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Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (; 35 – 100 AD) was a
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman
educator
educator
and
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Trivium, three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or sp ...
ian from
Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testame ...

Hispania
, widely referred to in
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
schools of rhetoric and in
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
writing. In English translation, he is usually referred to as Quintilian (), although the alternate spellings of Quintillian and Quinctilian are occasionally seen, the latter in older texts.


Life

Quintilian was born c. 35 AD in ''Calagurris'' (
Calahorra Calahorra [] ( an, Calagorra, la, Calagurris) La Rioja (autonomous community), La Rioja, Spain is a municipality in the comarca of Rioja Baja, near the border with Navarre on the right bank of the Ebro. During Ancient Rome, Ancient Roman times, C ...

Calahorra
, La Rioja) in
Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testame ...

Hispania
. His father, a well-educated man, sent him to Rome to study rhetoric early in the reign of
Nero Nero ( ; full name: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December AD 37 – 9 June AD 68) was the fifth emperor of Rome. He was Adoption in Ancient Rome, adopted by the Roman emperor Claudius at the age of 13 and s ...

Nero
. While there, he cultivated a relationship with
Domitius Afer Gnaeus Domitius Afer (died 59) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Roma ...
, who died in 59. "It had always been the custom … for young men with ambitions in public life to fix upon some older model of their ambition … and regard him as a mentor". Quintilian evidently adopted Afer as his model and listened to him speak and plead cases in the law courts. Afer has been characterized as a more austere, classical, Ciceronian speaker than those common at the time of
Seneca the Younger Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger (; AD65), usually known as Seneca, was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', ...
, and he may have inspired Quintilian's love of
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during crisis of ...

Cicero
. Sometime after Afer's death, Quintilian returned to Hispania, possibly to practice law in the courts of his own province. However, in 68, he returned to Rome as part of the retinue of Emperor
Galba Galba (; born Servius Sulpicius Galba; 24 December 3 BC – 15 January AD 69) was a Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different ...

Galba
, Nero's short-lived successor. Quintilian does not appear to have been a close advisor of the Emperor, which probably ensured his survival after the assassination of Galba in 69. After Galba's death, and during the chaotic
Year of the Four Emperors The Year of the Four Emperors, AD 69 AD 69 (Roman numerals, LXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Galba, Augus ...

Year of the Four Emperors
which followed, Quintilian opened a public school of
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Trivium, three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or sp ...
. Among his students were
Pliny the Younger Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger (), was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Rom ...

Pliny the Younger
, and perhaps
Tacitus Publius Cornelius Tacitus ( , ; – ) was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historians by modern scholars. He lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature Classi ...

Tacitus
. The Emperor
Vespasian Vespasian (; la, Vespasianus ; 17 November AD 9 – 23/24 June 79) was a Roman emperor who reigned from 69 to 79 AD. The fourth and last emperor who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors, he founded the Flavian dynasty that ruled the Empire ...

Vespasian
made him a ''
consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the powe ...
.'' The emperor "in general was not especially interested in the arts, but … was interested in education as a means of creating an intelligent and responsible ruling class". This subsidy enabled Quintilian to devote more time to the school, since it freed him of pressing monetary concerns. In addition, he appeared in the courts of law, arguing on behalf of clients. Of his personal life, little is known. In the ''Institutio Oratoria'', he mentions a wife who died young, as well as two sons who predeceased him. Quintilian retired from teaching and pleading in 88 AD, during the reign of
Domitian Domitian (; la, Domitianus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles thr ...

Domitian
. His retirement may have been prompted by his achievement of financial security and his desire to become a gentleman of leisure. Quintilian survived several emperors; the reigns of Vespasian and
Titus Titus Caesar Vespasianus ( ; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles thro ...

Titus
were relatively peaceful, but that of Domitian was reputed to be difficult. Domitian's cruelty and paranoia may have prompted the rhetorician to distance himself quietly. The emperor does not appear to have taken offence as he made Quintilian tutor of his two grand-nephews in 90 AD. He is believed to have died sometime around 100 AD, not having long survived Domitian, who was assassinated in 96.


