Name and usageAccording to the Government of Canada, the Government of Quebec, and the Geographical Names Board of Canada, the names of Canadian cities and towns have only one official form. Thus, Québec is officially spelled with an accented é in both and French. In English, the city and the province are officially distinguished by the fact that the province does not have an accented é and the city does. Informally, however, the accent is usually omitted in common usage, so the unofficial form "Quebec City" is used to distinguish the city from the province. In French, the names of provinces are gendered nouns and the names of cities are not, so the city and the province are already distinguished by the presence or absence of a in front of the name. For example, the concept of "in Quebec" is expressed as "à Québec" for the city and "au Québec" for the province.
French Regime (1500s–1763)Quebec City is one of the oldest European settlements in North America and the only fortified city north of Mexico whose walls still exist. While many of the major cities in Latin America date from the 16th century, among cities in Canada and the U.S., few were created earlier than Quebec City ( St. John's, , , St. Augustine, , Jamestown, and ). It is home to the earliest known French settlement in North America, Fort Charlesbourg-Royal, established in 1541 by explorer with some 400 persons but abandoned less than a year later due to the hostility of the natives and the harsh winter. The fort was at the mouth of the Rivière du Cap Rouge, in the suburban former town of Cap-Rouge (which merged into Quebec City in 2002). Quebec was founded by , a French explorer and diplomat, on 3 July 1608, and at the site of a long abandoned St. Lawrence Iroquoian settlement called . Champlain, also called ''"The Father of ",'' served as its administrator for the rest of his life. The name "Canada" refers to this settlement. Although the n settlement at Port-Royal was established three years earlier, Quebec came to be known as the cradle of North America's population. The place seemed favourable to the establishment of a permanent colony. The population of the settlement remained small for decades. In 1629 it was captured by English privateers, led by , during the Anglo-French War."KIRKE, SIR DAVID, adventurer, trader, colonizer, leader of the expedition that captured Quebec in 1629, and later governor of Newfoundland"
Modern history (1763–present)During the American Revolution, revolutionary troops from the southern colonies assaulted the British garrison in an attempt to 'liberate' Quebec City, in a conflict now known as the . The defeat of the revolutionaries from the south put an end to the hopes that the peoples of Quebec would rise and join the so that Canada would join the and become part of the original United States of America along with the other British colonies of continental North America. In effect, the battle's outcome was the split of British North America into two distinct political entities. The city itself was not attacked during the , when the United States again attempted to annex Canadian lands. Amid fears of another American attack on Quebec City, construction of the began in 1820. The Americans did not attack Canada after the War of 1812, but the Citadelle continued to house a large British garrison until 1871. It is still in use by the military and is also a tourist attraction. Until the late 18th century Québec was the most populous city in present-day Canada. As of the census of 1790, Montreal surpassed it with 18,000 inhabitants, but Quebec (pop. 14,000) remained the administrative capital of New France. It was then made the capital of by the . From 1841 to 1867, the capital of the rotated between , , , and Quebec City (from 1852 to 1856 and from 1859 to 1866). Before the was established in 1876, the only French-speaking officer training school was the Quebec City School of Military Instruction, founded in 1864. The school was retained at Confederation, in 1867. In 1868, The School of Artillery was formed in Montreal. The Quebec Conference on Canadian Confederation was held in the city in 1864. In 1867, chose Ottawa as the definite capital of the Dominion of Canada, while Quebec City was confirmed as the capital of the newly created province of Quebec. During World War II, two conferences were held in Quebec City. The was held in 1943 with (President of the United States), (Prime Minister of the United Kingdom), (Prime Minister of Canada) and (minister of foreign affairs of ). The was held in 1944 and was attended by Churchill and Roosevelt. They took place in the buildings of the Citadelle and at the nearby . A large part of the landing plans were made during those meetings. Until 2002, Quebec was a mostly urbanized city and its territory coterminous with today's borough of La Cité-Limoilou. The Government of Quebec then mandated a municipal reorganization in the province, and many of the north shore of the Saint-Lawrence were merged into Quebec City, taking the form of . In 2008 the city celebrated its 400th anniversary and was gifted funds for festivities and construction projects by provincial and federal governments, as well as public artwork by various entities, including foreign countries.
