jones and the Nazis as all-Caucasian males invading foreign lands, belonging to people of color, to steal a local treasure for their own personal benefit. In dismissing the supernatural aspects of the Ark, Jones also dismisses its cultural significance, rendering it a prize to be collected for his sake. As the hero, Jones represents the United States' unfettered right to protect the Ark from others. Although according to the film Indiana is named after his childhood dog, Prorokova insists that the hero is named for the U.S. state of Indiana, a state named after wars against Native Americans by colonizers. ''Raiders'' is set at a time when much of the world lived under colonial rule, and the film presents the non-white characters either as subjugated by the Nazis and reliant on a white American for aid or as collaborating with the Nazis.


Legacy

''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' has had a lasting impact on popular culture. It is considered a touchstone (metaphor), touchstone of modern cinema, creating a film framework still emulated by other films. Spielberg has said he considers it the most perfect film of the series because he never wanted to modify it or change anything about it. Ford's performance led to his casting in the 1982 science fiction Cult following, cult classic film ''Blade Runner''. Kasdan became one of the most in-demand writers in Hollywood, and helped write Lucas' ''Star Wars'' sequel, ''The Empire Strikes Back'' (1980). Despite opening new opportunities for Allen, she expressed disappointment with the film because her character was motivated more by her relationship with Jones and financial gain than with her father and his obsession with the Ark. She unsuccessfully lobbied for rewrites to address this and explore her character further. Even so, Allen affirmed that many women and girls had appreciated and been inspired by her character. 40 years after the film's release, Allen affirmed she still received positive feedback from young women. Shortly after the film's release, Stanley Rader and Robert Lawrence Kuhn, Robert Kuhn filed a lawsuit against the filmmakers for $210million alleging the film was based on ''Ark'', a screenplay and unpublished novel by Kuhn. The outcome of this lawsuit is unknown. The film led to an increase in students studying archaeology, and many modern archaeologists have cited the film as an inspiration. Rhys-Davies said he had met over 150 lecturers, professors, and archaeologists who told him their interest in the field began with the film. The original Indiana Jones costume hat and jacket were stored indiscriminately after filming, at Lucas' Skywalker Ranch, until 2012. Nadoolman Landis recovered the items to be exhibited as part of a Hollywood costume display at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.


Cultural impact

In 1999, the United States
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order ...

Library of Congress
selected the film to be preserved in the
National Film Registry The National Film Registry (or NFR for short) is the United States National Film Preservation Board The United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contigu ...
for being culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant. Assessing the film's legacy in 1997, Bernard Weinraub, opined "the decline in the traditional family G-rated film, for 'general' audiences, probably began..." with ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. He continued, "whether by accident or design... the filmmakers made a comic nonstop action film intended mostly for adults but also for children". Lucas' frequent collaborator Gary Kurtz said that ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' marked the turning point where Lucas became convinced that audiences cared more about "the roller-coaster ride" than the story. Several filmmakers have spoken of their appreciation for ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' or cited it as an inspiration in their own careers, including Chris Carter (screenwriter), Chris Carter, Simon Kinberg, Jon Turteltaub, Dan Brown and Joe Johnston. The experience had an explicit influence on Johnston's directorial effort ''Captain America: The First Avenger'' (2011), including character designs. Director Steven Soderbergh released a black-and-white edit of the film in 2014, removing all the original sounds, intending for viewers to focus on Spielberg's staging and editing. During the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, it was among the action films director James Gunn recommended people watch, and one of the 35 films recommended by ''The Independent''. The film has inspired or been referenced in other media including film, television shows, and video games. Between 1982 and 1989, in Ocean Springs, Mississippi, children Chris Strompolos, Eric Zala, and Jayson Lamb made an amateur remake of the film, ''Raiders of the Lost Ark: The Adaptation''. Spielberg congratulated the trio on their accomplishment.


Critical reassessment

''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' is considered one of the greatest films ever made. As part of his ''The Great Movies'' series, Ebert said while the special effects had not aged well, they were perfect for this type of film. He concluded it was a "whiz-bang slamarama" made with "heedless joy". The British Film Institute called it one of the 10 greatest action films of all time, saying "for all its barnstorming staging and Boys' Own, boy's-own-adventure larks, it's refreshing Indy's greatest foil comes in three dimensions... the hard-drinking, wise-cracking, upstagingly brilliant Karen Allen". A 2014 poll of 2,120 entertainment-industry members by ''The Hollywood Reporter'' ranked it the thirteenth best film ever made. It is also listed in the film reference book ''1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die''. The website's critical consensus reads, "Featuring bravura set pieces, sly humor, and white-knuckle action, ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' is one of the most consummately entertaining adventure pictures of all time." The film has a score of 85 out of 100 on Metacritic based on 15 critics, indicating "universal acclaim". In 2005, the Writers Guild of America's (WGA) listed the film's screenplay as the forty-second greatest screenplay of the preceding 75 years on their 101 Greatest Screenplays list. ''Empire (film magazine), Empire'' listed the film at number two on its 2008 list of the 500 Greatest Movies of All Time, behind the 1972 crime film ''The Godfather''. They said, "no adventure movie is quite so efficiently entertaining". In 1997, the American Film Institute (AFI) ranked ''Raiders'' number60 on its AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies, 100 Years...100 Movies list recognizing the best American films. They reassessed to number66 in the 2007 anniversary edition. On the AFI's list of AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills, the 100 Best Thrills, the film was ranked number10, and the 2003 list of the AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains, 100 Best Heroes & Villains ranked the Indiana Jones character as the number two hero, behind Atticus Finch from ''To Kill a Mockingbird (film), To Kill a Mockingbird'' (1962). Several publications have ranked it as one of the greatest films of all time, including number two by ''Empire'', number five by ''Time Out (magazine), Time Out'', and number19 by MSN. It has also appeared on lists of the best action films, including number two by ''IGN'', number nine by ''Time Out'' (down from number two in an earlier ranking) and number11 by ''The Guardian'' and ''The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph''. ''IGN'' also named it the best action film of the 1980s. Rotten Tomatoes and ''Esquire (magazine), Esquire'' have labeled it one of the greatest adventure films. Channel 4 viewers in the United Kingdom ranked ''Raiders'' as the 20th best family film of all time in 2005. In the 2010s, ''Empire'' magazine readers named it the seventh-best film of all time, and it was ranked the sixteenth best film of all time, based on IMDb and Rotten Tomatoes user votes and critical ratings. Readers of the ''Los Angeles Times'' voted it the number one summer film, ahead of competition including ''Jaws'' and ''Alien (film), Alien'' (1979). A 2013 episode of the sitcom ''The Big Bang Theory'' ("The Big Bang Theory (season 7), The Raiders Minimization") argues that Jones accomplishes nothing in ''Raiders'', as the Nazis would have eventually found the Ark, opened it, and died regardless of Jones' actions. An essay by ''Esquire''s Matt Pomroy agreed, with the caveat that Marion would have almost certainly died at Toht's hands, and the Ark would have been flown successfully to Germany on the Flying Wing and opened for Hitler, likely killing him. However, Jones' involvement ensures the Americans secure the Ark, preventing the Germans from using it.


