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Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec), officially Québec (), is the capital city of the
Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada () are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada under the jurisdiction of the Constitution of Canada, Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of Br ...
of
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
. As of July 2016, the city had a population of 531,902, and the
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...
had a population of 800,296. It is the eleventh -largest city and the seventh -largest metropolitan area in Canada. It is also the second-largest city in the province after
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, ) is the second-most populous city in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and w ...

Montreal
. The
Algonquian people The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcont ...
had originally named the area , an
Algonquin Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of eastern North America from Canada to Virginia **Algonquin languag ...
The
Algonquin language Algonquin (also spelled Algonkin; in Algonquin: or ) is either a distinct Algonquian languages, Algonquian language closely related to the Ojibwe language or a particularly divergent Ojibwe language dialects, Ojibwe dialect. It is spoken, alongsi ...
is a distinct language of the
Algonquian language family The Algonquian languages ( or ; also Algonkian) are a subfamily of indigenous languages of the Americas, American indigenous languages that include most languages in the Algic languages, Algic language family. The name of the Algonquian language fa ...
, and is not a misspelling.
word meaning "where the river narrows", because the
Saint Lawrence River The St. Lawrence River is a large river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its c ...
narrows proximate to the
promontory of Quebec In Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec, officially Québec ()) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec ) , image_map = Quebec in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordin ...
and its Cape Diamant. Explorer
Samuel de Champlain Samuel de Champlain (; c. 13 August 1567 Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date nor his place of birth. – 25 Decemb ...
founded a French settlement here in 1608, and adopted the Algonquin name. Quebec City is one of the oldest European cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding
Old Quebec Old Quebec (french: Vieux-Québec) is a historic neighbourhood of Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec, officially Québec ()) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec ) , image_map = Queb ...

Old Quebec
() are the only fortified
city walls A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorize ...

city walls
remaining in the Americas north of
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to ...

Mexico
. This area was declared a
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
by
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
in 1985 as the "Historic District of Old Québec". The city's landmarks include the
Château Frontenac The Fairmont Le Château Frontenac, formerly and commonly referred to as the Château Frontenac, is a historic hotel in Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec, officially Québec ()) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

Château Frontenac
hotel that dominates the skyline and the
Citadelle of Quebec The Citadelle of Quebec (french: Citadelle de Québec), also known as ''La Citadelle'', is an active military installation and the secondary official residence An official residence is the House, residence at which a nation's head of state, ...
, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary
royal residence , the official residence of Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head o ...
. The
National Assembly of Quebec The National Assembly of Quebec (officially in french: link=no, Assemblée nationale) is the Legislature, legislative body of the Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Quebec in Canada. Legislators are called MNAs (Members of the Nat ...
(provincial legislature), the
Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec
Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec
(''National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec''), and the
Musée de la civilisation
Musée de la civilisation
(''Museum of Civilization'') are found within or near Vieux-Québec.


Name and usage

According to the Government of Canada, the Government of Quebec, and the Geographical Names Board of Canada, the names of Canadian cities and towns have only one official form. Thus, Québec is officially spelled with an accented é in both
Canadian English Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of alg ...
and French. In English, the city and the province are officially distinguished by the fact that the province does not have an accented é and the city does. Informally, however, the accent is usually omitted in common usage, so the unofficial form "Quebec City" is used to distinguish the city from the province. In French, the names of provinces are gendered nouns and the names of cities are not, so the city and the province are already distinguished by the presence or absence of a
definite article An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases A noun phrase, or nominal (phrase), is a that has a or as its or performs the same grammatical function as a noun. Noun phrases are very common , and the ...
in front of the name. For example, the concept of "in Quebec" is expressed as "à Québec" for the city and "au Québec" for the province.


History


French Regime (1500s–1763)

Quebec City is one of the oldest European settlements in North America and the only fortified city north of Mexico whose walls still exist. While many of the major cities in Latin America date from the 16th century, among cities in Canada and the U.S., few were created earlier than Quebec City ( St. John's,
Harbour Grace Harbour Grace is a town in Conception Bay Conception Bay (CB) is a bay on the southeast coast of Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlant ...
,
Port Royal Port Royal is a village located at the end of the Palisadoes, at the mouth of Kingston Harbour, in southeastern Jamaica. Founded in 1494 by the Spanish Empire, Spanish, it was once the largest city in the Caribbean, functioning as the centre of ...
, St. Augustine,
Santa Fe
Santa Fe
, Jamestown, and
Tadoussac Tadoussac () is a village in Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saguenay River, Saguenay and Saint Lawrence River, Saint Lawrence rivers. The indigenous Innu called the place ''Totouskak'' (plural for ''totouswk'' or ''totochak'') meaning "b ...

