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The Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) is a group of
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college
- and
university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...

university
-based
officer training A military academy or service academy ( in the United States) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps. It normally provides education in a military environment, the exact definition depending on ...
programs for training
commissioned officer An officer is a person who holds a position of authority as a member of an armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an i ...
s of the
United States Armed Forces The United States Armed Forces are the Military, military forces of the United States of America. The armed forces consists of six Military branch, service branches: the United States Army, Army, United States Marine Corps, Marine Corps, Uni ...

United States Armed Forces
.


Overview

While ROTC graduate officers serve in all branches of the U.S. military, the U.S. Marine Corps and the U.S. Coast Guard do not have their own respective ROTC programs; rather, graduates of Naval ROTC programs have the option to serve as officers in the Marine Corps contingent on meeting Marine Corps requirements. In 2017, ROTC graduates constituted 58.5 percent of newly commissioned active-duty
U.S. Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists ma ...
officers, 3.0 percent of newly commissioned U.S. Marine Corps officers (through NROTC), 21.4 percent of newly commissioned
U.S. Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = " Anchors Aweigh" ...
officers and 31.1 percent of newly commissioned
U.S. Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosphe ...

U.S. Air Force
officers, for a combined 36.9 percent of all active-duty officers in the Department of Defense commissioned that year. Under ROTC, a student may receive a competitive, merit-based scholarship covering all or part of college tuition, textbooks and lab fees, in return for an active-duty service obligation after graduation (or completion of a graduate degree under an approved education delay). ROTC students attend college like other students, but also receive basic military training and officer training for their chosen branch of service through the ROTC unit at or nearby the college. The students participate in regular drills during the school year and off-campus training opportunities during the summer.
Army ROTC The Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (AROTC) is the United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elev ...
units are organized as brigades, battalions and companies.
Air Force ROTC The Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (AFROTC) is one of the three primary Commissioned officer, commissioning sources for officers in the United States Air Force and United States Space Force, the other two being the United States Air Fo ...
units are detachments with the students organized into wings, groups, squadrons and flights. Army and Air Force ROTC students are referred to as cadets.
Naval ROTC The Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC) program is a college-based, commissioned officer training program of the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. Origins A pilot Naval Reserve unit was established in September 1924 ...
units are organized as battalions and also include NROTC students under "Marine Option" who will eventually be commissioned as officers in the Marine Corps. Marine NROTC students may be formed in a separate company when the program includes sufficient numbers. All Naval ROTC students are referred to as midshipmen. Some of the summer training that is offered to cadets in the Army ROTC program are: Airborne, Air Assault, Mountain Warfare, WHINSEC and other related schools. In addition to their mandatory pre-commissioning Field Training (FT) at
Maxwell AFB Maxwell Air Force Base , officially known as Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base, is a United States Air Force (USAF) installation under the Air Education and Training Command (AETC). The installation is located in Montgomery, Alabama, Montgomery, Alabam ...

Maxwell AFB
, Alabama (4 weeks for 4-year program cadets; 6 weeks for 2-year program cadets),
Air Force ROTC The Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (AFROTC) is one of the three primary Commissioned officer, commissioning sources for officers in the United States Air Force and United States Space Force, the other two being the United States Air Fo ...
cadets are also eligible for Airborne training under the tutelage of the Army at
Fort Benning Fort Benning is a United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable o ...
, Georgia. Naval ROTC midshipmen will participate in summer cruise programs every summer, either afloat or ashore, similar to their
U.S. Naval Academy , mottoeng = From Knowledge, Seapower , type = U.S. service academy , established = , academic_affiliations = APLU Space-grant , superintendent = VADM Sean Buck , head_label = Commandant of Midshipmen , head = CAPT Thomas R. Buchanan ...

U.S. Naval Academy
midshipmen counterparts.