GeographyQuebec City was built on the north bank of the , where it narrows and meets the mouth of the Saint-Charles River. is located on top and at the foot of Cap-Diamant, which is on the eastern edge of a called the (Quebec hill). Because of this topographic feature, the oldest and most urbanized borough of La Cité-Limoilou can be divided into upper and lower town. North of the hill, the is flat and has rich, arable soil. Past this valley, the lie to the north of the city but its are within the municipal limits. The are located on the southeastern extremity of the plateau, where high stone walls were integrated during colonial days. On the northern foot of the promontory, the lower town neighbourhoods of Saint-Roch and , traditionally working class, are separated from uptown's Saint-Jean-Baptiste, Quebec City, Saint-Jean-Baptiste and by a woody area attested as . The area was affected by the 1925 Charlevoix–Kamouraska earthquake. The List of regions of Quebec#Administrative Regions, administrative region in which it is situated is officially referred to as Capitale-Nationale, and the term "national capital" is used to refer to Quebec City itself at the provincial level.
ClimateThe climate of Quebec City is classified as humid continental climate, humid continental (Köppen climate classification ''Dfb''). Quebec City experiences four distinct seasons. Summers are warm and occasionally hot, with periods of hotter temperatures which compounded with the high humidity, create a high heat index that belies the average high of and lows of . Winters are cold, windy and snowy with average high temperatures and lows . Spring and Fall, although short, bring chilly to warm temperatures. Late heat waves as well as "Indian summers" are a common occurrence. On average, Quebec City receives of precipitation, of which is rain and is the melt from of snowfall per annum.Although snow is measured in cm the melted snow (water equivalent) is measured in mm and added to the rainfall to obtain the total precipitation. An approximation of the water equivalent can be made by dividing the snow depth by ten. Thus of snow is equivalent to approximately of water. See snow gauge
ArchitectureMuch of the city's notable traditional architecture is located in Vieux-Québec (Old Quebec), within and below the Ramparts of Quebec City, fortifications. This area has a distinct European feel with its stone buildings and winding streets lined with shops and restaurants. Porte Saint-Louis and Porte Saint-Jean are the main gates through the walls from the modern section of downtown; the Kent Gate was a gift to the province from and the foundation stone was laid by the Queen's daughter, Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, Princess Louise, Marchioness of Lorne, on 11 June 1879. West of the walls are the Parliament Hill (Quebec City), Parliament Hill area, and to the south the . The upper and lower town are linked by numerous stairs such as the ''Escalier « casse-cou »'' ("breakneck stairway") or the Old Quebec Funicular on the historic Rue du Petit-Champlain, where many small boutiques are found, not far Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, Quebec City, Notre-Dame-des-Victoires church and Musée de la Civilisation. Along with concrete high-rises such as Édifice Marie-Guyart and Hôtel Le Concorde, Le Concorde on parliament hill (see List of tallest buildings in Quebec City), the city's skyline is dominated by the massive hotel, perched on top of Cap-Diamant. It was designed by architect Bruce Price, as one of a series of Canada's railway hotels, "château" style hotels built for the Canadian Pacific Railway company. The railway company sought to encourage luxury tourism and bring wealthy travellers to its trains. Alongside the Château Frontenac is the Terrasse Dufferin, a walkway along the edge of the cliff, offering views of the Saint Lawrence River. The terrace leads toward the nearby , site of the battle in which the British took Quebec from France, and the , a Canadian Forces installation and the Governor General of Canada, federal vice-regal secondary residence. The Parliament Building (Quebec), Parliament Building, the meeting place of the Parliament of Quebec, is also near the Citadelle of Quebec, Citadelle. Near the Château Frontenac is Notre-Dame de Québec Cathedral, mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec. It is the first church in the New World to be raised to a basilica and is the primate (bishop), primatial church of Canada. There are 37 List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Quebec City, National Historic Sites of Canada in Quebec City and its enclaves.