Tadoussac
). It is home to the earliest known French settlement in North America, Fort Charlesbourg-Royal, established in 1541 by explorer
Jacques Cartier Jacques Cartier ( , also , , ; br, Jakez Karter; 31 December 14911 September 1557) was a French people, French-Breton people, Breton List of maritime explorers, maritime explorer for Kingdom of France, France. Jacques Cartier was the first ...

Jacques Cartier
with some 400 persons but abandoned less than a year later due to the hostility of the natives and the harsh winter. The fort was at the mouth of the Rivière du Cap Rouge, in the suburban former town of Cap-Rouge (which merged into Quebec City in 2002). Quebec was founded by
Samuel de Champlain Samuel de Champlain (; c. 13 August 1567 Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date nor his place of birth. – 25 Decemb ...
, a French explorer and diplomat, on 3 July 1608, and at the site of a long abandoned St. Lawrence Iroquoian settlement called
Stadacona Stadacona was a 16th-century St. Lawrence Iroquoian village not far from where Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec), officially Québec (), is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provin ...
. Champlain, also called ''"The Father of
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
",'' served as its administrator for the rest of his life. The name "Canada" refers to this settlement. Although the
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanni ...

Acadia
n settlement at Port-Royal was established three years earlier, Quebec came to be known as the cradle of North America's
Francophone This article details the geographical distribution of speakers of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from ...

Francophone
population. The place seemed favourable to the establishment of a permanent colony. The population of the settlement remained small for decades. In 1629 it was captured by English privateers, led by
David Kirke Sir David Kirke (c. 1597 – 1654), also spelt David Ker, was a Scottish adventure An adventure is an exciting experience that is typically bold, sometimes risk In simple terms, risk is the possibility of something bad happening. Risk involv ...
, during the Anglo-French War."KIRKE, SIR DAVID, adventurer, trader, colonizer, leader of the expedition that captured Quebec in 1629, and later governor of Newfoundland"
, ''Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online''
Samuel de Champlain argued that the English seizing of the lands was illegal as the war had already ended, and worked to have the lands returned to France. As part of the ongoing negotiations of their exit from the Anglo-French War, in 1632 the English king Charles agreed to return the lands in exchange for
Louis XIII Louis XIII (; sometimes called the Just; 27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was from 1610 until his death in 1643 and (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown. Shortly before his ninth bi ...
paying his wife's
dowry A dowry is a payment, such as property or money, paid by the bride's family to the groom or his family at the time of marriage. Dowry contrasts with the related concepts of bride price Bride price, bridewealth, or bride token, is money, prop ...
. These terms were signed into law with the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. The lands in Quebec and
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanni ...

Acadia
were returned to the French
Company of One Hundred Associates The Company of One Hundred Associates ( French: formally the Compagnie de la Nouvelle-France, or colloquially the Compagnie des Cent-Associés or Compagnie du Canada), or Company of New France, was a French trading and colonization company chart ...
. In 1665, there were 550 people in 70 houses living in the city. One-quarter of the people were members of religious orders: secular priests, Jesuits, Ursulines nuns and the order running the local hospital, Hotel-Dieu. Quebec was the headquarters of many raids against
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
during the four
French and Indian Wars The French and Indian Wars were a series of conflicts that occurred in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the nor ...
. In 1690 the city was attacked by the English, but was successfully defended. In the last of the conflicts, the
French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Great Britain ...

French and Indian War
(
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
), Quebec was captured by the British in 1759 and held until the end of the war in 1763. In that time many battles and sieges took place: the
Battle of Beauport The Battle of Beauport, also known as the Battle of Montmorency, fought on 31 July 1759, was an important confrontation between the British and French Armed Forces The French Armed Forces (french: Forces armées françaises) encompass the Arm ...
, a French victory (31 July 1759); the
Battle of the Plains of Abraham The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, also known as the Battle of Quebec (french: Bataille des Plaines d'Abraham, Première bataille de Québec), was a pivotal battle in the (referred to as the to describe the North American ). The battle, whi ...
, in which British troops under General
James Wolfe James Wolfe (2 January 1727 – 13 September 1759) was a British Army officer known for his training reforms and remembered chiefly for his victory in 1759 over the Kingdom of France, French at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in Quebec as a ...
defeated the French General
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Grozon, marquis de Montcalm de Saint-Veran (28 February 1712 – 14 September 1759) was a French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), offi ...
on 13 September 1759 and shortly thereafter took the city after a short siege. A French counterattack saw a French victory at the
Battle of Sainte-Foy The Battle of Sainte-Foy, sometimes called the Battle of Quebec, was fought on April 28, 1760 near the British-held town of Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July ...