History

The concept of ROTC in the United States was created by
Alden Partridge Alden Partridge, (February 12, 1785 - January 17, 1854) was an American author, legislator, Officer (armed forces), officer, Surveying, surveyor, an early List of United States Military Academy alumni (Superintendents), superintendent of the Unite ...
and began with the
Morrill Act The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consis ...
of 1862 which established the
land-grant colleges A land-grant university (also called land-grant college or land-grant institution) is an institution of higher education in the United States designated by a state to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890. Signed by Abraham ...
. Part of the federal government's requirement for these schools was that they include military tactics as part of their curriculum, forming what became known as ROTC. The college from which ROTC originated is
Norwich University Norwich University – The Military College of Vermont is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springf ...
in
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. Norwich was founded in 1819 at Norwich, Vermont, as the American Literary, Scientific and Military Academy. The university was founded by former West Point instructor Captain
Alden Partridge Alden Partridge, (February 12, 1785 - January 17, 1854) was an American author, legislator, Officer (armed forces), officer, Surveying, surveyor, an early List of United States Military Academy alumni (Superintendents), superintendent of the Unite ...
, who promoted the idea of a "citizen soldier"—a man trained to act in a military capacity when his nation required, but capable of fulfilling standard civilian functions in peacetime. This idea eventually led to the formation of Reservist and National Guard units with regimented training in place of local militia forces. Another root of the modern ROTC program comes from the "Plattsburg Idea". In 1915, Major General
Leonard Wood Leonard Wood (October 9, 1860 – August 7, 1927) was a United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare, land military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight Uniformed service ...
instituted the Citizen's Military Training Corps, the first series of training camps to make officers out of civilians. For the first time in history, an attempt was made to provide a condensed course of training and commissioning competent reserve line officers after only a summer of military training. In 1916, the provision to formally establish ROTC was advocated to
Congress Congresses are formal meetings of the representatives of different countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, ...

Congress
by a delegation from
Ohio Ohio () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Ohio
including
William Oxley Thompson Image:OSU Thompson Library West Side.JPG, Statue of William Oxley Thompson, Statue of Thompson on the Ohio State campus William Oxley Thompson, D.D. (November 5, 1855 – December 9, 1933) was the fifth President of The Ohio State University. ...
, President of the
Ohio State University The Ohio State University, commonly Ohio State or OSU, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between an individual or an organization ...
. On February 7, 1916, Ralph D. Mershon, a graduate of Ohio State, testified before the committee as a professional
engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of enginee ...

engineer
. Present to testify as an advocate of a Reserve Engineers Corps, he expanded his remarks to argue in favor of the "Ohio Plan." Mershon noted: : "... the transformation that will take place in one term of drill in a man just off the farm and very clumsy when he enters college, and who at the end of a term is 'set up', carries himself well, looks neat in his uniform, and has acquired a measure of self-respect, and the respect of his colleagues, to an extent he would not have had without the military training." Congress agreed, and the ROTC provision was included in the final version of the
National Defense Act of 1916 The ''National Defense Act of 1916'', , was a United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It co ...
. The first ROTC unit was at
Harvard Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...
in 1916. Over 5,000 men arrived at Plattsburgh in May 1917 for the first of the large training corps. By the end of 1917, over 17,000 men had been trained. By the eve of its entry into
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, the U.S. had a prepared corps of officers including one of the earliest Plattsburgh graduates, Theodore Roosevelt Jr. The
National Defense Act of 1920 National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared territory. A nation is more overtly political than an ...
ramped up ROTC, and by 1928, units had been established at 225 colleges and universities. They were commissioning 6,000 second lieutenants per year. During the 1930s, there were ROTC programs in some larger city high schools (Memphis, TN; Charlotte, NC; Kansas City, MO; New Orleans, LA). Until the 1960s, many major universities required compulsory ROTC for all of their male students. However, because of the protests that culminated in the opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, compulsory ROTC was dropped in favor of voluntary programs. In some places ROTC was expelled from campus altogether, although it was always possible to participate in off-campus ROTC. As of 2021, more than 1,700 high schools have Junior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (JROTC) programs. In the 21st century, the debate often focused around the Congressional
don't ask, don't tell "Don't ask, don't tell" (DADT) was the official United States policy on military service by gay men, bisexuals, and lesbians, instituted during the Clinton administration Bill Clinton's tenure as the List of presidents of the United Sta ...
law, signed into law by President
Bill Clinton William Jefferson Clinton ('' né'' Blythe III; born August 19, 1946) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 42nd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and ...