Sequels and spin-offs

The success of ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' has spawned three sequel films thus far. ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' was in development by 1982, while the original was still in theaters. A narrative prequel to ''Raiders'', ''Temple of Doom'' follows Jones' quest to recover Lingam, sacred stones and liberate the slaves of a Thuggee cult leader. The film became one of the highest-grossing films of 1984 and broke box office records, but fared less well with critics who accused it of racism, sexism, and containing content inappropriate for child audiences. A narrative sequel to ''Raiders'', ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'', was released in 1989. It serves as the final film of the original trilogy and follows Jones and his father, portrayed by Sean Connery, on a quest to recover the Holy Grail. Like its predecessor, ''The Last Crusade'' broke box office records, becoming one of the year's highest-grossing films. It was also well received by critics. Spielberg has said the film was, in part, an "apology" for the reception to ''Temple of Doom''. Following the conclusion of the film series, Lucas developed a television series, ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles'' (1992–1993), featuring Ford and other actors as Jones at different ages. A fourth film was released in 2008, titled ''Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull''. It features the return of Allen as Marion Ravenwood and introduces Shia LaBeouf as her and Jones' son. The setting moved from the 1930s to the 1950s, pitting Jones against Russians to recover a crystal skull. The film was a financial success but polarized critics and fans. As with ''Temple of Doom'', Lucas and Spielberg have defended the film and apologized for its reception. A fifth film is scheduled for release in July 2023. Novels, comic books, and video games have also been released detailing the further adventures of Indiana Jones and his supporting cast from the films. Often set before and after the events of the films, these globe-spanning tales depict Jones' first marriage, and his adventures to discover the Indiana Jones and the Spear of Destiny, Spear of Destiny, Indiana Jones and the Dance of the Giants, Merlin, an Infernal Machine in the Tower of Babel, the Covenant of Gautama Buddha, Buddha, Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings, the staff of Moses, Indiana Jones and the Philosopher's Stone, the Philosopher's Stone, dinosaurs, a Unicorn horn, Indiana Jones and the Peril at Delphi, the Oracle of Delphi, the secrets of the Sphinx, Noah's Ark, and Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis, the fate of Atlantis. Jones is sometimes aided by Sallah in his conflicts against Belloq and Lao Che (character), Lao Che (from ''Temple of Doom''), among others.


References


Notes


Citations

{{Reflist, refs= {{Cite web , last=Rubin , first=Rebecca , date=October 18, 2021 , title=Disney Delays 'Doctor Strange,' 'Thor 4,' 'Black Panther' Sequel and 'Indiana Jones 5' , url=https://variety.com/2021/film/news/disney-delays-doctor-strange-thor-black-panther-1235091673/ , url-status=live , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20211018154442/https://variety.com/2021/film/news/disney-delays-doctor-strange-thor-black-panther-1235091673/ , archive-date=October 18, 2021 , access-date=October 18, 2021 , website=
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{{cite web , first=Ryan , last=Parker , title='Raiders of the Lost Ark' Turns 40: Karen Allen Revisits Her Iconic Character With New In-Depth Tales About Making The Classic Adventure Film , url=https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/movies/movie-features/harrison-ford-george-lucas-steven-spielberg-raiders-of-the-lost-ark-karen-allen-4167772/ , website=
The Hollywood Reporter ''The Hollywood Reporter'' (''THR'') is an American digital and print magazine, and website, which focuses on the Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard d ...
, date=June 9, 2021, access-date=June 13, 2021 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210610135119/https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/movies/movie-features/harrison-ford-george-lucas-steven-spielberg-raiders-of-the-lost-ark-karen-allen-4167772/ , archive-date=June 10, 2021 , url-status=live
{{cite web, first=Antonio , last=Ferme , title='Raiders of the Lost Ark' At 40: Karen Allen On Having Snakes Dumped On Her And How Tom Selleck Almost Got Harrison Ford's Role , website=
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{{cite web, first=Matthew , last=Thrift , title=10 best action movies , url=https://www.bfi.org.uk/news-opinion/news-bfi/lists/10-best-action-movies , date=July 2, 2015 , publisher=British Film Institute , access-date=June 22, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191031073527/https://www.bfi.org.uk/news-opinion/news-bfi/lists/10-best-action-movies , archive-date=October 31, 2019 , url-status=live {{cite web , first=Joshua , last=Rothkopf , title=The 101 best action movies ever made , url=https://www.timeout.com/film/the-101-best-action-movies-ever-made , website=Time Out (magazine), Time Out , date=August 14, 2020 , access-date=August 19, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200828134924/https://www.timeout.com/film/the-101-best-action-movies-ever-made , archive-date=August 28, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite web , title=AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies – 10th Anniversary Edition , url=https://prdaficalmjediwestussa.blob.core.windows.net/images/2019/08/100MoviesANNIVERSARY.pdf , publisher=American Film Institute , access-date=August 17, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200817144407/https://prdaficalmjediwestussa.blob.core.windows.net/images/2019/08/100MoviesANNIVERSARY.pdf , archive-date=August 17, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite web , title=Raiders of the Lost Ark , url=https://catalog.afi.com/Catalog/MovieDetails/67250, publisher=American Film Institute , access-date=May 20, 2021 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20201126224621/https://catalog.afi.com/Catalog/MovieDetails/67250 , archive-date=November 26, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite web , title=Afi's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains, url=https://www.afi.com/afis-100-years-100-heroes-villians/ , publisher=American Film Institute , access-date=August 17, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200208093159/https://www.afi.com/afis-100-years-100-heroes-villians/ , archive-date=February 8, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite news , title=AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills , url=https://www.afi.com/afis-100-years-100-thrills/ , newspaper=American Film Institute, access-date=August 17, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200208075739/https://www.afi.com/afis-100-years-100-thrills/ , archive-date=February 8, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite news, first=Cavan , last=Scott , title=The Top 25 Movie Posters Of All Time , url=https://www.creativebloq.com/movies/iconic-movie-posters-712378 , newspaper=Creative Bloq , date=March 6, 2017 , access-date=April 13, 2021 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200919023313/https://www.creativebloq.com/movies/iconic-movie-posters-712378 , archive-date=September 19, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite web, first=Steven, last=Spielberg , author-link=Steven Spielberg , title=Of Narrow Misses and Close Calls: Raiders of the Lost Ark — Directing , url=https://ascmag.com/articles/flashback-raiders-of-the-lost-ark-directing , website=American Cinematographer , date=July 26, 2017 , access-date=July 25, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200725234425/https://ascmag.com/articles/flashback-raiders-of-the-lost-ark-directing , archive-date=July 25, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite web, first=Tom , last=Breihan , title= Did 1981 belong to Mad Max, Indiana Jones, or Snake Plissken?, url=https://film.avclub.com/did-1981-belong-to-mad-max-indiana-jones-or-snake-pli-1798250059 , website=The A.V. 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Box Office Mojo Box Office Mojo is an American website that tracks box-office A box office or ticket office is a place where tickets are sold to the public for admission to an event. Patrons may perform the transaction at a countertop A stainless steel c ...
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The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
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{{cite web , title='Raiders of the Lost Ark' Run Extended , url=https://deadline.com/2012/09/raiders-of-the-lost-ark-run-extended-336429/ , website=Deadline Hollywood , date=September 14, 2012 , access-date=August 17, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170621083314/http://deadline.com/2012/09/raiders-of-the-lost-ark-run-extended-336429/ , archive-date=June 21, 2017 , url-status=dead {{cite news , last=Hayward , first=Anthony, title=Terry Richards: Stuntman who battled four James Bonds, Luke Skywalker and Rambo and was famously shot dead by Indiana Jones , website=The Independent , url=https://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/terry-richards-stuntman-who-battled-four-james-bonds-luke-skywalker-and-rambo-and-was-famously-shot-dead-by-indiana-jones-9593218.html , date=July 9, 2014 , access-date=November 2, 2017 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150925125654/http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/terry-richards-stuntman-who-battled-four-james-bonds-luke-skywalker-and-rambo-and-was-famously-shot-dead-by-indiana-jones-9593218.html , archive-date=September 25, 2015 , url-status=live {{cite web, url=https://www.theguardian.com/film/2010/oct/19/raiders-lost-ark-action , title=Raiders of the Lost Ark: No 11 best action and war film of all time , first=Stuart , last=Heritage , date=October 19, 2010 , website=The Guardian , access-date=October 19, 2017 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171019221040/https://www.theguardian.com/film/2010/oct/19/raiders-lost-ark-action , archive-date=October 19, 2017 , url-status=live {{cite news , first1=Tim , last1=Robey , first2=Robbie , last2=Collin , author-link2=Robbie Collin , url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/films/0/best-action-movies-ever-made/11-raiders-lost-ark-1981/ , title=Beat it, Kingsman: the 24 greatest action movies of all time , website=The Daily Telegraph , date=September 21, 2017 , access-date=April 5, 2018 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180408102234/https://www.telegraph.co.uk/films/0/best-action-movies-ever-made/11-raiders-lost-ark-1981/ , archive-date=April 8, 2018 , url-status=live , url-access=limited {{cite web , first=Tom , last=O'Neil , url=http://goldderby.latimes.com/awards_goldderby/2008/05/will-indiana-jo.html, title=Will 'Indiana Jones,' Steven Spielberg and Harrison Ford come swashbuckling back into the awards fight? , website=Los Angeles Times , date=May 8, 2008 , access-date=August 11, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080509050751/http://goldderby.latimes.com/awards_goldderby/2008/05/will-indiana-jo.html , archive-date=May 9, 2008 , url-status=dead , url-access=limited {{cite web , first=Justin , last=Chang , author-link=Justin Chang , url=https://www.latimes.com/entertainment-arts/movies/story/2020-08-20/raiders-of-the-lost-ark-jaws-ultimate-summer-movie-showdown-stand-by-me-final , title=How 'Raiders of the Lost Ark' beat 'Jaws' – and won the Ultimate Summer Movie Showdown , website=Los Angeles Times , date=August 20, 2020 , access-date=August 22, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200821090135/https://www.latimes.com/entertainment-arts/movies/story/2020-08-20/raiders-of-the-lost-ark-jaws-ultimate-summer-movie-showdown-stand-by-me-final , archive-date=August 21, 2020 , url-status=live, url-access=limited {{cite web , last=Nicholson , first=Amy , title=After 33 Years and an Airplane Explosion, Their Raiders of the Lost Ark Remake Is Almost Complete. Are They? , url=https://www.laweekly.com/after-33-years-and-an-airplane-explosion-their-raiders-of-the-lost-ark-remake-is-almost-complete-are-they/ , website=LA Weekly , access-date=July 23, 2020 , date=November 12, 2014 , archive-url=https://archive.today/20200723201510/https://www.laweekly.com/after-33-years-and-an-airplane-explosion-their-raiders-of-the-lost-ark-remake-is-almost-complete-are-they/ , archive-date=July 23, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite magazine, first=John , last=Baichtal , title=LEGO Indiana Jones Honors (And Revises) The Films , url=https://www.wired.com/2008/04/lego-indiana-jo-2/ , magazine=Wired (magazine), Wired , date=April 29, 2008 , access-date=August 17, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161222225255/https://www.wired.com/2008/04/lego-indiana-jo-2/ , archive-date=December 22, 2016 , url-status=live , url-access=limited {{cite web , title=40 Years Ago: Raiders Of The Lost Ark Starts Production , url=https://www.lucasfilm.com/news/40-years-ago-raiders-of-the-lost-ark-starts-production/ , publisher=
Lucasfilm Lucasfilm Ltd. LLC is an American film and television production company A production company, production house, production studio, or a production team is a business that provides the physical basis for works in the fields of performing arts, ...
, date=June 23, 2020 , access-date=July 23, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200723214353/https://www.lucasfilm.com/news/40-years-ago-raiders-of-the-lost-ark-starts-production/ , archive-date=July 23, 2020 , url-status=live
{{cite news, author=Billboard , title=$5.99 McDeal on 'Indiana Jones' Videos , url=https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-1991-12-07-9104200174-story.html , website=Chicago Tribune , date=December 7, 1991 , access-date=February 28, 2021 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20201215041721/https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-1991-12-07-9104200174-story.html , archive-date=December 15, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited {{cite web , title=Citizen Kane (1941) , first=Scott , last=McGee , publisher=Turner Classic Movies , date=August 12, 2011 , access-date=October 16, 2017 , url=http://www.tcm.com/this-month/article/71645%7C0/Pop-Culture.html , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171017043917/http://www.tcm.com/this-month/article/71645%7C0/Pop-Culture.html , archive-date=October 17, 2017 , url-status=live {{cite news , first=Sean , last=Hutchinson , title=20 Adventurous Facts About Raiders of the Lost Ark , url=https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/55963/20-adventurous-facts-about-raiders-lost-ark , website=Mental Floss , date=June 12, 2016 , access-date=July 24, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200717084846/https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/55963/20-adventurous-facts-about-raiders-lost-ark , archive-date=July 17, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite news, url=http://articles.latimes.com/1988-06-12/news/mn-7400_1_million-for-war-war-forced-labor, title=Daimler-Benz to Pay $12 Million for War Forced Labor , agency=Times Wire Services , date=June 12, 1988 , website=Los Angeles Times, access-date=August 12, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190718143511/https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1988-06-12-mn-7400-story.html , archive-date=July 18, 2019 , url-status=live , url-access=limited {{cite web, url=http://www.superherohype.com/news/topnews.php?id=6807 , title=Hasbro Previews G.I. Joe, Hulk, Iron Man, Indy & Clone Wars , date=February 16, 2008 , publisher=Mandatory (company), SuperHeroHype , first=Edward , last=Douglas , access-date=February 17, 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080218050323/http://www.superherohype.com/news/topnews.php?id=6807 , archive-date=February 18, 2008 , url-status=live {{Cite Metacritic, id=raiders-of-the-lost-ark, type=movie, title=Raiders of the Lost Ark, url-status=live, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150118040618/http://www.metacritic.com/movie/raiders-of-the-lost-ark, archive-date=January 18, 2015, access-date=December 15, 2021, publisher_hide=yes {{cite web , last=Knolle , first=Sharon , title=30 Things You Might Not Know About 'Raiders of the Lost Ark' , date=June 12, 2011 , publisher=Moviefone , url=http://news.moviefone.com/2011/06/12/raiders-lost-ark-30th-anniversary/ , access-date=August 10, 2015, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150802024345/http://news.moviefone.com/2011/06/12/raiders-lost-ark-30th-anniversary/, archive-date=August 2, 2015, url-status=dead {{cite web, title=Complete National Film Registry Listing , url=https://www.loc.gov/programs/national-film-preservation-board/film-registry/complete-national-film-registry-listing/ , publisher=
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order ...