Battle of Sainte-Foy
(28 April 1760) but the subsequent second Siege of Quebec the following month however saw a final British victory. France ceded
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
, including the city, to Britain in 1763 when the
French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Great Britain ...

French and Indian War
officially ended. At the end of French rule in 1763, forests, villages, fields and pastures surrounded the town of 8,000 inhabitants. The town distinguished itself by its monumental architecture, fortifications, and affluent homes of masonry and shacks in the suburbs of Saint-Jean and Saint-Roch. Despite its urbanity and its status as capital, Quebec City remained a small colonial city with close ties to its rural surroundings. Nearby inhabitants traded their farm surpluses and firewood for imported goods from France at the two city markets.


Modern history (1763–present)

During the American Revolution, revolutionary troops from the southern colonies assaulted the British garrison in an attempt to 'liberate' Quebec City, in a conflict now known as the
Battle of Quebec (1775) The Battle of Quebec (french: Bataille de Québec) was fought on December 31, 1775, between American Continental Army forces and the British defenders of Quebec City early in the American Revolutionary War. The battle was the first major defeat ...
. The defeat of the revolutionaries from the south put an end to the hopes that the peoples of Quebec would rise and join the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
so that Canada would join the
Continental Congress The Continental Congress was a series of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
and become part of the original United States of America along with the other British colonies of continental North America. In effect, the battle's outcome was the split of British North America into two distinct political entities. The city itself was not attacked during the
War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It ...
, when the United States again attempted to annex Canadian lands. Amid fears of another American attack on Quebec City, construction of the
Citadelle of Quebec The Citadelle of Quebec (french: Citadelle de Québec), also known as ''La Citadelle'', is an active military installation and the secondary official residence An official residence is the House, residence at which a nation's head of state, ...
began in 1820. The Americans did not attack Canada after the War of 1812, but the Citadelle continued to house a large British garrison until 1871. It is still in use by the military and is also a tourist attraction. Until the late 18th century Québec was the most populous city in present-day Canada. As of the census of 1790, Montreal surpassed it with 18,000 inhabitants, but Quebec (pop. 14,000) remained the administrative capital of New France. It was then made the capital of
Lower Canada The Province of Lower Canada (french: province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. ...
by the
Constitutional Act of 1791 From 1896 known as The ''Clergy Endowments (Canada) Act 1791'', the statute passed at Westminster in the 31st year of George III, and itemised as chapter 31 (31 Geo 3 c 31), was commonly known as the Constitutional Act 1791 (). It was an Act of ...
. From 1841 to 1867, the capital of the
Province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) (french: link=no, Province du Canada) was a British North America, British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations mad ...
rotated between
Kingston Kingston may refer to: Places * List of places called Kingston, including the four most populated: ** Kingston, Jamaica ** City of Kingston, Victoria, Australia ** Kingston, Ontario, Canada ** Kingston upon Thames, England Animals * Kingston (ho ...
,
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, ) is the second-most populous city in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and w ...

Montreal
,
Toronto Toronto (, ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016 in 2016, it is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, most p ...

Toronto
,
Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exist and are ...

Ottawa
and Quebec City (from 1852 to 1856 and from 1859 to 1866). Before the
Royal Military College of Canada The Royal Military College of Canada (french: Collège militaire royal du Canada), commonly abbreviated in English as RMC, is the military college A military academy or service academy (United States service academies, in the United State ...
was established in 1876, the only French-speaking officer training school was the Quebec City School of Military Instruction, founded in 1864. The school was retained at Confederation, in 1867. In 1868, The School of Artillery was formed in Montreal. The Quebec Conference on Canadian Confederation was held in the city in 1864. In 1867,
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
chose Ottawa as the definite capital of the Dominion of Canada, while Quebec City was confirmed as the capital of the newly created province of Quebec. During World War II, two conferences were held in Quebec City. The
First Quebec Conference The First Quebec Conference, codenamed "QUADRANT", was a highly secret military conference held during World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 19 ...
was held in 1943 with
Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt (, ; January 30, 1882April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the De ...

Franklin D. Roosevelt
(President of the United States),
Winston Churchill Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, Winston Churchill in the Second World War, during the Second World War, ...

Winston Churchill
(Prime Minister of the United Kingdom),
William Lyon Mackenzie King William Lyon Mackenzie King (December 17, 1874 – July 22, 1950) was a Canadian statesman and politician who served as the 10th prime minister of Canada for three non-consecutive terms from 1921 to 1926, 1926 to 1930 and 1935 to 1948. A Libera ...