Bill Clinton
in 1993 and in force until 2011, which forbade homosexuals serving in the United States military from disclosing their sexual orientation at the risk of expulsion. Some schools believed this legal mandate would require them to waive or amend their non-discrimination policies. In recent years, concerted efforts are being made at some
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports team A sports team is a group of individuals who play sport Sport pertains to any form ...
universities that have previously banned ROTC (including
Columbia Columbia may refer to: * Columbia (personification), the historical female national personification of the United States, and a poetic name for the Americas Places North America Natural features * Columbia Plateau, a geologic and geographic regio ...

Columbia
) to return ROTC to campus. The Harvard ROTC program was reinstated effective March 4, 2011 following enactment of the
Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010 The Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010 (, ) is a landmark United States federal statute enacted in December 2010 that established a process for ending the " don't ask, don't tell" (DADT) policy (), thus allowing gay, lesbian, and bisex ...
. Under current law, there are three types of ROTC programs administered, each with a different element. * The first are the programs at the six
senior military colleges In the United States, a senior military college (SMC) is one of six colleges that offer military Reserve Officers' Training Corps The Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) is a group of college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an edu ...
, also known as military schools. These institutions grant baccalaureate degrees (at a minimum) and organize all or some of their students into a under some sort of military discipline. Those participating in the cadet program must attend at least 2 years of ROTC education. * The second are programs at "civilian colleges". As defined under Army regulations, these are schools that grant baccalaureate or graduate degrees and are not operated on a military basis. *The third category is programs at military junior colleges (MJC). These are military schools that provide junior college education (typically A.S. or A.A. degree). These schools do not grant baccalaureate degrees but they meet all other requirements of military colleges (if participating in the
Early Commissioning Program Early Commissioning Program (ECP) is a U.S. Army ROTC program that allows graduates of one of the nation's four Military Junior Colleges (MJC) to become commissioned officers An officer is a member of an armed forces A military, also ...
) and cadets are required to meet the same military standards as other schools (if enrolled in ECP), as set by Army Cadet Command. Cadets can be commissioned as second lieutenants in the Army Reserve/Army National Guard as graduating sophomores. Upon commissioning, these lieutenants are required to complete their bachelor's degree at another institution (of the lieutenant's choosing) while serving in their units. Upon receiving their bachelors, ECP lieutenants can assess active duty and go onto active duty as a first lieutenant. Only the Army currently offers an
Early Commissioning Program Early Commissioning Program (ECP) is a U.S. Army ROTC program that allows graduates of one of the nation's four Military Junior Colleges (MJC) to become commissioned officers An officer is a member of an armed forces A military, also ...
. In time of war, MJC's have played a significant role in producing officers for the Army. During the Vietnam war, the requirement to complete one's bachelor's degree was not in effect. Therefore, upon commissioning lieutenants went straight onto active duty. One difference between civilian colleges and the senior or junior military colleges is enrollment option in ROTC. ROTC is voluntary for students attending civilian colleges and universities. However, with few exceptions (as outlined in both Army regulations and federal law) it is required of students attending the senior and junior military colleges. Another major difference between the senior military colleges and civilian colleges is that under federal law, graduates of the SMCs are guaranteed
active duty Active duty is a full-time occupation as part of a military force, as opposed to reserve duty. In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is ...
assignments if requested with the approval of the school's professor of military science.