Library of Congress
, access-date=August 17, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200806052210/https://www.loc.gov/programs/national-film-preservation-board/film-registry/complete-national-film-registry-listing/ , archive-date=August 6, 2020 , url-status=live
{{cite web, first=Jamie , last=Allen , title=U.S. film registry adds 25 new titles , url=https://edition.cnn.com/SHOWBIZ/Movies/9911/16/natl.film.registry/ , publisher=CNN , date=November 16, 1999 , access-date=August 17, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200616011440/https://edition.cnn.com/SHOWBIZ/Movies/9911/16/natl.film.registry/ , archive-date=June 16, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite magazine, first=Jeremy , last=Berlin , title=How Indiana Jones Actually Changed Archaeology , url=https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2015/05/150514-indiana-jones-archaeology-exhibit-national-geographic-museum/ , magazine=The New Republic , date=May 14, 2015 , access-date=August 22, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200626114340/https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2015/05/150514-indiana-jones-archaeology-exhibit-national-geographic-museum/ , archive-date=June 26, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited {{cite magazine, first=Stanley , last=Kauffmann , author-link=Stanley Kauffmann , title=Old Ark, New Covenant , url=https://newrepublic.com/article/134104/old-ark-new-covenant , magazine=The New Republic , date=July 4, 1981 , access-date=August 12, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200721145840/https://newrepublic.com/article/134104/old-ark-new-covenant , archive-date=July 21, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited {{cite web , title=Writer Suing Lucas for Fraud and Breach of Contract Charges Failure to Comply with Court Order to Provide Accurate Data , url=https://www.prweb.com/releases/2005/06/prweb253567.htm , publisher=Cision, PRWeb , date=June 21, 2005 , access-date=August 19, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210829062719/https://www.prweb.com/releases/2005/06/prweb253567.htm , archive-date=August 29, 2021 , url-status=live {{cite web , title=Scot sues Lucas for £2m over raid of lost book sales , url=https://www.scotsman.com/arts-and-culture/film-and-tv/scot-sues-lucas-ps2m-over-raid-lost-book-sales-2473298 , website=The Scotsman , date=June 23, 2005 , access-date=August 17, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210829062720/https://www.scotsman.com/arts-and-culture/film-and-tv/scot-sues-lucas-ps2m-over-raid-lost-book-sales-2473298 , archive-date=August 29, 2021 , url-status=live {{cite web, first=Christopher , last=Joyce , title=Indiana Jones: Saving History or Stealing It? , url=https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=89724552&t=1598133427554, publisher=NPR , date=April 21, 2008 , access-date=August 22, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200822222138/https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=89724552&t=1598133427554 , archive-date=August 22, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title=What Movies Will Be The Big Winners This Summer? , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1982/05/17/movies/what-movies-will-be-the-big-winners-this-summer.html?searchResultPosition=84 , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=June 25, 1981 , access-date=July 30, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727181926/https://www.nytimes.com/1982/05/17/movies/what-movies-will-be-the-big-winners-this-summer.html?searchResultPosition=84 , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title=Home Video Games Nearing Profitability of the Film Business , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1982/10/04/arts/home-video-games-nearing-profitability-of-the-film-business.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=October 4, 1982 , access-date=July 31, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191231172215/https://www.nytimes.com/1982/10/04/arts/home-video-games-nearing-profitability-of-the-film-business.html , archive-date=December 31, 2019 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Leslie , last=Wayne , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title=Hollywood Sequels Are Just The Ticket , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1982/07/18/business/hollywood-sequels-are-just-the-ticket.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=July 18, 1982 , access-date=July 31, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210411120321/https://www.nytimes.com/1982/07/18/business/hollywood-sequels-are-just-the-ticket.html , archive-date=April 11, 2021 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , title='Raiders' Wins 7 Awards From Fantasy Academy , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1982/07/29/movies/raiders-wins-7-awards-from-fantasy-academy.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, agency=United Press International , date=July 29, 1982 , access-date=July 31, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210411120323/https://www.nytimes.com/1982/07/29/movies/raiders-wins-7-awards-from-fantasy-academy.html , archive-date=April 11, 2021 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Andrew , last=Pollack , title=The Game Turns Serious at Atari , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1982/12/19/business/the-game-turns-serious-at-atari.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=December 19, 1982 , access-date=July 31, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200518195343/https://www.nytimes.com/1982/12/19/business/the-game-turns-serious-at-atari.html , archive-date=May 18, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Chris , last=Chase , title=At The Movies; Lelouch film runs 3 hours; 6 if you'd like. , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1982/06/11/movies/at-the-movies-lelouch-film-runs-3-hours-6-if-you-d-like.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=June 11, 1982 , access-date=July 30, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210202072328/https://www.nytimes.com/1982/06/11/movies/at-the-movies-lelouch-film-runs-3-hours-6-if-you-d-like.html , archive-date=February 2, 2021 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=C. Gerald , last=Fraser , title=Beatty Wins Directors Guild Award For His Work On 'Reds' , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1982/03/15/movies/beatty-wins-directors-guild-award-for-his-work-on-reds.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=March 15, 1982 , access-date=July 31, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727183157/https://www.nytimes.com/1982/03/15/movies/beatty-wins-directors-guild-award-for-his-work-on-reds.html , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Janet , last=Maslin , author-link=Janet Maslin , title=Spielberg , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1981/06/07/movies/how-old-movie-serials-inspired-lucas-and.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=June 7, 1981 , access-date=July 31, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727201750/https://www.nytimes.com/1981/06/07/movies/how-old-movie-serials-inspired-lucas-and.html , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Sandra , last=Salmans , title=Hollywood Gambles On Video , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1983/12/12/business/hollywood-gambles-on-video.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=December 12, 1983 , access-date=August 19, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210206093026/https://www.nytimes.com/1983/12/12/business/hollywood-gambles-on-video.html , archive-date=February 6, 2021 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , title='Beverly Hills Cop' To Be a Video Cassette , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1985/09/13/movies/beverly-hills-cop-to-be-a-video-cassette.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=September 13, 1985 , access-date=August 19, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210829062800/https://www.nytimes.com/1985/09/13/movies/beverly-hills-cop-to-be-a-video-cassette.html , archive-date=August 29, 2021 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title='Indiana Jones' Topping 'Jedi' Box-office Record , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1984/05/30/movies/indiana-jones-topping-jedi-box-office-record.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=May 30, 1984 , access-date=August 19, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200918201456/https://www.nytimes.com/1984/05/30/movies/indiana-jones-topping-jedi-box-office-record.html , archive-date=September 18, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title='Indiana Jones' Stirs Ratings Debate , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1984/05/21/movies/indiana-jones-stirs-ratings-debate.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=May 21, 1984 , access-date=August 19, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210411120327/https://www.nytimes.com/1984/05/21/movies/indiana-jones-stirs-ratings-debate.html , archive-date=April 11, 2021 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title=Publishers Turning Cool to the Tie-in Novelization Of Movies , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1981/07/21/movies/publishers-turning-cool-to-the-tie-in-novelization-of-movies.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=July 21, 1981 , access-date=August 19, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200811112641/https://www.nytimes.com/1981/07/21/movies/publishers-turning-cool-to-the-tie-in-novelization-of-movies.html , archive-date=August 11, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title=Hollywood's Video Gamble , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1982/03/28/magazine/hollywood-s-video-gamble.