William Lyon Mackenzie King
(Prime Minister of Canada) and (minister of foreign affairs of
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...
). The
Second Quebec Conference Eleanor Roosevelt, Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, Princess Alice, and Clementine Churchill during the conference. The Second Quebec Conference (codenamed "OCTAGON") was a high-level military conference held during World War II by the Britis ...
was held in 1944 and was attended by Churchill and Roosevelt. They took place in the buildings of the Citadelle and at the nearby
Château Frontenac The Fairmont Le Château Frontenac, formerly and commonly referred to as the Château Frontenac, is a historic hotel in Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec, officially Québec ()) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

Château Frontenac
. A large part of the
D-Day The Normandy landings were the landing operation Allied invasion of Sicily, 1943 A landing operation is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended fo ...

D-Day
landing plans were made during those meetings. Until 2002, Quebec was a mostly urbanized city and its territory coterminous with today's borough of La Cité-Limoilou. The Government of Quebec then mandated a municipal reorganization in the province, and many
suburbs A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective ...

suburbs
of the north shore of the Saint-Lawrence were merged into Quebec City, taking the form of
boroughs A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for ...

boroughs
. In 2008 the city celebrated its 400th anniversary and was gifted funds for festivities and construction projects by provincial and federal governments, as well as public artwork by various entities, including foreign countries.


Geography

Quebec City was built on the north bank of the
Saint Lawrence River The St. Lawrence River is a large river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its c ...
, where it narrows and meets the mouth of the Saint-Charles River.
Old Quebec Old Quebec (french: Vieux-Québec) is a historic neighbourhood of Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec, officially Québec ()) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec ) , image_map = Queb ...

Old Quebec
is located on top and at the foot of Cap-Diamant, which is on the eastern edge of a
plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is composed, and the proces ...

plateau
called the
promontory of Quebec In Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec, officially Québec ()) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec ) , image_map = Quebec in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordin ...
(Quebec hill). Because of this topographic feature, the oldest and most urbanized borough of La Cité-Limoilou can be divided into upper and lower town. North of the hill, the
Saint Lawrence Lowlands In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness, likeness, or closeness to God God, in monotheistic thought, is conceived of as the supreme being, creator, and principal object of fai ...
is flat and has rich, arable soil. Past this valley, the
Laurentian Mountains The Laurentian Mountains (French: ''Laurentides'') are a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity ...
lie to the north of the city but its
foothills Foothills or piedmont are geographically Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth ...

foothills
are within the municipal limits. The
Plains of Abraham The Plains of Abraham (french: Plaines d'Abraham) is a historic area within The Battlefields Park in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. The land is the site of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, which took place on 13 September 1759, but hundreds of ac ...

Plains of Abraham
are located on the southeastern extremity of the plateau, where high stone walls were integrated during colonial days. On the northern foot of the promontory, the lower town neighbourhoods of Saint-Roch and , traditionally working class, are separated from uptown's Saint-Jean-Baptiste, Quebec City, Saint-Jean-Baptiste and by a woody area attested as . The area was affected by the 1925 Charlevoix–Kamouraska earthquake. The List of regions of Quebec#Administrative Regions, administrative region in which it is situated is officially referred to as Capitale-Nationale, and the term "national capital" is used to refer to Quebec City itself at the provincial level.


Climate

The climate of Quebec City is classified as humid continental climate, humid continental (Köppen climate classification ''Dfb''). Quebec City experiences four distinct seasons. Summers are warm and occasionally hot, with periods of hotter temperatures which compounded with the high humidity, create a high heat index that belies the average high of and lows of . Winters are cold, windy and snowy with average high temperatures and lows . Spring and Fall, although short, bring chilly to warm temperatures. Late heat waves as well as "Indian summers" are a common occurrence. On average, Quebec City receives of precipitation, of which is rain and is the melt from of snowfall per annum.Although snow is measured in cm the melted snow (water equivalent) is measured in mm and added to the rainfall to obtain the total precipitation. An approximation of the water equivalent can be made by dividing the snow depth by ten. Thus of snow is equivalent to approximately of water. See snow gauge
Rainfall, Snowfall, and Precipitation
an
MANOBS 7th Edition Amendment 17
/ref> The city experiences around 1,916 hours of bright sunshine annually or 41.5% of possible sunshine, with summer being the sunniest, but also slightly the wettest season. During winter, snow generally stays on the ground from the end of November till mid-April. The highest temperature ever recorded in Quebec City was on 17 July 1953. The coldest temperature ever recorded was on 10 January 1890 and 14 January 2015.