ParksOne of the most notable is The Battlefields Park, which is home to 50 historical artillery pieces and the . The park offers views of the St. Lawrence River and has multiple historical structures and statues like the ''Joan of Arc on Horseback'' and a couple of Martello Towers. Historically this was the site of the (1759), a decisive British victory in the which ended French rule in what would become Canada, and the later during the American Revolutionary War, where the British were able to hold onto its last stronghold in the Northern extent of its North American territory. Other large and centrally located parks are Parc Victoria, Quebec, Parc Victoria, Parc Maizerets and Cartier-Brébeuf National Historic Site. Quebec City's largest park is the , which is crossed by the suburban section of the city-wide Saint-Charles River and is thus also part of the long Saint-Charles River's linear park. At Chauveau, activities such as canoeing, fishing and cross-country skiing are offered depending on the season, in addition to an interior soccer stadium. Among others, there is also the beach of Beauport Bay, as well as the Marais du Nord (north-end marsh land). Quebec is the only large city in Canada along with Halifax, Nova Scotia, Halifax lacking a public greenhouse. Nonetheless, outside areas known for their public gardens or landscaping include: * The linear park named that stretches alongside the Saint Lawrence River, from Pierre Laporte Bridge to Sillery's east-end. Its bicycle and pedestrian paths then continues to Old Quebec and then along the Saint-Charles River. Just like the beach at Beauport Bay, the construction of the ''Promenade'' was funded by provincial and federal governments to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Quebec City in 2008. * , slightly west of the Plains of Abraham in Sillery, Quebec City, Sillery, and known for its natural landscaping as well as traditional gardens, such as those surrounding the historical . The historical significance of the park also lies in the former presence of the viceregal Government House (Quebec), Government House of Quebec (1845–1966). * The Maizerets#Domaine de Maizerets, Domaine de Maizerets, where are found an arboretum and an observation tower, not far from the Saint Lawrence River and Beauport Bay. * in Sillery. * The of Université Laval.
Boroughs and neighbourhoodsOn 1 January 2002, the 12 former towns of Sainte-Foy, Quebec City, Sainte-Foy, Beauport, Quebec City, Beauport, Charlesbourg, Quebec City, Charlesbourg, Sillery, Quebec City, Sillery, Loretteville, Quebec City, Loretteville, Val-Bélair, Quebec City, Val-Bélair, Cap-Rouge, Quebec City, Cap-Rouge, Saint-Émile, Quebec City, Saint-Émile, Vanier, Quebec City, Vanier, L'Ancienne-Lorette, Quebec, L'Ancienne-Lorette, Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures and Lac-Saint-Charles, Quebec City, Lac-Saint-Charles were annexed by Quebec City. This was one of several municipal reorganization in Quebec, municipal mergers which took place across Quebec on that date. Following a demerger referendum, L'Ancienne-Lorette and Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures were reconstituted as separate municipalities on 1 January 2006, but the other former municipalities remain part of Quebec City. On 1 November 2009, Quebec City re-organized its boroughs, reducing the number from 8 to 6. Quebec City's six boroughs (french: arrondissements) are further divided into 35 neighbourhoods (french: quartiers). In most cases, the name of the latter remained the same as the historical List of towns in Quebec, town (french: ville) or Types of municipalities in Quebec#Local municipalities, parish municipality it replaced. Neighbourhoods each elect their own council, whose powers rest in public consultations. Compared to many other cities in North America, there is less variation between average household incomes between the neighbourhoods. However, some disparities exist. The southwest former cities of Sillery, Quebec City, Sillery, Cap-Rouge, Quebec City, Cap-Rouge and Sainte-Foy, Quebec City, Sainte-Foy are considered to be the wealthiest, along with some parts of Montcalm and Old Quebec. The city's traditional working-class areas are found in the lower town below Old Quebec (Saint-Sauveur and Saint-Roch) and directly across the Saint-Charles River to the north (Vanier and Limoilou). However, parts of Limoilou, Saint-Sauveur and particularly Saint-Roch have seen gentrification in the last 20 years, attracting young professionals and the construction of new offices and condos. Northern sections (Loretteville, Val-Bélair) and eastern sections (Beauport, Charlesbourg) are mostly a mix of middle-class residential suburbs with industrial pockets.