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=March 28, 1982 , access-date=July 31, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727181047/https://www.nytimes.com/1982/03/28/magazine/hollywood-s-video-gamble.html , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Vincent , last=Canby , author-link=Vincent Canby , title=Raiders of the Lost Ark , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1981/06/12/movies/raiders-of-lost-ark.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=June 12, 1981 , access-date=July 31, 2020 , archive-url=https://archive.today/20200731151919/https://www.nytimes.com/1981/06/12/movies/raiders-of-lost-ark.html?searchResultPosition=7 , archive-date=July 31, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title='Raiders': Too Terrifying To Be PG? , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1981/06/16/movies/raiders-too-terrifying-to-be-pg.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=June 16, 1981 , access-date=July 31, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727181938/https://www.nytimes.com/1981/06/16/movies/raiders-too-terrifying-to-be-pg.html , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title='Reds' And 'Golden Pond' Top Oscar Nominations , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1982/02/12/movies/reds-and-golden-pond-top-oscar-nominations.html?searchResultPosition=66 , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=February 12, 1982 , access-date=July 31, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727175602/https://www.nytimes.com/1982/02/12/movies/reds-and-golden-pond-top-oscar-nominations.html?searchResultPosition=66 , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title='Tis Almost The Season To Be Jolly, But Not Out in Hollywood , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1981/11/10/movies/tis-almost-the-season-to-be-jolly-but-not-out-in-hollywood.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=November 10, 1981 , access-date=July 30, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727222145/https://www.nytimes.com/1981/11/10/movies/tis-almost-the-season-to-be-jolly-but-not-out-in-hollywood.html , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1984/05/07/movies/hollywood-thriving-on-video-cassette-boom.html?searchResultPosition=57 , title=Hollywood Thriving On Video-cassette Boom , date=May 17, 1984 , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, access-date=July 5, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200705212626/https://www.nytimes.com/1984/05/07/movies/hollywood-thriving-on-video-cassette-boom.html?searchResultPosition=57 , archive-date=July 5, 2020 , url-status=live, url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title=New Film-comic Superhero Coming , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1983/03/01/movies/new-film-comic-superhero-coming.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=March 1, 1983 , access-date=July 31, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210411120317/https://www.nytimes.com/1983/03/01/movies/new-film-comic-superhero-coming.html , archive-date=April 11, 2021 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , title=Film Board Picks 'bests' , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1981/12/17/movies/film-board-picks-bests.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=December 17, 1981 , access-date=July 30, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727231005/https://www.nytimes.com/1981/12/17/movies/film-board-picks-bests.html , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , title=Film Box Offices Set 8-Month Record , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1981/10/08/movies/film-box-offices-set-8-month-record.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=October 8, 1981 , agency=Associated Press , access-date=July 30, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727180353/https://www.nytimes.com/1981/10/08/movies/film-box-offices-set-8-month-record.html , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Vincent , last=Canby , author-link=Vincent Canby , title=Film View; For American Movies, A Minor Renaissance , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1981/12/27/movies/film-view-for-american-movies-a-minor-renaissance.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=December 27, 1981 , access-date=July 30, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727181931/https://www.nytimes.com/1981/12/27/movies/film-view-for-american-movies-a-minor-renaissance.html , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title=Blake Edwards in Tiff Over 'S.O.B.' , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1981/06/25/movies/blake-edwards-in-tiff-over-sob.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=June 25, 1981 , access-date=July 30, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727183148/https://www.nytimes.com/1981/06/25/movies/blake-edwards-in-tiff-over-sob.html , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title=Hollywood Shivers in a Crisis Of Confidence , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1981/12/20/movies/hollywood-shivers-in-a-crisis-of-confidence.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=December 20, 1981 , access-date=July 30, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727222817/https://www.nytimes.com/1981/12/20/movies/hollywood-shivers-in-a-crisis-of-confidence.html , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , title=The Road To Extradom , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1981/03/22/magazine/the-road-to-extradom.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=March 22, 1981 , access-date=July 30, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727232111/https://www.nytimes.com/1981/03/22/magazine/the-road-to-extradom.html , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Janet , last=Maslin , author-link=Janet Maslin , title=Film View; Unreal Heroes for the 80's , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1981/07/19/movies/film-view-unreal-heroes-for-the-80-s.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=July 19, 1981 , access-date=July 30, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727193720/https://www.nytimes.com/1981/07/19/movies/film-view-unreal-heroes-for-the-80-s.html , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title='Star Trek II' Sets Mark For Sales at Opening , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1982/06/08/movies/star-trek-ii-sets-mark-for-sales-at-opening.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=June 8, 1982 , access-date=July 30, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727190441/https://www.nytimes.com/1982/06/08/movies/star-trek-ii-sets-mark-for-sales-at-opening.html , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title='Superman' Breaks Record , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1981/06/30/movies/superman-breaks-record.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=June 30, 1981 , access-date=July 30, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727181612/https://www.nytimes.com/1981/06/30/movies/superman-breaks-record.html , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title=Suit On 'ark' Charges Stealing From A Novel , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1981/07/09/movies/suit-on-ark-charges-stealing-from-a-novel.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=July 9, 1981 , access-date=July 30, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727193052/https://www.nytimes.com/1981/07/09/movies/suit-on-ark-charges-stealing-from-a-novel.html , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title='Superman II' Predicted As Summer's Hit Movie , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1981/05/25/movies/superman-ii-predicted-as-summer-s-hit-movie.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=May 25, 1981 , access-date=July 27, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727184418/https://www.nytimes.com/1981/05/25/movies/superman-ii-predicted-as-summer-s-hit-movie.html , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Pamela G. , last=Hollie , title=Hollywood Strategy For Summer Films , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1981/06/26/business/hollywood-strategy-for-summer-films.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=June 26, 1981 , access-date=July 27, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200727190310/https://www.nytimes.com/1981/06/26/business/hollywood-strategy-for-summer-films.html , archive-date=July 27, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , title=Hollywood Is Joyous Over Its Record Grossing Summer , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1981/09/09/movies/hollywood-is-joyous-over-its-record-grossing-summer.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=September 9, 1981 , access-date=July 29, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210309063502/https://www.nytimes.com/1981/09/09/movies/hollywood-is-joyous-over-its-record-grossing-summer.html , archive-date=March 9, 2021 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite magazine , first=Patrick , last=Radden Keefe , title=Spitballing Indy , url=https://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/spitballing-indy , magazine=The New Yorker , date=March 25, 2013 , access-date=July 24, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160305014928/https://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/spitballing-indy, archive-date=March 5, 2016 , url-status=live , url-access=limited {{cite web , title=Raiders of the Lost Ark , url=http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=raidersofthelostark.htm , publisher=