Cityscape


Architecture

Much of the city's notable traditional architecture is located in Vieux-Québec (Old Quebec), within and below the Ramparts of Quebec City, fortifications. This area has a distinct European feel with its stone buildings and winding streets lined with shops and restaurants. Porte Saint-Louis and Porte Saint-Jean are the main gates through the walls from the modern section of downtown; the Kent Gate was a gift to the province from
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
and the foundation stone was laid by the Queen's daughter, Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, Princess Louise, Marchioness of Lorne, on 11 June 1879. West of the walls are the Parliament Hill (Quebec City), Parliament Hill area, and to the south the
Plains of Abraham The Plains of Abraham (french: Plaines d'Abraham) is a historic area within The Battlefields Park in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. The land is the site of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, which took place on 13 September 1759, but hundreds of ac ...

Plains of Abraham
. The upper and lower town are linked by numerous stairs such as the ''Escalier « casse-cou »'' ("breakneck stairway") or the Old Quebec Funicular on the historic Rue du Petit-Champlain, where many small boutiques are found, not far Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, Quebec City, Notre-Dame-des-Victoires church and Musée de la Civilisation. Along with concrete high-rises such as Édifice Marie-Guyart and Hôtel Le Concorde, Le Concorde on parliament hill (see List of tallest buildings in Quebec City), the city's skyline is dominated by the massive
Château Frontenac The Fairmont Le Château Frontenac, formerly and commonly referred to as the Château Frontenac, is a historic hotel in Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec, officially Québec ()) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

Château Frontenac
hotel, perched on top of Cap-Diamant. It was designed by architect Bruce Price, as one of a series of Canada's railway hotels, "château" style hotels built for the Canadian Pacific Railway company. The railway company sought to encourage luxury tourism and bring wealthy travellers to its trains. Alongside the Château Frontenac is the Terrasse Dufferin, a walkway along the edge of the cliff, offering views of the Saint Lawrence River. The terrace leads toward the nearby
Plains of Abraham The Plains of Abraham (french: Plaines d'Abraham) is a historic area within The Battlefields Park in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. The land is the site of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, which took place on 13 September 1759, but hundreds of ac ...

Plains of Abraham
, site of the battle in which the British took Quebec from France, and the
Citadelle of Quebec The Citadelle of Quebec (french: Citadelle de Québec), also known as ''La Citadelle'', is an active military installation and the secondary official residence An official residence is the House, residence at which a nation's head of state, ...
, a Canadian Forces installation and the Governor General of Canada, federal vice-regal secondary residence. The Parliament Building (Quebec), Parliament Building, the meeting place of the Parliament of Quebec, is also near the Citadelle of Quebec, Citadelle. Near the Château Frontenac is Notre-Dame de Québec Cathedral, mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec. It is the first church in the New World to be raised to a basilica and is the primate (bishop), primatial church of Canada. There are 37 List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Quebec City, National Historic Sites of Canada in Quebec City and its enclaves.


Parks

One of the most notable is The Battlefields Park, which is home to 50 historical artillery pieces and the
Plains of Abraham The Plains of Abraham (french: Plaines d'Abraham) is a historic area within The Battlefields Park in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. The land is the site of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, which took place on 13 September 1759, but hundreds of ac ...

Plains of Abraham
. The park offers views of the St. Lawrence River and has multiple historical structures and statues like the ''Joan of Arc on Horseback'' and a couple of Martello Towers. Historically this was the site of the
Battle of the Plains of Abraham The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, also known as the Battle of Quebec (french: Bataille des Plaines d'Abraham, Première bataille de Québec), was a pivotal battle in the (referred to as the to describe the North American ). The battle, whi ...
(1759), a decisive British victory in the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
which ended French rule in what would become Canada, and the later
Battle of Quebec (1775) The Battle of Quebec (french: Bataille de Québec) was fought on December 31, 1775, between American Continental Army forces and the British defenders of Quebec City early in the American Revolutionary War. The battle was the first major defeat ...
during the American Revolutionary War, where the British were able to hold onto its last stronghold in the Northern extent of its North American territory. Other large and centrally located parks are Parc Victoria, Quebec, Parc Victoria, Parc Maizerets and Cartier-Brébeuf National Historic Site. Quebec City's largest park is the , which is crossed by the suburban section of the city-wide Saint-Charles River and is thus also part of the long Saint-Charles River's linear park. At Chauveau, activities such as canoeing, fishing and cross-country skiing are offered depending on the season, in addition to an interior soccer stadium. Among others, there is also the beach of Beauport Bay, as well as the Marais du Nord (north-end marsh land). Quebec is the only large city in Canada along with Halifax, Nova Scotia, Halifax lacking a public greenhouse. Nonetheless, outside areas known for their public gardens or landscaping include: * The linear park named that stretches alongside the Saint Lawrence River, from Pierre Laporte Bridge to Sillery's east-end. Its bicycle and pedestrian paths then continues to Old Quebec and then along the Saint-Charles River. Just like the beach at Beauport Bay, the construction of the ''Promenade'' was funded by provincial and federal governments to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Quebec City in 2008. * , slightly west of the Plains of Abraham in Sillery, Quebec City, Sillery, and known for its natural landscaping as well as traditional gardens, such as those surrounding the historical . The historical significance of the park also lies in the former presence of the viceregal Government House (Quebec), Government House of Quebec (1845–1966). * The Maizerets#Domaine de Maizerets, Domaine de Maizerets, where are found an arboretum and an observation tower, not far from the Saint Lawrence River and Beauport Bay. * in Sillery. * The of Université Laval.