DemographicsAccording to Statistics Canada, there were 531,902 people residing in Quebec City proper in 2016, and 800,296 people in the metropolitan area. Of the former total, 48.2% were male and 51.8% were female. Children under five accounted for approximately 4.7% of the resident population of Quebec City. This compares with 5.2% in the province of Quebec, and 5.6% for Canada overall. In 2016, 20.6% of the resident population in Quebec City was of retirement age (65 and over for males and females) compared with 16.9% in Canada. The median age is 43.3 years of age compared to 41.2 years of age for Canada as a whole. In the five years between 2011 and 2016, the population of Quebec City grew by 3%. In 2016, 6.4% of Quebec City residents reported visible minority status, a relatively low figure for a large city; the national average was . The largest visible minority group were Black Canadians, who formed 2.4% of the population. Quebec City also has a lower percentage of aboriginal Canadians (3.4%) than the national average of .
LanguageThe great majority of city residents are native French speakers. The English-speaking community peaked in relative terms during the 1860s, when 40% of Quebec City's residents were English language, Anglophone. Today, native Anglophones make up only 1.5% of the population of both the city and its metropolitan area. However, the summer tourist season and the Quebec Winter Carnival attract significant numbers of Anglophone (as well as Francophone) visitors, and English can often be heard in areas frequented by tourists. According to Statistics Canada, 94.6% of Quebec City's population spoke French as their mother tongue. In addition, more than a third of city residents reported speaking both French and English.
EconomyMost jobs in Quebec City are concentrated in public administration, defence, services, commerce, transport and tourism. As the provincial capital, the city benefits from being a regional administrative and services centre: apropos, the provincial government is the largest employer in the city, employing 27,900 people as of 2007. Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec, CHUQ (the local hospital network) is the city's largest institutional employer, with more than 10,000 employees in 2007. The unemployment rate in June 2018 was 3.8%, below the national average (6.0%) and the second-lowest of Canada's 34 largest cities, behind Peterborough, Ontario, Peterborough (2.7%). Around 10% of jobs are in manufacturing. Principal products include pulp and paper, processed food, metal/wood items, chemicals, electronics and electrical equipment, and printed materials. The city hosts the headquarters of a variety of prominent companies, including: fashion retailer La Maison Simons, engineering firms BPR (Quebec firm), BPR and Norda Stelo; Cominar real estate investment trust; Industrial Alliance, La Capitale (company), La Capitale, Promutuel, SSQ Financial Group, and Union Canadienne in the insurance sector; Beenox, Gearbox Software, Frima Studio, Sarbakan and Ubisoft in the computer games industry; AeternaZentaris and DiagnoCure in pharmaceuticals; Amalgame, Cossette, Inc., Cossette and Vision 7 in marketing and advertising; Institut National d'Optique (INO), EXFO, OptoSecurity in technology. It is also the domicile of the sole manufactory of the cigarette maker Rothmans, Benson & Hedges.
Business districtsWhile the traditional central business districts and their large office buildings are found on Parliament Hill (Quebec City), Parliament Hill (especially for provincial administration) and just below in Saint-Roch (nowadays notable for Information technology, IT and the video game industry), a newer one has emerged in the area of Sainte-Foy, Quebec City, Sainte-Foy, where a number of accounting and law firms have moved since the 2000s. Other suburban places identified by the city for their potential are the Lebourgneuf area for private offices, as well as Estimauville Street where the Government of Canada already has many civil servants and where several city officials are expected to move in the 2020s.
CultureQuebec City is known for its Quebec Winter Carnival, Winter Carnival, its Festival d'été de Québec, summer music festival and its Fete nationale du Québec, Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day celebrations. The Jardin zoologique du Québec, now closed, reopened in 2002 after extensive repairs before ultimately shuttering in 2006. It featured 750 specimens of 300 different species of animals. The zoo specialized in winged fauna and garden themes but also featured several species of mammals. While it emphasized Quebec's indigenous fauna, one of its main attractions was the Indo-Australian greenhouse, featuring fauna and flora from regions surrounding the Indian Ocean. Parc Aquarium du Québec, which reopened in 2002 on a site overlooking the , features more than 10,000 specimens of mammals, reptiles, fish and other aquatic fauna of North America and the Arctic. Polar bears and various species of Pinniped, seals of the Arctic sector and the "Large Ocean", a large basin offering visitors a view from underneath, make up part of the aquarium's main attractions. Québec City has a number of historic sites, art galleries and museums, including , , Ursulines of Quebec, and . Other tourist attractions include Montmorency Falls, and, just outside the city limits, the Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré, the Mont-Sainte-Anne ski resort, and the Ice Hotel (Québec), Ice Hotel.