Works

The only extant work of Quintilian is a twelve-volume textbook on rhetoric entitled ''
Institutio Oratoria ''Institutio Oratoria'' (English language, English: Institutes of Oratory) is a twelve-volume textbook on the theory and practice of rhetoric by Roman rhetorician Quintilian. It was published around year 95 CE. The work deals also with the founda ...
'' (generally referred to in English as the ''Institutes of Oratory''), written around 95 AD. This work deals not only with the theory and practice of rhetoric, but also with the foundational education and development of the
orator An orator, or oratist, is a public speaker, especially one who is eloquent or skilled. Etymology Recorded in English c. 1374, with a meaning of "one who pleads or argues for a cause", from Anglo-French ''oratour'', Old French ''orateur'' (14th ...
himself, providing advice that ran from the cradle to the grave. An earlier text, ''De Causis Corruptae Eloquentiae'' ("On the Causes of Corrupted Eloquence") has been lost, but is believed to have been "a preliminary exposition of some of the views later set forth in 'Institutio Oratoria''. In addition, there are two sets of declamations, ''Declamationes Maiores'' and ''Declamationes Minores'', which have been attributed to Quintilian. However, there is some dispute over the real writer of these texts: "Some modern scholars believe that the declamations circulated in his name represent the lecture notes of a scholar either using Quintilian's system or actually trained by him".


''Institutio Oratoria''

''Institutio Oratoria'' (English: ''Institutes of Oratory'') is a twelve-volume textbook on the theory and practice of
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Trivium, three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or sp ...
by Roman rhetorician Quintilian. It was written around year 95 AD. The work deals also with the foundational education and development of the
orator An orator, or oratist, is a public speaker, especially one who is eloquent or skilled. Etymology Recorded in English c. 1374, with a meaning of "one who pleads or argues for a cause", from Anglo-French ''oratour'', Old French ''orateur'' (14th ...
himself. In this work, Quintilian establishes that the perfect orator is first a good man, and after that he is a good speaker. He also believed that a speech should stay genuine to a message that is "just and honorable". This came to be known as his good man theory, embracing the message that if one cannot be genuinely good, then one cannot be a good speaker for the people. This theory also revolves around being of service to the people. A good man is one who works for the good of the people and the prosperity of society. Quintilian wrote ''Institutio Oratoria'' in the last years of
Domitian Domitian (; la, Domitianus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles thr ...

Domitian
’s rule of the empire. He had worked alongside Domitian, but as he began to write more and ease away from Emperor Domitian’s complete power, the emperor did not seem to mind as he was so impressed with Quintilian, he hired him to be a tutor for his family because of Quintilian’s devotion to education. Domitian was in the harshest period of his rule, and almost no one had the courage to speak any idea that was unlike his, but Quintilian did. He spoke as an orator in the tradition of Cicero, such as had not been seen since the beginning of the reign of
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
. Rather than pleading cases, as an orator of his era might have been expected to do, he concentrated on speaking in more general terms about how sound rhetoric influences the education of the people.


Placement of Quintilian's rhetoric

Quintilian cites many authors in the ''Institutio Oratoria'' before providing his own definition of
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Trivium, three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or sp ...
. His rhetoric is chiefly defined by
Cato the Elder Marcus Porcius Cato (; 234–149 BC), also known as Cato the Censor ( la, Censorius), the Elder and the Wise, was a Roman soldier, senator A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicam ...
’s ''vir bonus, dicendi peritus'', or “the good man skilled at speaking”. Later he states: “I should like the orator I am training to be a sort of Roman Wise Man”. Quintilian also “insists that his ideal orator is no philosopher because the philosopher does not take as a duty participation in civic life; this is constitutive of Quintilian's (and
Isocrates Isocrates (; grc, Ἰσοκράτης ; 436–338 BC) was an ancient Greek rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Tri ...
' and
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during crisis of ...

Cicero
's) ideal orator". Though he calls for
imitation Imitation (from Latin ''imitatio'', "a copying, imitation") is an advanced behavior whereby an individual observes and replicates another's behavior. Imitation is also a form of social learning that leads to the "development of traditions, and ...
, he also urges the orator to use this knowledge to inspire his own original invention. No author receives greater praise in the ''Institutio Oratoria'' than Cicero: "For who can instruct with greater thoroughness, or more deeply stir the emotions? Who has ever possessed such a gift of charm?". Quintilian's definition of rhetoric shares many similarities with that of Cicero, one being the importance of the speaker's moral character. Like Cicero, Quintilian also believes that “history and philosophy can increase an orator’s command of ''copia'' and style;" they differ in that Quintilian “features the character of the orator, as well as the art”. In Book II, Quintilian sides with
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought and the Platoni ...