Boroughs and neighbourhoods

On 1 January 2002, the 12 former towns of Sainte-Foy, Quebec City, Sainte-Foy, Beauport, Quebec City, Beauport, Charlesbourg, Quebec City, Charlesbourg, Sillery, Quebec City, Sillery, Loretteville, Quebec City, Loretteville, Val-Bélair, Quebec City, Val-Bélair, Cap-Rouge, Quebec City, Cap-Rouge, Saint-Émile, Quebec City, Saint-Émile, Vanier, Quebec City, Vanier, L'Ancienne-Lorette, Quebec, L'Ancienne-Lorette, Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures and Lac-Saint-Charles, Quebec City, Lac-Saint-Charles were annexed by Quebec City. This was one of several municipal reorganization in Quebec, municipal mergers which took place across Quebec on that date. Following a demerger referendum, L'Ancienne-Lorette and Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures were reconstituted as separate municipalities on 1 January 2006, but the other former municipalities remain part of Quebec City. On 1 November 2009, Quebec City re-organized its boroughs, reducing the number from 8 to 6. Quebec City's six boroughs (french: arrondissements) are further divided into 35 neighbourhoods (french: quartiers). In most cases, the name of the latter remained the same as the historical List of towns in Quebec, town (french: ville) or Types of municipalities in Quebec#Local municipalities, parish municipality it replaced. Neighbourhoods each elect their own council, whose powers rest in public consultations. Compared to many other cities in North America, there is less variation between average household incomes between the neighbourhoods. However, some disparities exist. The southwest former cities of Sillery, Quebec City, Sillery, Cap-Rouge, Quebec City, Cap-Rouge and Sainte-Foy, Quebec City, Sainte-Foy are considered to be the wealthiest, along with some parts of Montcalm and Old Quebec. The city's traditional working-class areas are found in the lower town below Old Quebec (Saint-Sauveur and Saint-Roch) and directly across the Saint-Charles River to the north (Vanier and Limoilou). However, parts of Limoilou, Saint-Sauveur and particularly Saint-Roch have seen gentrification in the last 20 years, attracting young professionals and the construction of new offices and condos. Northern sections (Loretteville, Val-Bélair) and eastern sections (Beauport, Charlesbourg) are mostly a mix of middle-class residential suburbs with industrial pockets.


Demographics

According to Statistics Canada, there were 531,902 people residing in Quebec City proper in 2016, and 800,296 people in the metropolitan area. Of the former total, 48.2% were male and 51.8% were female. Children under five accounted for approximately 4.7% of the resident population of Quebec City. This compares with 5.2% in the province of Quebec, and 5.6% for Canada overall. In 2016, 20.6% of the resident population in Quebec City was of retirement age (65 and over for males and females) compared with 16.9% in Canada. The median age is 43.3 years of age compared to 41.2 years of age for Canada as a whole. In the five years between 2011 and 2016, the population of Quebec City grew by 3%. In 2016, 6.4% of Quebec City residents reported visible minority status, a relatively low figure for a large city; the national average was . The largest visible minority group were Black Canadians, who formed 2.4% of the population. Quebec City also has a lower percentage of aboriginal Canadians (3.4%) than the national average of .


Migration


Language

The great majority of city residents are native French speakers. The English-speaking community peaked in relative terms during the 1860s, when 40% of Quebec City's residents were English language, Anglophone. Today, native Anglophones make up only 1.5% of the population of both the city and its metropolitan area. However, the summer tourist season and the Quebec Winter Carnival attract significant numbers of Anglophone (as well as Francophone) visitors, and English can often be heard in areas frequented by tourists. According to Statistics Canada, 94.6% of Quebec City's population spoke French as their mother tongue. In addition, more than a third of city residents reported speaking both French and English.