Box Office Mojo Box Office Mojo is an American website that tracks box-office A box office or ticket office is a place where tickets are sold to the public for admission to an event. Patrons may perform the transaction at a countertop A stainless steel c ...
, access-date=August 23, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150122071157/http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=raidersofthelostark.htm, archive-date=January 22, 2015, url-status=dead
{{cite web , title=Raiders of the Lost Ark, url=http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?page=releases&id=raidersofthelostark.htm , publisher=
Box Office Mojo Box Office Mojo is an American website that tracks box-office A box office or ticket office is a place where tickets are sold to the public for admission to an event. Patrons may perform the transaction at a countertop A stainless steel c ...
, access-date=August 23, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150121124856/http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?page=releases&id=raidersofthelostark.htm , archive-date=January 21, 2015 , url-status=dead
{{cite web , title=1981 Worldwide Box Office , url=https://www.boxofficemojo.com/year/world/1981/ , publisher=
Box Office Mojo Box Office Mojo is an American website that tracks box-office A box office or ticket office is a place where tickets are sold to the public for admission to an event. Patrons may perform the transaction at a countertop A stainless steel c ...
, access-date=August 23, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200823141929/https://www.boxofficemojo.com/year/world/1981/, archive-date= August 23, 2020 , url-status=live
{{cite web , url=http://www.oscars.org/oscars/ceremonies/1982 , title=The 54th Academy Awards (1982) Nominees and Winners , publisher=Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences , access-date=October 8, 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160816140324/http://www.oscars.org/oscars/ceremonies/1982 , archive-date=August 16, 2016 , url-status=live {{cite news, date=September 4, 2001 , first=Lawrence , last=Van Gelder , author-link=Lawrence Van Gelder , title=Pauline Kael, Provocative and Widely Imitated New Yorker Film Critic, Dies at 82 , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, url=https://www.nytimes.com/2001/09/04/movies/pauline-kael-provocative-and-widely-imitated-new-yorker-film-critic-dies-at-82.html , access-date=July 13, 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101031014847/http://www.nytimes.com/2001/09/04/movies/pauline-kael-provocative-and-widely-imitated-new-yorker-film-critic-dies-at-82.html , archive-date=October 31, 2010 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite magazine , first=Pauline , last=Kael , author-link=Pauline Kael , title=Whipped , url=https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1981/06/15/whipped , magazine=The New Yorker, date=June 15, 1981, access-date=July 13, 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140909125832/http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1981/06/15/whipped , archive-date=September 9, 2014 , url-status=live , url-access=limited {{cite web, title=People's Choice Awards 1982 , url=http://www.peopleschoice.com/pca/awards/nominees/?year=1982 , publisher=People's Choice Awards , access-date=August 11, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160617180738/http://www.peopleschoice.com/pca/awards/nominees/?year=1982 , archive-date=June 17, 2016 , url-status=live {{cite news , title=PG-13 at 20: How 'Indiana' remade films , url=https://www.today.com/popculture/pg-13-20-how-indiana-remade-films-wbna5798549 , website=Today (American TV program), Today , agency=Associated Press , date=August 23, 2004 , access-date=August 19, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200724135944/https://www.today.com/popculture/pg-13-20-how-indiana-remade-films-wbna5798549 , archive-date=July 24, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title='Jedi' Prints Stolen For Cassette Piracy, Movie Industry Says , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1983/07/09/movies/jedi-prints-stolen-for-cassette-piracy-movie-industry-says.html?searchResultPosition=7 , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=July 9, 1983 , access-date=August 19, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210829062720/https://www.nytimes.com/1983/07/09/movies/jedi-prints-stolen-for-cassette-piracy-movie-industry-says.html?searchResultPosition=7 , archive-date=August 29, 2021 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite web , url=https://www.ign.com/articles/2008/05/20/top-10-indiana-jones-games , title=Top 10 Indiana Jones Games , last=Buchanan , first=Levi , date=May 20, 2008 , website=IGN , access-date=October 11, 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080527203324/http://retro.ign.com/articles/875/875398p1.html , archive-date=May 27, 2008 , url-status=live {{cite web , first=Roger , last=Ebert , author-link=Roger Ebert , title=Raiders of the Lost Ark , url=https://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/raiders-of-the-lost-ark-1981 , website=RogerEbert.com , date=January 1, 1981 , access-date=August 4, 2020 , archive-url=https://archive.today/20161215224654/http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/raiders-of-the-lost-ark-1981 , archive-date=December 15, 2016 , url-status=live {{cite web , first=Arthur , last=Knight , title='Raiders of the Lost Ark': THR's 1981 Review , url=https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/review/raiders-lost-ark-review-1981-movie-1011481 , website=
The Hollywood Reporter ''The Hollywood Reporter'' (''THR'') is an American digital and print magazine, and website, which focuses on the Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard d ...
, date=June 5, 1981 , access-date=August 1, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200811063012/https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/review/raiders-lost-ark-review-1981-movie-1011481 , archive-date=August 11, 2020 , url-status=live
{{cite magazine, last=Sragow , first=Michael , author-link=Michael Sragow , title=Inside 'Raiders of the Lost Ark' , magazine=Rolling Stone , date=1981-06-25 , url=https://www.rollingstone.com/movies/movie-news/inside-raiders-of-the-lost-ark-69261/ , access-date=July 9, 2019 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190709010257/https://www.rollingstone.com/movies/movie-news/inside-raiders-of-the-lost-ark-69261/ , archive-date=July 9, 2019 , url-status=live , url-access=limited {{Cite Rotten Tomatoes, id={{RT data, rtid, noprefix=y, type=m, title=Raiders of the Lost Ark, url-status=live, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190331235026/https://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/raiders_of_the_lost_ark, archive-date=March 31, 2019, access-date={{RT data, access date, publisher_hide=yes{{RT data, edit {{cite web , first=Vinnie , last=Mancuso , title=The Opening of 'Kingdom of the Crystal Skull' Makes the Perfect Old Man Indiana Jones Movie , url=https://collider.com/indiana-jones-kingdom-of-the-crystal-skull-opening-scene-is-good/ , publisher=Collider (website), Collider , date=May 22, 2020 , access-date=August 19, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200614185641/https://collider.com/indiana-jones-kingdom-of-the-crystal-skull-opening-scene-is-good/ , archive-date=June 14, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite web , title=The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles #8 , url=https://www.darkhorse.com/Comics/92-150/The-Young-Indiana-Jones-Chronicles-8 , publisher=Dark Horse Comics , access-date=August 17, 2020 , archive-url=https://archive.today/20131015114934/http://www.darkhorse.com/Comics/92-150/The-Young-Indiana-Jones-Chronicles-8 , archive-date=October 15, 2013 , url-status=live {{cite web , title=The Making Of Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade , url=https://www.empireonline.com/movies/features/indiana-jones-making-last-crusade/ , website=Empire (film magazine), Empire , date=October 8, 2012 , access-date=August 19, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200716141310/https://www.empireonline.com/movies/features/indiana-jones-making-last-crusade/ , archive-date=July 16, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite news , first=Aljean , last=Harmetz , author-link=Aljean Harmetz , title=Indiana Jones Conquers Box-Office Competition , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1989/05/31/movies/indiana-jones-conquers-box-office-competition.html , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=May 31, 1989 , access-date=August 19, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210411120335/https://www.nytimes.com/1989/05/31/movies/indiana-jones-conquers-box-office-competition.html , archive-date=April 11, 2021 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite web , first=Will , last=Leitch , title=This Week in Genre History: Indiana Jones And The Kingdom Of The Crystal Skull Nukes The Fridge , url=https://www.syfy.com/syfywire/indiana-jones-and-the-kingdom-of-the-crystal-skull-history , publisher=Syfy , date=May 20, 2020 , access-date=August 19, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200809105939/https://www.syfy.com/syfywire/indiana-jones-and-the-kingdom-of-the-crystal-skull-history , archive-date=August 9, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite news, first=Aljean , last=Harmetz, author-link=Aljean Harmetz, title=Hollywood Registers A Bonanza For 1989 , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1990/01/04/movies/hollywood-registers-a-bonanza-for-1989.html, website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