U.S. Army ROTC

The Army Reserve Officer Training Corps (AROTC) program is the largest branch of ROTC, as the Army is the largest branch of the military. There are over 20,000 ROTC cadets in 273 ROTC programs at major
universities A university () is an of (or ) and which awards s in several . Universities typically offer both and programs in different schools or faculties of learning. The word ''university'' is derived from the ''universitas magistrorum et scholari ...
throughout the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. These schools are categorized as Military Colleges (MC), Military Junior Colleges (MJC) and Civilian Colleges (CC). Army ROTC provides the majority of the Army's officer corps; the remainder comes from West Point, Officer Candidate School (OCS), or direct commissions. AROTC offers scholarships based on the time of enrollment in the program. Newly graduated seniors in high school can enter the program with a full four-year scholarship while college students can enroll later and earn a scholarship that would cover the remainder of their college career. The two-year scholarship is available for students with two academic years of college remaining. An applicant for a two-year or four-year scholarship must meet the following requirements: * U.S. citizen * High school diploma or equivalent * Between ages 17 and 27 * College GPA of at least 2.5 * Army physical fitness standard The applicant must agree to accept a commission and serve in the Army on Active Duty or in a Reserve Component (U.S. Army Reserve or Army National Guard). The four-year scholarship is for students who receive it out of high school or before entering college. The four-year scholarship can be extended with the same conditions to a 5-year scholarship if the major is in Engineering. The two-and-a-half-year scholarship is available for students already enrolled in a college or university with three academic years remaining. An applicant for a two-and-a-half-year scholarship must meet the requirements for a two-year scholarship and also have a minimum SAT score of 920 or ACT score of 19. Once an applicant has shown interest in the AROTC program the cadre can select him for a scholarship if he/she excels in the three major pillars: # Grades – 2.5 GPA or better # PT – score of 60 in each category (push-ups, sit-ups, and a two-mile run) # Participation – extracurricular activities in the program, community, or school Prior to 2015, a cadet had to have passed LDAC between their summer of becoming a senior. LDAC (Leadership Developmental and Assessment Course) was held at Fort Lewis, Washington until its final year at Fort Knox, Kentucky, where each cadet would be evaluated on leadership skills. The course was set up for a month of training with other peers and evaluated by prior servicemen. From 2015, cadets attend Advanced Camp between their junior and senior year at Fort Knox, Kentucky. For 2015 and 2016, the training was not evaluated and simply pass/no pass beginning in 2017 Advanced Camp will become evaluated again. Cadet Summer Training (CST), including Advanced Camp and basic camp, is the U.S. Army's largest training event.


U.S. Navy ROTC

The Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC) program was founded in 1926 and the U.S. Marine Corps joined the program in 1932. The naval NROTC program is offered at over 150 colleges nationwide. The Nation's first Marine Corps oriented NROTC was established at
The Citadel The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina, commonly known simply as The Citadel, is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is ...
in 1970.


U.S. Air Force ROTC

The first Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (then Air ROTC) units were established between 1920 and 1923 at the
University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...

University of California, Berkeley
, the
Georgia Institute of Technology * The Georgia Institute of Technology, commonly referred to as Georgia Tech or, in the state of Georgia, as Tech, is a public university, public research university and institute of technology in Atlanta, Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. It is p ...
, the
University of Illinois The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (U of I, Illinois, or colloquially the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public university, public land-grant university, land-grant research university in Illinois in the twin cities of Champaign ...
, the
University of Washington The University of Washington (UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...

University of Washington
, the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, aft ...
and
Texas A&M University Texas A&M University (Texas A&M, A&M, or TAMU) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organi ...
. After
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the Air Force established ROTC units at 77 colleges and universities throughout the United States.


Controversy

The
Solomon Amendment The term Solomon Amendment has been applied to several provisions of U.S. law originally sponsored by U.S. Representative Gerald B. H. Solomon (R-NY). The 1982 Solomon Amendment was an amendment to a Federal education bill that made compliance wi ...
denies federal funding to any university with a "policy or practice" that prevents the military from "maintaining, establishing or operating" ROTC on its campus. Such universities are allowed to require that ROTC adhere to the same policies as the university's other academic programs. According to Diane Mazur of the
Palm Center The Palm Center is a think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research. Research institutes may specialize in basic res ...
, the military has withdrawn ROTC from a number of universities rather than adapt to those policies or accept extracurricular status. In her analysis, both the military and academe (as of the fall of 2010) preferred not to dispute the public perception that elite universities had banned ROTC programs. She wrote: Others argue that universities effectively ban ROTC by erecting procedural hurdles motivated by anti-military sentiment and objections to discrimination based on sexual orientation that only serve to "discourage their own presumably egalitarian, intelligent, and enlightened students from joining". ROTC programs were subject to the military's ban on service by open gays and lesbians known as "
Don't ask don't tell "Don't ask, don't tell" (DADT) was the official United States policy on military service by gay men, bisexuals, and lesbians, instituted by the Clinton Administration The presidency of Bill Clinton began at noon Eastern Time Zone, EST (17 ...
".
LGBT ' is an initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (li ...

LGBT
students occasionally protested ROTC as a proxy for the policy. An act to repeal the policy was signed by President
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
on December 22, 2010, and implementation took effect September 20, 2011.