Economy

Most jobs in Quebec City are concentrated in public administration, defence, services, commerce, transport and tourism. As the provincial capital, the city benefits from being a regional administrative and services centre: apropos, the provincial government is the largest employer in the city, employing 27,900 people as of 2007. Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec, CHUQ (the local hospital network) is the city's largest institutional employer, with more than 10,000 employees in 2007. The unemployment rate in June 2018 was 3.8%, below the national average (6.0%) and the second-lowest of Canada's 34 largest cities, behind Peterborough, Ontario, Peterborough (2.7%). Around 10% of jobs are in manufacturing. Principal products include pulp and paper, processed food, metal/wood items, chemicals, electronics and electrical equipment, and printed materials. The city hosts the headquarters of a variety of prominent companies, including: fashion retailer La Maison Simons, engineering firms BPR (Quebec firm), BPR and Norda Stelo; Cominar real estate investment trust; Industrial Alliance, La Capitale (company), La Capitale, Promutuel, SSQ Financial Group, and Union Canadienne in the insurance sector; Beenox, Gearbox Software, Frima Studio, Sarbakan and Ubisoft in the computer games industry; AeternaZentaris and DiagnoCure in pharmaceuticals; Amalgame, Cossette, Inc., Cossette and Vision 7 in marketing and advertising; Institut National d'Optique (INO), EXFO, OptoSecurity in technology. It is also the domicile of the sole manufactory of the cigarette maker Rothmans, Benson & Hedges.


Business districts

While the traditional central business districts and their large office buildings are found on Parliament Hill (Quebec City), Parliament Hill (especially for provincial administration) and just below in Saint-Roch (nowadays notable for Information technology, IT and the video game industry), a newer one has emerged in the area of Sainte-Foy, Quebec City, Sainte-Foy, where a number of accounting and law firms have moved since the 2000s. Other suburban places identified by the city for their potential are the Lebourgneuf area for private offices, as well as Estimauville Street where the Government of Canada already has many civil servants and where several city officials are expected to move in the 2020s.


Culture

Quebec City is known for its Quebec Winter Carnival, Winter Carnival, its Festival d'été de Québec, summer music festival and its Fete nationale du Québec, Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day celebrations. The Jardin zoologique du Québec, now closed, reopened in 2002 after extensive repairs before ultimately shuttering in 2006. It featured 750 specimens of 300 different species of animals. The zoo specialized in winged fauna and garden themes but also featured several species of mammals. While it emphasized Quebec's indigenous fauna, one of its main attractions was the Indo-Australian greenhouse, featuring fauna and flora from regions surrounding the Indian Ocean. Parc Aquarium du Québec, which reopened in 2002 on a site overlooking the
Saint Lawrence River The St. Lawrence River is a large river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its c ...
, features more than 10,000 specimens of mammals, reptiles, fish and other aquatic fauna of North America and the Arctic. Polar bears and various species of Pinniped, seals of the Arctic sector and the "Large Ocean", a large basin offering visitors a view from underneath, make up part of the aquarium's main attractions. Québec City has a number of historic sites, art galleries and museums, including
Citadelle of Quebec The Citadelle of Quebec (french: Citadelle de Québec), also known as ''La Citadelle'', is an active military installation and the secondary official residence An official residence is the House, residence at which a nation's head of state, ...
, , Ursulines of Quebec, and . Other tourist attractions include Montmorency Falls, and, just outside the city limits, the Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré, the Mont-Sainte-Anne ski resort, and the Ice Hotel (Québec), Ice Hotel.