Plato
’s assertion in the '' Phaedrus'' that the rhetorician must be just: “In the ''Phaedrus'', Plato makes it even clearer that the complete attainment of this art is even impossible without the knowledge of justice, an opinion in which I heartily concur". Their views are further similar in their treatment of “(1) the inseparability, in more respects than one, of wisdom, goodness, and eloquence; and (2) the morally ideological nature of rhetoric. ..For both, there are conceptual connections between rhetoric and justice which rule out the possibility of
n
n
amorally neutral conception of rhetoric. For both, rhetoric is ‘speaking well,’ and for both ‘speaking well’ means speaking justly".


Influence of Quintilian

The influence of Quintilian's masterwork, ''Institutio Oratoria'', can be felt in several areas. First of all, there is his criticism of the orator
Seneca the Younger Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger (; AD65), usually known as Seneca, was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', ...
. Quintilian was attempting to modify the prevailing imperial style of oratory with his book, and Seneca was the principal figure in that style's tradition. He was more recent than many of the authors mentioned by Quintilian, but his reputation within the post-classical style necessitated both his mention and the criticism or back-handed praise that is given to him. Quintilian believed that “his style is for the most part corrupt and extremely dangerous because it abounds in attractive faults”. Seneca was regarded as doubly dangerous because his style was sometimes attractive. This reading of Seneca “has heavily coloured subsequent judgments of Seneca and his style". Quintilian also made an impression on
Martial Marcus Valerius Martialis (known in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has ...

Martial
, the Latin poet. A short poem, written in 86 AD, was addressed to him, and opened, "Quintilian, greatest director of straying youth, / you are an honour, Quintilian, to the Roman toga". However, one should not take Martial's praise at face value, since he was known for his sly and witty insults. The opening lines are all that are usually quoted, but the rest of the poem contains lines such as "A man who longs to surpass his father’s census rating" (6). This speaks of Quintilian's ambitious side and his drive for wealth and position. After his death, Quintilian's influence fluctuated. He was mentioned by his pupil, Pliny, and by
Juvenal Decimus Junius Juvenalis (), known in English as Juvenal ( ), was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shorte ...

Juvenal
, who may have been another student, “as an example of sobriety and of worldly success unusual in the teaching profession”. During the 3rd to 5th centuries, his influence was felt among such authors as St. Augustine of Hippo, whose discussion of signs and figurative language certainly owed something to Quintilian, and to
St. Jerome Jerome (; la, Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 342–347 – 30 September 420), also known as Jerome of Stridon, was a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belo ...

St. Jerome
, editor of the
Vulgate Bible The Vulgate (; also called , ) is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, H ...
, whose theories on education are clearly influenced by Quintilian's. The
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
saw a decline in knowledge of his work, since existing manuscripts of ''Institutio Oratoria'' were fragmented, but the Italian
humanists Humanism is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or some ...
revived interest in the work after the discovery by
Poggio Bracciolini Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini (11 February 1380 – 30 October 1459), usually referred to simply as Poggio Bracciolini, was an Italians, Italian scholar and an early Renaissance humanism, Renaissance humanist. He was responsible for rediscover ...

Poggio Bracciolini
in 1416 of a forgotten, complete manuscript in the monastery of
St. Gall Saint Gall, or Gallus ( 550 646, german: Sankt Gallus) according to hagiographic tradition was a disciple and one of the traditional twelve companions of Saint Columbanus on his mission from Ireland to the continent. Saint Deicolus was the ...
, which he found "buried in rubbish and dust" in a filthy dungeon. The influential scholar
Leonardo Bruni 250px, Leonardo Bruni, engraving by Theodor de Bry Leonardo Bruni (or Leonardo Aretino; c. 1370 – March 9, 1444) was an Italians, Italian humanism, humanist, historian and statesman, often recognized as the most important humanist historian of ...

Leonardo Bruni
, considered the first modern historian, greeted the news by writing to his friend Poggio:
It will be your glory to restore to the present age, by your labour and diligence, the writings of excellent authors, which have hitherto escaped the researches of the learned... Oh! what a valuable acquisition! What an unexpected pleasure! Shall I then behold Quintilian whole and entire, who, even in his imperfect state, was so rich a source of delight?... But Quintilian is so consummate a master of rhetoric and oratory, that when, after having delivered him from his long imprisonment in the dungeons of the barbarians, you transmit him to this country, all the nations of Italy ought to assemble to bid him welcome... Quintilian, an author whose works I will not hesitate to affirm, are more an object of desire to the learned than any others, excepting only Cicero's dissertation ''De Republica.''
The Italian poet
Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases ...

Petrarch
addressed one of his letters to the dead to Quintilian, and for many he “provided the inspiration for a new humanistic philosophy of education”. This enthusiasm for Quintilian spread with humanism itself, reaching northern Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citiz ...