SportsQuebec City has hosted a number of recent sporting events, as well as being shortlisted for the Bids for the 2002 Winter Olympics, 2002 Winter Olympics city selection. The Special Olympics Canada, Special Olympics Canada National Winter Games was held in the city from 26 February to 1 March 2008. Quebec City co-hosted with Halifax Regional Municipality, Halifax, Nova Scotia, the 2008 IIHF World Championship. Regular sporting events held in the city include the Tournoi de Québec, Coupe Banque Nationale, a Women's Tennis Association tournament; Crashed Ice, an extreme downhill skating race; Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournament, a minor hockey tournament; and the Tour de Québec International cycling stage race. In December 2011, Quebec City hosted the ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating Final at the Pavillon de la Jeunesse at ExpoCité. The city currently has one professional team, the baseball team Quebec Capitales, Capitales de Québec, which plays in the Frontier League in downtown's Stade Canac. The team was established in 1999 and originally played in the Northern League (baseball, 1993–2010), Northern League. It has seven league titles, won in 2006, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2017. A professional basketball team, the Quebec Kebs, played in National Basketball League of Canada in 2011 but folded before the 2012 season, and a semi-professional association football, soccer team, the Dynamo de Québec, played in the Première ligue de soccer du Québec, until 2019. The city had a professional ice hockey team, the Quebec Nordiques, which played in the World Hockey Association (WHA) from 1972 to 1979 and the National Hockey League (NHL) from 1979 to 1995, maintaining a strong rivalry with the Montreal Canadiens. Due to a disadvantageous exchange rate with respect to the US dollar, the team moved to Denver, Colorado, in 1995, becoming the Colorado Avalanche. A lower-tier team, the Atlanta Knights#Quebec Rafales, Quebec Rafales, played in the professional International Hockey League (1945–2001), International Hockey League from 1996 to 1998. The Videotron Centre was built with the hope of getting an National Hockey League, NHL franchise (relocation or expansion) in Quebec City. The project was funded regardless of whether an NHL team arrives. It is also hoped that the arena can help Quebec City win a future Winter Olympics games bid. It has now replaced the Colisée Pepsi as the main multifunctional arena in Quebec City. Other teams include the Quebec Remparts in major junior hockey (QMJHL), Université Laval varsity team Laval Rouge-et-Or, Rouge & Or, the Quebec City Monarks, and Quebec City Rebelles of La Ligue de Football de Québec; the Alouettes de Charlesbourg of the Ligue de Baseball Junior Élite du Québec; the women's hockey team Quebec Phoenix of the Canadian Women's Hockey League; and soccer club Quebec City Amiral, Quebec Arsenal of the USL W-League, W-League. Quebec City holds the Coop FIS Cross-Country World Cup. This is a ski event that welcomes the best of that sport.