Non-U.S. ROTC programs

Other national armed forces in countries with strong historical ties to the United States have ROTC programs. * ROTC in the Philippines began in 1912 during American colonial rule with the creation of the first unit at the
University of the Philippines The University of the Philippines (UP; fil, Pamantasan ng Pilipinas Unibersidad ng Pilipinas) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
. The National ROTC Alumni Association (NRAA) of the Philippines estimates that 75 percent of the officer corps of the Armed Forces of the Philippines come from ROTC. * ROTC in South Korea started in 1961. * ROTC in Taiwan started in the 1960s with training courses being severely reduced over the years as an experiment before it was implemented again in 1997. Other countries have also institutionalized reservist training programs. Reserve Officer Training in Russia began in the 1920s. Brazil has had the CPOR and the NPOR since 1928, the difference being that officers trained by the CPOR choose their area of specialization, while officers trained by the NPOR learn from their local army base.


Student Army Training Corps (SATC)

During World War I, the United States created the Student Army Training Corps in an effort to encourage young men to receive both a college education and train for the military simultaneously. Those young men who did exceptionally well in the SATC classes were recommended for classes in the ROTC. On February 10, 1918, the War Department created the Committee on Education and Special Training. The purpose of this committee was to assess the needs of the military branches and attend to said needs. Seeing a drastic need for trained soldiers, the Student Army Training Corps was created to provide "special training for men entering the service through voluntary induction". Training camps were held in the summer of 1918 to prepare institutions with at least one-hundred male students for the induction of the SATC that fall. Training started July 18 and lasted for sixty days. The SATC officially began on October 1, 1918. It was located on 525 educational institutions and inducted 200,000 total students on the first day. Unlike the Selective Service Draft, enrollment in the SATC was completely voluntary. However, doing so gave you the rank of private in the United States army, therefore this was not a way of avoiding enlistment. While attending the SATC did allow for young men to stay on the home front, the ultimate goal of this was creating trained soldiers for the military. The SATC was short-lived. With the
Armistice An armistice is a formal agreement Agreement or concord (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates. It is an instance of inflection, and usually involves making ...

Armistice
being signed on November 11, 1918, the Army's need for more soldiers ended. The SATC was disbanded in December 1918.


See also

*
Early Commissioning Program Early Commissioning Program (ECP) is a U.S. Army ROTC program that allows graduates of one of the nation's four Military Junior Colleges (MJC) to become commissioned officers An officer is a member of an armed forces A military, also ...
* Gold Bar Recruiter *
Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps The Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps (JROTC -- commonly pronounced "JAY-rawtsee") is a federal program sponsored by the United States Armed Forces The United States Armed Forces are the Military, military forces of the United States ...
(JROTC) * Pershing Rifles *
Military Junior College A military junior college (MJC) is a military-style junior college in the United States and one of the three major categories of the Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps, Army ROTC schools that allows cadets to become commissioned officers in the ...
*
United States Senior Military College In the United States, a senior military college (SMC) is one of six colleges that offer military Reserve Officers' Training Corps The Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) is a group of college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an edu ...
*
United States Service academies The United States service academies, also known as the United States military academies, are federal academies for the undergraduate education and training of commissioned officers for the United States Armed Forces. There are five U.S. servic ...


References


Further reading

* Deborah D. Avant (2005) ''The Market for Force: The Consequences of Privatizing Security'',
Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowled ...
. * David Axe (2007) ''Army 101: Inside ROTC in a Time of War''. * Charles Johnson (2002) ''African Americans and ROTC: Military, Naval, and Aeroscience Programs at Historically Black Colleges 1916 — 1973''. * Betty J. Morden (1990) ''Women's Army Corps'', p 287. * Jennifer M. Silva, "ROTC", chapter 35 of ''Gender and Higher Education'' by Barbara J. Bank. * Harlow G Unger (2007) ''Encyclopedia of American Education'', p 938. * David Atkinson (2012) Ultimate ROTC Guidebook, The: Tips, Tricks, and Tactics for Excelling in Reserve Officers' Training Corps.


External links


U.S. Air Force ROTC

U.S. Army ROTC

U.S. Navy ROTC
{{DEFAULTSORT:Reserve Officers' Training Corps 1916 establishments in the United States 1916 in military history National Defense Act of 1916 Student organizations established in 1916