Martin Luther
, the German theologian and ecclesiastical reformer, "claimed that he preferred Quintilian to almost all authors, 'in that he educates and at the same time demonstrates eloquence, that is, he teaches in word and in deed most happily'". The influence of Quintilian's works is also seen in Luther's contemporary
Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (; English: Erasmus of Rotterdam;''Erasmus'' was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae. ''Desiderius'' was a self-adopted additional name, which he used from 1496. The ''Roterodamus'' was a schol ...

Erasmus
of Rotterdam. He above all shaped the implicit depth of humanism and had studied at Steyn. It has been argued by a musicologist, Ursula Kirkendale, that the composition of
Johann Sebastian Bach Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the late Baroque music, Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Cello Suites (Bach), Cello Suites and ''Brandenburg Concertos''; keyboard ...

Johann Sebastian Bach
's ''Das musikalische Opfer'' (
The Musical Offering ''The Musical Offering'' (German: or ), Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis, BWV 1079, is a collection of keyboard canon (music), canons and fugues and other pieces of music by Johann Sebastian Bach, all based on a single musical Subject (music), theme given t ...
, BWV 1079), was closely connected with the ''Institutio Oratoria''. Among Bach's duties during his tenure at Leipzig (1723–1750) was teaching Latin; his early training included rhetoric. (Philologist and Rector of the Leipzig Thomasschule,
Johann Matthias Gesner Johann Matthias Gesner (9 April 1691 – 3 August 1761) was a German classical scholar Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity, and in the Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to ...

Johann Matthias Gesner
, for whom Bach composed a cantata in 1729, published a substantial Quintilian edition with a long footnote in Bach's honor.) After this high point, Quintilian's influence seems to have lessened somewhat, although he is mentioned by the English poet
Alexander Pope Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) is seen as one of the greatest English poets and the foremost poet of the early 18th century. He is best known for satirical and discursive poetry, including ''The Rape of the Lock ''The Rape of ...

Alexander Pope
in his versified ''An Essay on Criticism'':
In grave Quintilian’s copious works we find The justest rules and clearest method join’d (lines 669–70).
In addition, “he is often mentioned by writers like
Montaigne 270px, The coat of arms of Michel Eyquem, Lord of Montaigne Michel Eyquem de Montaigne ( ; ; 28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592), also known as Lord of Montaigne, was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissanc ...

Montaigne
and
LessingLessing is a German surname of Slavic origin, originally ''Lesnik'' meaning "woodman". Lessing may refer to: A German family of writers, artists, musicians and politicians who can be traced back to a Michil Lessigk mentioned in 1518 as being a line ...

Lessing
... but he made no major contribution to intellectual history, and by the nineteenth century he seemed to be... rather little read and rarely edited”. However, in his celebrated ''Autobiography,''
John Stuart Mill John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 7 May 1873), also cited as J. S. Mill, was an English philosopher, Political economy, political economist, Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament (MP) and civil servant. One of the most i ...
(arguably the nineteenth-century's most influential English intellectual) spoke highly of Quintilian as a force in his early education. He wrote that Quintilian, while little-read in Mill's day due to "his obscure style and to the scholastic details of which many parts of his treatise are made up," was "seldom sufficiently appreciated." "His book," Mill continued, "is a kind of encyclopaedia of the thoughts of the ancients on the whole field of education and culture; and I have retained through life many valuable ideas which I can distinctly trace to my reading of him...". He was also highly praised by
Thomas De Quincey Thomas Penson De Quincey (; 15 August 17858 December 1859) was an English writer, essayist, and literary critic, best known for his ''Confessions of an English Opium-Eater'' (1821). Many scholars suggest that in publishing this work De Quincey ...
: " r elegance and as a practical model in the art he was expounding, neither Aristotle, nor any less austere among the Greek rhetoricians, has any pretensions to measure himself with Quintilian. In reality, for a triumph over the difficulties of the subject, and as a lesson on the possibility of imparting grace to the treatment of scholastic topics, naturally as intractable as that of Grammar or Prosody, there is no such chef-d'œuvre to this hour in any literature, as the Institutions of Quintilian". In more recent times, Quintilian appears to have made another upward turn. He is frequently included in anthologies of literary criticism, and is an integral part of the history of education. He is believed to be the "earliest spokesman for a child-centered education" (141), which is discussed above under his
early childhood education#REDIRECT Early childhood education Early childhood education (ECE; also nursery education) is a branch of education theory that relates to the teaching of child Biologically, a child (plural children) is a human Humans (''Homo sap ...
theories. As well, he has something to offer students of speech, professional writing, and rhetoric, because of the great detail with which he covers the rhetorical system. His discussions of
tropes Trope or tropes may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Trope (cinema) In Film, cinema, a trope is what ''The Art Direction Handbook for Film'' defines as "a universally identified image imbued with several layers of contextual meaning crea ...
and figures also formed the foundation of contemporary works on the nature of figurative language, including the
post-structuralist Post-structuralism is a term for philosophical, theoretical and literary forms of theory that both build upon and reject ideas established by structuralism In sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns o ...
and formalist theories. For example, the works of
Jacques Derrida Jacques Derrida (; ; born Jackie Élie Derrida; See also . July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004), born in Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers ...
on the failure of language to impart the truth of the objects it is meant to represent would not be possible without Quintilian's assumptions about the function of figurative language and tropes.