, date=January 4, 1990 , access-date=August 17, 2020 , archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20200815194646/https://www.nytimes.com/1990/01/04/movies/hollywood-registers-a-bonanza-for-1989.html?searchResultPosition=46 , archive-date=August 15, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited
{{cite web , last=Andersen , first=Andy , title=15 Best Indiana Jones Stories Outside The Movies , url=https://screenrant.com/best-indiana-jones-stories-not-movies-comics-books-tv-show/ , website=Screen Rant , date=June 6, 2017 , access-date=April 19, 2021 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190706192318/https://screenrant.com/best-indiana-jones-stories-not-movies-comics-books-tv-show/ , archive-date=July 6, 2019 , url-status=live {{cite web , first=Kelso , last=Jacks , url=https://screenrant.com/indiana-jones-raiders-lost-ark-face-melt-no-cgi/ , title=How Raiders of the Lost Ark's Face Melt Was Filmed (Without CGI) , date=March 29, 2020 , website=Screen Rant , access-date=August 23, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200330130523/https://screenrant.com/indiana-jones-raiders-lost-ark-face-melt-no-cgi/ , archive-date=March 30, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite web , first=Peter , last=Sciretta , url=https://www.slashfilm.com/page-2-498/ , title=Page 2: Indiana Jones, Lost, Star Wars, The Campaign, Jason Statham, Robot & Frank, King of Kong, Stan Winston, Jaws, Martin Scorsese, Total Recall, Lord of the Rings, Jurassic Park, date=August 17, 2012 , website=/Film , access-date=April 14, 2021 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20201129074114/https://www.slashfilm.com/page-2-498/ , archive-date=November 29, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite web , url=http://www.syfy.co.uk/news/3-ways-which-marcia-lucas-helped-save-star-wars-0 , title=3 ways in which Marcia Lucas helped save Star Wars , year=2017 , publisher=Syfy (British and Irish TV channel), Syfy UK , access-date=October 28, 2019 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170526072937/https://www.syfy.co.uk/news/3-ways-which-marcia-lucas-helped-save-star-wars-0 , archive-date=May 26, 2017 , url-status=live {{cite web , first=Benjamin , last=Bullard , url=https://www.syfy.com/syfywire/indiana-jones-lost-ark-found-antiques-roadshow , title=Indiana Jones' Lost Ark Found Again...On Antiques Roadshow , date=February 25, 2020 , publisher=Syfy , access-date=August 1, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200805055244/https://www.syfy.com/syfywire/indiana-jones-lost-ark-found-antiques-roadshow , archive-date=August 5, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite news , first=Tim , last=Robey , url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/films/0/indiana-joness-cheeky-thrilling-raiders-lost-ark-heist-made/ , title=How Indiana Jones's cheeky, thrilling Raiders of the Lost Ark heist made movie history, date=April 3, 2020 , website=The Daily Telegraph , access-date=August 1, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200405064501/https://www.telegraph.co.uk/films/0/indiana-joness-cheeky-thrilling-raiders-lost-ark-heist-made/ , archive-date=April 5, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited {{cite web , first=Nina , last=Metz , url=https://www.chicagotribune.com/entertainment/movies/ct-chicago-closeup-indiana-jones-20141106-column.html, title=What Indiana Jones Gets Wrong (And Right) About Archaeology , date=November 5, 2014 , website=Chicago Tribune , access-date=April 12, 2021 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210130101457/https://www.chicagotribune.com/entertainment/movies/ct-chicago-closeup-indiana-jones-20141106-column.html , archive-date=January 30, 2021 , url-status=live , url-access=limited {{cite web , first=Petrana , last= Radulovic , url=https://www.polygon.com/2020/3/5/21165208/the-great-movie-ride-walt-disney-world-hollywood-studios-ride-through-replaced , title=The Great Movie Ride was the first time I experienced 'Disney magic' , date=March 5, 2020 , website=Polygon (website), Polygon , access-date=August 22, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200807080055/https://www.polygon.com/2020/3/5/21165208/the-great-movie-ride-walt-disney-world-hollywood-studios-ride-through-replaced , archive-date=August 7, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite web , first=Ben , last=Pearson , url=https://www.slashfilm.com/indiana-jones-epic-stunt-spectacular/ , title=Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular to Undergo Renovation, Should Be Updated in Time For 'Indiana Jones 5' , date=March 15, 2019 , website=/Film , access-date=August 22, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190707035342/https://www.slashfilm.com/indiana-jones-epic-stunt-spectacular/ , archive-date=July 7, 2019 , url-status=live {{cite web , title=Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981) , url=https://www.the-numbers.com/movie/Raiders-of-the-Lost-Ark#tab=summary , publisher=The Numbers (website), The Numbers , access-date=July 28, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200820001553/https://www.the-numbers.com/movie/Raiders-of-the-Lost-Ark#tab=summary , archive-date=August 20, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite web , title=Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981) , url=https://www.the-numbers.com/movie/Raiders-of-the-Lost-Ark#tab=box-office , publisher=The Numbers (website), The Numbers , access-date=July 28, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200820001553/https://www.the-numbers.com/movie/Raiders-of-the-Lost-Ark#tab=box-office , archive-date=August 20, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite web , title=Weekend Domestic Chart for June 12, 1981 , url=https://www.the-numbers.com/box-office-chart/weekend/1981/06/12 , publisher=The Numbers (website), The Numbers , access-date=July 28, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191106163940/https://www.the-numbers.com/box-office-chart/weekend/1981/06/12 , archive-date=November 6, 2019 , url-status=live {{cite web , title=Weekend Domestic Chart for June 19, 1981 , url=https://www.the-numbers.com/box-office-chart/weekend/1981/06/19 , publisher=The Numbers (website), The Numbers , access-date=July 29, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210121213556/https://www.the-numbers.com/box-office-chart/weekend/1981/06/19 , archive-date=January 21, 2021 , url-status=live {{cite web , title=Weekend Domestic Chart for June 26, 1981 , url=https://www.the-numbers.com/box-office-chart/weekend/1981/06/26 , publisher=The Numbers (website), The Numbers , access-date=July 29, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20201129115254/https://www.the-numbers.com/box-office-chart/weekend/1981/06/26 , archive-date=November 29, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite web , title=Weekend Domestic Chart for July 3, 1981 , url=https://www.the-numbers.com/box-office-chart/weekend/1981/07/03 , publisher=The Numbers (website), The Numbers , access-date=July 29, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190809224607/https://www.the-numbers.com/box-office-chart/weekend/1981/07/03 , archive-date=August 9, 2019 , url-status=live {{cite web , title=Weekend Domestic Chart for July 17, 1981 , url=https://www.the-numbers.com/box-office-chart/weekend/1981/07/17 , publisher=The Numbers (website), The Numbers , access-date=July 29, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210217144642/https://www.the-numbers.com/box-office-chart/weekend/1981/07/17 , archive-date=February 17, 2021 , url-status=live {{cite web , title=Top 1981 Movies at the Domestic Box Office , url=https://www.the-numbers.com/box-office-records/domestic/all-movies/cumulative/released-in-1981 , publisher=The Numbers (website), The Numbers , access-date=July 29, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210309155903/https://www.the-numbers.com/box-office-records/domestic/all-movies/cumulative/released-in-1981 , archive-date=March 9, 2021 , url-status=live {{cite web , title=Top 1981 Movies at the Worldwide Box Office , url=https://www.the-numbers.com/box-office-records/worldwide/all-movies/cumulative/released-in-1981 , publisher=The Numbers (website), The Numbers , access-date=July 29, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200506075934/https://www.the-numbers.com/box-office-records/worldwide/all-movies/cumulative/released-in-1981 , archive-date=May 6, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite web , title=Leggiest Movies , url=https://www.the-numbers.com/box-office-records/domestic/all-movies/legs/leggiest , publisher=The Numbers (website), The Numbers , access-date=July 29, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200604154708/https://www.the-numbers.com/box-office-records/domestic/all-movies/legs/leggiest , archive-date=June 4, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite web , title=Top 1981 Movies at the International Box Office , url=https://www.the-numbers.com/box-office-records/international/all-movies/cumulative/released-in-1981 , publisher=The Numbers (website), The Numbers , access-date=July 29, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191222023819/https://www.the-numbers.com/box-office-records/international/all-movies/cumulative/released-in-1981 , archive-date=December 22, 2019 , url-status=live {{cite web, title=Hollywood's 100 Favorite Films , 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The Hollywood Reporter ''The Hollywood Reporter'' (''THR'') is an American digital and print magazine, and website, which focuses on the Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard d ...