PoliticsSince the 1970s, Centre-right politics, centre-right parties such as Union Nationale (Quebec), Union Nationale, Ralliement créditiste, Crédit social, Conservative Party of Canada (CPC), Action démocratique du Québec and Coalition Avenir Québec (CAQ) have been more popular in the Quebec City region than elsewhere in the province. After the 2006 Canadian federal election, federal election of 2006, six of the ten conservative ridings of the province were found in its metropolitan area (where the CPC garnered 39% of the vote, against 25% at the provincial scale) and in the city proper, the CPC won three of the four seats that existed at that time (the Québec (electoral district), riding of Quebec went to the Bloc Québécois, Bloc). Along with the city's lesser support for Quebec sovereignty, this led political pundits to speculate about a "Quebec City mystery". Various lines of thought were offered, including the popularity of the talk radio stations CHOI-FM, CHOI and CJMF-FM, FM93 expressing Fiscal conservatism, fiscally conservative and non-Political correctness, politically correct opinions. Over the years, this genre has been qualified by its detractors as ''radio poubelle'' (:fr:Radio poubelle, fr) ("trash radio") and hosts like Jeff Fillion and André Arthur likened to shock jocks. Also, compared to the rest of the province, people of the area may favour harsher criminal sentences, and lower-class households may share political views more in line with those earning more. The reasons for this remain unclear. Another researcher put forward the historical factors that led to Montreal surpassing Quebec as the metropolis of British North America in the early 19th century. According to this theory, its permanent status of "second city" (albeit the capital) engendered feelings of "repressed jealousy". The "mystery" was relativized following the 2011 Canadian federal election, 2011 federal election. All five ridings within the city were won by the leftist New Democratic Party, in the so-called "orange wave" that temporarily swept the province. Nonetheless, five of the six seats won by the Conservatives in the province were found in the greater Quebec City area. At the 2018 Quebec general election, 2018 provincial election, the leftist party Québec solidaire managed to win two districts, Taschereau (electoral district), Taschereau and Jean-Lesage, the most densely populated in town, but the centre-right CAQ, as it swept the province, won six of the nine districts encompassing the city, and 15 of the 18 in the administrative regions of Capitale-Nationale and Chaudière-Appalaches (south shore of the city).
Municipal governmentQuebec City is governed by a mayor–council government, which includes the 21 single-member districts of the legislative Quebec City Council and the separately elected List of mayors of Quebec City, mayor. The councilors are elected by first-past-the-post voting while the mayor is elected by the city at-large. Both usually belong to political parties and are elected at the same time every 4 years. The mayor is an ex officio member of the council but is not its president and has no vote. The current one is Bruno Marchand, elected in 2021 Quebec City municipal election, 2021. Each of the city's six boroughs has a council composed of 3 to 5 of the aforementioned councillors, depending on the size of its population. It has jurisdiction with matters such as local road maintenance, leisure, waste collection, and small grants for community projects and others, but cannot tax or borrow money. The boroughs are further divided into #Boroughs and neighbourhoods, 35 neighbourhoods, which also have councils devoted to public consultations, each led by 11 citizens. Their geographical limits may be distinct from those of the city's 21 electoral districts, and councillors also sit at their neighbourhood councils as non-voting ex officio members.
Public safetyThe city is protected by Service de police de la Ville de Québec and Service de protection contre les incendies de Québec (fire dept.) The Census geographic units of Canada#Census metropolitan areas, census metropolitan area (CMA) of Quebec City has one of the lowest crime rates in Canada, with 3,193 per 100,000 persons in 2017, only behind Greater Toronto Area#Census metropolitan area, Toronto's CMA (3,115). Exceptionally, no Culpable homicide#Canada, homicide (defined as a criminal death, deliberate or not) was reported in 2007. Still, eight homicides occurred the following year. On 29 January 2017, a university student Quebec City mosque shooting, shot and killed six people with another 17 injured in a mass shooting at the Islamic Cultural Centre of Quebec City, Quebec Islamic Cultural Centre. Even after accounting for this event, the CMA of Quebec had the second lowest Crime Severity Index in the country in 2017, at 48.5, after that of Barrie (45.3). For the year 2017, the number of reported incidents investigated as hate crimes by the city police increased from 57 to 71, and for those specifically targeting Muslims from 21 to 42. The overall rate of reported hate crimes was thus 7.1 per 100,000 population — higher than the national average (3.9) and in Montreal (4.7) but lower than rates in Hamilton, Ontario, Hamilton, and Thunder Bay. There were two Murder (Canadian law)#Murder, first-degree murders in 2018, seven in 2017 (six of which were due to the mosque shooting), one in 2016, two in 2015 and three in 2014. On 1 November 2020, the Quebec City police arrested a man dressed in medieval costume and armed with a Japanese sword. Carl Girouard, the arrestee, reportedly killed 2 people and hospitalized 5 others.