See also

* Quadripartita ratio *
Dionysian imitatio Dionysian ''imitatio'' is the influential literary method of imitation as formulated by Greek author Dionysius of Halicarnassus Dionysius of Halicarnassus ( grc-gre, Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἁλικαρνασσεύς, ; c. 60 afte ...


References

* * * * * Footnotes


Further reading

* Bonner, Stanley F. ''Education in Ancient Rome: From the elder Cato to the younger Pliny.'' London: Methuen & Company, Ltd., 1977. * Clarke, M.L. ''Rhetoric at Rome: A Historical Survey.'' New York: Routledge, 1996. * Dozier, Curtis Andrew. "Poetry, Politics, and Pleasure in Quintilian." ''Aesthetic Value in Classical Antiquity.'' 345–363. * Fantham, Elaine. ''Roman Readings: Roman Response to Greek Literature from Plautus to Statius and Quintilian.'' Beiträge zur Altertumskunde, 277. Berlin; New York: De Gruyter, 2011. * Galand, P., F. Hallyn, C. Lévy, W. Verbaal, ''Quintilien ancien et moderne. Etudes réunies'', Turnhout 2010, Brepols Publishers, * Gernot, Krapinger (ed.), uintilian''Der Gladiator'' (Groessere Deklamationen, 9). Collana Scientifica, 18. Cassino: Universita\ degli Studi di Cassino, 2007. * Kennedy, George Alexander. ''The Art of Rhetoric in the Roman World 300 B.C.–A.D.'' 300. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1972. * Laing, Gordon J. ''Quintilian, the Schoolmaster.'' The Classical Journal 15.9 (1920): 515–34. * Leitch, Vincent B., Ed. ''The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism.'' New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2001. * Morgan, Teresa. ''Literate Education in the Hellenistic and Roman Worlds.'' Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998. * Murray, Oswyn, John Boardman, and Jasper Griffin, Eds. ''The Oxford History of the Roman World.'' New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. * Quintilian. ''Quintilian's Institutes of Oratory; Or, Education of an Orator.'' J. S. Watson. London: G. Bell and Sons, 1856. Print. * Thomas, Zinsmaier, uintilian ''Die Hände der blinden Mutter'' (Größere Deklamationen, 6). Collana Scientifica 24. Cassino: Edizioni Università di Cassino, 2009. * Winterbottom, Michael. ''Problems in Quintilian.'' London: University of London, Institute of Classical Studies, 1970.


External links

* Short biography of Quintilian
About
* Article on Quintilian from NNBD
Quintilian

Works by Quintilian
a
Somni
*
''De institutione oratoria''
digitized codex, 1482 *
''De institutione oratoria''
digitized codex, 1473 * * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Quintilian 30s births 100s deaths
Year of birth uncertain This category contains individuals whose year of birth is uncertain or disputed. {{CatAutoTOC Articles missing birth or death information Uncertain ...
Year of death uncertain Category, plural categories, may refer to: Philosophy and general uses *Categorization, categories in cognitive science, information science and generally *Category of being *Categories (Aristotle), ''Categories'' (Aristotle) *Category (Kant) * ...
Ancient Roman rhetoricians Latin-language writers Ancient Roman writers Literary critics Literary theorists Rhetoric theorists Silver Age Latin writers Trope theorists Romans from Hispania
1st-century RomansPeople of the Roman Empire in the 1st century {{CatAutoTOC Roman people by century, 01 1st-century people by nationality, Roman People of the Roman Empire, 1st century 1st century in the Roman Empire, People ...
1st-century writers Fabii 1st-century educators