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{{cite web , last=Jake , first=Kring-Schreifels , title=How Indiana Jones's Fedora Became an Artifact With a Life of Its Own , url=https://www.theringer.com/movies/2020/6/11/21286505/indiana-jones-hat-fedora-history-raiders-of-the-lost-ark , publisher=The Ringer (website), The Ringer , date=June 11, 2020 , access-date=August 1, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200623222204/https://www.theringer.com/movies/2020/6/11/21286505/indiana-jones-hat-fedora-history-raiders-of-the-lost-ark , archive-date=June 23, 2020 , url-status=live {{cite web , first=Borys , last=Kit , title='Raiders of the Lost Ark' to Get Imax Rerelease , url=https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/heat-vision/raiders-lost-ark-imax-361878 , website=
The Hollywood Reporter ''The Hollywood Reporter'' (''THR'') is an American digital and print magazine, and website, which focuses on the Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard d ...
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{{cite web, first=Adam , last=Yuster , title=The Stars Of 'Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade': Where Are They Now? , url=https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/lists/indiana-jones-last-crusade-cast-now-harrison-ford-more-1167704 , website=
The Hollywood Reporter ''The Hollywood Reporter'' (''THR'') is an American digital and print magazine, and website, which focuses on the Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard d ...
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{{cite web , first1=Joshua , last1=Rothkopf , first2=Phil , last2=de Semlyen , title=The 100 best movies of all time , url=https://www.timeout.com/newyork/movies/best-movies-of-all-time , website=Time Out (magazine), Time Out , date=June 24, 2020 , access-date=August 19, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190606054932/https://www.timeout.com/newyork/movies/best-movies-of-all-time , archive-date=June 6, 2019 , url-status=live {{cite magazine , last=Schickel , first=Richard , author-link=Richard Schickel , title=Cinema: Slam! Bang! A Movie Movie (Page 1) , url=http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,949205-1,00.html , magazine=Time (magazine), Time, access-date=July 23, 2020 , date=June 15, 1981 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200720234709/http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,949205-1,00.html , archive-date=July 20, 2020 , url-status=dead , url-access=limited {{cite magazine , last=Schickel , first=Richard , author-link=Richard Schickel , title=Cinema: Slam! Bang! A Movie Movie (Page2) , url=http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,949205-2,00.html , magazine=Time (magazine), Time, access-date=July 23, 2020 , date=June 15, 1981 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200720232230/http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,949205-2,00.html , archive-date=July 20, 2020 , url-status=dead , url-access=limited {{cite magazine , last=Schickel , first=Richard , author-link=Richard Schickel , title=Cinema: Slam! Bang! 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A Movie Movie (Page 5) , url=http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,949205-5,00.html , magazine=Time (magazine), Time , access-date=July 23, 2020 , date=June 15, 1981 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200720231422/http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,949205-5,00.html , archive-date=July 20, 2020 , url-status=dead , url-access=limited {{cite news , last=Sterritt , first=David , date=May 31, 1984 , title='Temple of Doom' sinks into sexism, racism. , url=https://www.csmonitor.com/1984/0531/053116.html , website=The Christian Science Monitor , access-date=July 20, 2021 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210104034116/https://www.csmonitor.com/1984/0531/053116.html , archive-date= January 24, 2021 , url-status=live , url-access=limited {{cite web, first=Michlle Ray , last=Uy , title=Indiana Jones Filming Locations to Satisfy Your Wanderlust , url=https://www.travelpulse.com/news/destinations/indiana-jones-filming-locations-to-satisfy-your-wanderlust.html , publisher=Northstar Travel Group, TravelPulse , date=February 25, 2017 , access-date=July 24, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170815081648/https://www.travelpulse.com/news/destinations/indiana-jones-filming-locations-to-satisfy-your-wanderlust.html , archive-date=August 15, 2017 , url-status=live {{cite web, first=Christian , last=Long , title=Visit These 'Raiders of the Lost Ark' Travel Locations This Summer , url=https://uproxx.com/life/indiana-jones-raiders-travel-locations/ , publisher=Uproxx , date=June 12, 2016 , access-date=July 24, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191008104755/https://uproxx.com/life/indiana-jones-raiders-travel-locations/ , archive-date=October 8, 2019 , url-status=live {{cite web, url=https://www.vanityfair.com/culture/features/2008/02/spielberg_qanda200802?currentPage=4 , first=Jim , last=Windolf , title=Q&A: Steven Spielberg , website=Vanity Fair (magazine), Vanity Fair , date=December 2, 2007 , access-date=December 2, 2007 , archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/65YzRhF7S?url=http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/features/2008/02/spielberg_qanda200802?currentPage=4 , archive-date=February 19, 2012 , url-status=live , url-access=limited {{cite web , url=https://www.vanityfair.com/culture/features/2004/03/raiders200403 , title=Raiders of the Lost Backyard , first=Jim , last=Windolf , website=Vanity Fair (magazine), Vanity Fair , date=January 2, 2008 , access-date=April 23, 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090509072638/http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/features/2004/03/raiders200403 , archive-date=May 9, 2009 , url-status=live , url-access=limited {{cite web , first=Dennis , last=Muren , author-link=Dennis Muren , url=https://www.vanityfair.com/culture/features/2008/02/spielberg_qanda200802?currentPage=4 , title=Behind-the-Scenes Photos of ILM's Greats: Jurassic Park, Raiders of the Lost Ark, E.T., and Beyond , website=Vanity Fair (magazine), Vanity Fair , date=September 22, 2014 , access-date=July 27, 2020 , archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/65YzRhF7S?url=http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/features/2008/02/spielberg_qanda200802?currentPage=4 , archive-date=February 19, 2012 , url-status=live , url-access=limited {{cite web, first=Stephen , last=Klain , title=Raiders of the Lost Ark , website=
Variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of algebraic structures defined by equations in universal algebra Hort ...
, date=June 5, 1981 , url=https://variety.com/1981/film/reviews/raiders-of-the-lost-ark-1200425049/ , archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20110216204935/http://www.variety.com/review/VE1117794297/ , archive-date = February 16, 2011 , access-date=June 4, 2007 , url-status=live
{{cite web, first=James , last=Charisma , title='Indiana Jones' Has Aged Terribly, website=Vice (magazine), Vice , date=June 19, 2020 , url=https://www.vice.com/en/article/j5wnay/indiana-jones-has-aged-terribly , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210120003222/https://www.vice.com/en/article/j5wnay/indiana-jones-has-aged-terribly , archive-date =January 20, 2021 , access-date=April 14, 2021 , url-status=live {{cite web , url=https://www.trustedreviews.com/reviews/lego-indiana-jones-the-original-adventures , title=Lego Indiana Jones: The Original Adventures , date=February 5, 2011 , website=Trusted Reviews , access-date=August 14, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200807101218/https://www.trustedreviews.com/reviews/lego-indiana-jones-the-original-adventures , archive-date=August 7, 2020, url-status=live {{cite web, first=Vashi , last= Nedomansky, title=Raiders of the Lost Ark – Matte Painting , url=https://vashivisuals.com/raiders-lost-ark-warehouse-matte-painting/ , date=May 6, 2014 , publisher=Vishi Visuals , access-date=April 14, 2021 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210205010955/https://vashivisuals.com/raiders-lost-ark-warehouse-matte-painting/ , archive-date=February 5, 2021 , url-status=live {{cite web , first=Christian , last=Williams , url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/1981/07/20/the-lady-of-the-lost-ark/fed74cbb-4a29-4cb8-880a-04448d0a9add/ , title=The Lady of The Lost Ark , website=The Washington Post , date=July 20, 1981 , access-date=August 1, 2020 , archive-url=https://archive.today/20200801122436/https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/1981/07/20/the-lady-of-the-lost-ark/fed74cbb-4a29-4cb8-880a-04448d0a9add/ , archive-date=August 1, 2020 , url-status=live , url-access=limited {{cite web , first=Jen , last=Chaney , title=The Spawn of Indy , url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/artsandliving/movies/features/2008/indiana-jones/index.html , website=The Washington Post , access-date=August 19, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190925215157/http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/artsandliving/movies/features/2008/indiana-jones/index.html , archive-date=September 25, 2019 , url-status=live , url-access=limited {{cite news, author-link=Bernard Weinraub , first=Bernard , last=Weinraub , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1997/07/22/movies/movies-for-children-and-their-parents-are-far-from-pollyanna.html , title=Movies for Children, and Their Parents, Are Far From 'Pollyanna' , date=July 22, 1997 , website=
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
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Works cited