EducationThe Université Laval (Laval University) is in the southwestern part of the city, in the borough of Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Sainte-Foy, except for its school of architecture, which is at the "Séminaire de Québec, Vieux-Séminaire" building in Old Quebec. The Université du Québec, Université du Québec system administrative headquarters and some of its specialized schools (École nationale d'administration publique, Institut national de la recherche scientifique and Télé-université) are in the Saint-Roch, Quebec City, Saint-Roch neighbourhood. CEGEPs of Quebec city are Collège François-Xavier-Garneau, Cégep Limoilou, Cégep de Sainte-Foy and Champlain College St. Lawrence, as well as private and specialized post-secondary institutions such as Campus Notre-Dame-de-Foy, Collège Mérici, Collège Bart, CDI College, Collège CDI, Collège O'Sullivan and Collège Multihexa. Three school boards, including Commission scolaire de la Capitale, operate secular francophone schools, and Central Quebec School Board operates the few existing anglophone ones. Until 1998 Commission des écoles catholiques de Québec operated public Catholic schools of all languages. Quebec City has the oldest educational institution for women in North America, led by the Ursulines of Quebec, which is now a private elementary school.
RoadsTwo bridges (the Quebec Bridge and Pierre Laporte Bridge) and a ferry service connect the city with Lévis and its suburbs along the south shore of the . The Île d'Orléans Bridge, Orleans Island Bridge links Quebec City with pastoral Île d'Orléans, Orleans Island. Quebec City is an important hub in the province's Autoroutes of Quebec, autoroute system, as well as boasting one of the highest "expressway lane kilometres per 1000 persons" in the country (1.10 km), behind Calgary (1.74), Hamilton, Ontario, Hamilton (1.61) and Edmonton (1.24). Quebec Autoroute 40, Autoroute 40 connects the region with and to the west and Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré, Quebec, Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré and the Charlevoix region to the east. Quebec Autoroute 20, Autoroute 20 parallels the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, linking Quebec City with Montreal and to the west and Rivière-du-Loup, Rimouski, and the Maritime Provinces to the east. Quebec Autoroute 73, Autoroute 73 provides a north–south link through the metropolitan area, linking it with Saint-Georges, Quebec, Saint-Georges, the Beauce, Quebec, Beauce region, and Maine to the south and Saguenay, Quebec, Saguenay and the Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean, Lac-Saint-Jean region to the north. Within the metropolitan region, Autoroutes 40, 73, and several spur routes link the city centre with its suburbs. Quebec Autoroute 573, Autoroute 573 (Autoroute Henri-IV) connects the city with CFB Valcartier. Quebec Autoroute 740, Autoroute 740 (Autoroute Robert-Bourassa) serves as a north–south inner belt. Quebec Autoroute 440 (Quebec City), Autoroute 440 comprises two separate autoroutes to the west and east of the urban core. Originally meant to be connected by a tunnel under the city centre, the two sections are separated by a gap. There are no current plans to connect them. The western section (Autoroute Charest) connects Autoroutes 40 and 73 with Boulevard Charest (a main east–west avenue) while the eastern section (Autoroute Dufferin-Montmorency) links the city centre with Beauport, Quebec City, Beauport and Montmorency Falls.
Public transportThe Réseau de transport de la Capitale (RTC) is responsible for public transport in the region. The RTC operates a fleet of buses and has recently implemented articulated buses. The RTC is studying the return of a tramway system to help ease overcrowding on its busiest lines as well as attract new users to public transit. The two billion dollar revitalization project needs approval from higher levels of government since the city does not have the financial resources to fund such an ambitious project on its own. Rail transport is operated by Via Rail at the Gare du Palais ('Palace Station'). The station is the eastern terminus of the railway's main Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. An inter-city bus station, with connections to the provincial long-distance bus network, is adjacent to the train station, and is used by operators such as Orleans Express and Intercar.
Air and seaQuebec City is served by Québec City Jean Lesage International Airport, Jean Lesage International Airport, located west of the city centre. The Port of Quebec is a seaport on the St. Lawrence with facilities in the first, fifth and sixth boroughs.
Partner citiesQuebec City is mainly Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: * Bordeaux, France * Calgary, Alberta It has formal agreements with other cities although they are not active anymore as of 2012. These include Saint Petersburg, Guanajuato City, Huế and Liège and Namur in Wallonia, francophone Belgium.
See also* List of regional county municipalities and equivalent territories in Quebec