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External links

* {{Official website, http://lucasfilm.com/indiana-jones-and-the-raiders-of-the-lost-ark, ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' at {{URL, lucasfilm.com/, Lucasfilm.com * {{IMDb title, 0082971, Raiders of the Lost Ark * {{AllMovie title * {{isfdb title, id=1441597, title=Raiders of the Lost Ark * {{tcmdb title, 22087, Raiders of the Lost Ark {{Indiana Jones {{Steven Spielberg {{George Lucas {{Lawrence Kasdan {{Philip Kaufman {{Navboxes, list1= {{Lucasfilm {{Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation 1981–2002 {{Saturn Award for Best Fantasy Film 1973–1990 {{Subject bar, portal1=1980s, portal2=Film , portal3=United States, commons=yes, n=yes, wikt=yes, q=yes, d=yes, d-search=Q174284 {{Authority control 1980s action adventure films 1980s supernatural films American action adventure films American films Ark of the Covenant Films directed by Steven Spielberg Films with screenplays by George Lucas Films produced by Frank Marshall Films scored by John Williams Films set in 1936 Films set in Egypt Films set in Nepal Films set in Peru Films set in Greece Films set in Washington, D.C. Films shot at Elstree Studios Films shot in California Films shot in England Films shot in France Films shot in Hawaii Films shot in Hertfordshire Films shot in San Francisco Films shot in Tunisia Films that won the Best Sound Editing Academy Award Films that won the Best Sound Mixing Academy Award Films that won the Best Visual Effects Academy Award Films whose art director won the Best Art Direction Academy Award Films whose editor won the Best Film Editing Academy Award Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation winning works IMAX films Indiana Jones films Lucasfilm films Museums in popular culture Films about Nazis Paramount Pictures films Treasure hunt films U-boat fiction United States National Film Registry films