Sports

Quebec City has hosted a number of recent sporting events, as well as being shortlisted for the Bids for the 2002 Winter Olympics, 2002 Winter Olympics city selection. The Special Olympics Canada, Special Olympics Canada National Winter Games was held in the city from 26 February to 1 March 2008. Quebec City co-hosted with Halifax Regional Municipality, Halifax, Nova Scotia, the 2008 IIHF World Championship. Regular sporting events held in the city include the Tournoi de Québec, Coupe Banque Nationale, a Women's Tennis Association tournament; Crashed Ice, an extreme downhill skating race; Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournament, a minor hockey tournament; and the Tour de Québec International cycling stage race. In December 2011, Quebec City hosted the ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating Final at the Pavillon de la Jeunesse at ExpoCité. The city currently has one professional team, the baseball team Quebec Capitales, Capitales de Québec, which plays in the Frontier League in downtown's Stade Canac. The team was established in 1999 and originally played in the Northern League (baseball, 1993–2010), Northern League. It has seven league titles, won in 2006, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2017. A professional basketball team, the Quebec Kebs, played in National Basketball League of Canada in 2011 but folded before the 2012 season, and a semi-professional association football, soccer team, the Dynamo de Québec, played in the Première ligue de soccer du Québec, until 2019. The city had a professional ice hockey team, the Quebec Nordiques, which played in the World Hockey Association (WHA) from 1972 to 1979 and the National Hockey League (NHL) from 1979 to 1995, maintaining a strong rivalry with the Montreal Canadiens. Due to a disadvantageous exchange rate with respect to the US dollar, the team moved to Denver, Colorado, in 1995, becoming the Colorado Avalanche. A lower-tier team, the Atlanta Knights#Quebec Rafales, Quebec Rafales, played in the professional International Hockey League (1945–2001), International Hockey League from 1996 to 1998. The Videotron Centre was built with the hope of getting an National Hockey League, NHL franchise (relocation or expansion) in Quebec City. The project was funded regardless of whether an NHL team arrives. It is also hoped that the arena can help Quebec City win a future Winter Olympics games bid. It has now replaced the Colisée Pepsi as the main multifunctional arena in Quebec City. Other teams include the Quebec Remparts in major junior hockey (QMJHL), Université Laval varsity team Laval Rouge-et-Or, Rouge & Or, the Quebec City Monarks, and Quebec City Rebelles of La Ligue de Football de Québec; the Alouettes de Charlesbourg of the Ligue de Baseball Junior Élite du Québec; the women's hockey team Quebec Phoenix of the Canadian Women's Hockey League; and soccer club Quebec City Amiral, Quebec Arsenal of the USL W-League, W-League. Quebec City holds the Coop FIS Cross-Country World Cup. This is a ski event that welcomes the best of that sport.


Politics

Since the 1970s, Centre-right politics, centre-right parties such as Union Nationale (Quebec), Union Nationale, Ralliement créditiste, Crédit social, Conservative Party of Canada (CPC), Action démocratique du Québec and Coalition Avenir Québec (CAQ) have been more popular in the Quebec City region than elsewhere in the province. After the 2006 Canadian federal election, federal election of 2006, six of the ten conservative ridings of the province were found in its metropolitan area (where the CPC garnered 39% of the vote, against 25% at the provincial scale) and in the city proper, the CPC won three of the four seats that existed at that time (the Québec (electoral district), riding of Quebec went to the Bloc Québécois, Bloc). Along with the city's lesser support for Quebec sovereignty, this led political pundits to speculate about a "Quebec City mystery". Various lines of thought were offered, including the popularity of the talk radio stations CHOI-FM, CHOI and CJMF-FM, FM93 expressing Fiscal conservatism, fiscally conservative and non-Political correctness, politically correct opinions. Over the years, this genre has been qualified by its detractors as ''radio poubelle'' (:fr:Radio poubelle, fr) ("trash radio") and hosts like Jeff Fillion and André Arthur likened to shock jocks. Also, compared to the rest of the province, people of the area may favour harsher criminal sentences, and lower-class households may share political views more in line with those earning more. The reasons for this remain unclear. Another researcher put forward the historical factors that led to Montreal surpassing Quebec as the metropolis of British North America in the early 19th century. According to this theory, its permanent status of "second city" (albeit the capital) engendered feelings of "repressed jealousy". The "mystery" was relativized following the 2011 Canadian federal election, 2011 federal election. All five ridings within the city were won by the leftist New Democratic Party, in the so-called "orange wave" that temporarily swept the province. Nonetheless, five of the six seats won by the Conservatives in the province were found in the greater Quebec City area. At the 2018 Quebec general election, 2018 provincial election, the leftist party Québec solidaire managed to win two districts, Taschereau (electoral district), Taschereau and Jean-Lesage, the most densely populated in town, but the centre-right CAQ, as it swept the province, won six of the nine districts encompassing the city, and 15 of the 18 in the administrative regions of Capitale-Nationale and Chaudière-Appalaches (south shore of the city).


Municipal government

Quebec City is governed by a mayor–council government, which includes the 21 single-member districts of the legislative Quebec City Council and the separately elected List of mayors of Quebec City, mayor. The councilors are elected by first-past-the-post voting while the mayor is elected by the city at-large. Both usually belong to political parties and are elected at the same time every 4 years. The mayor is an ex officio member of the council but is not its president and has no vote. The current one is Bruno Marchand, elected in 2021 Quebec City municipal election, 2021. Each of the city's six boroughs has a council composed of 3 to 5 of the aforementioned councillors, depending on the size of its population. It has jurisdiction with matters such as local road maintenance, leisure, waste collection, and small grants for community projects and others, but cannot tax or borrow money. The boroughs are further divided into #Boroughs and neighbourhoods, 35 neighbourhoods, which also have councils devoted to public consultations, each led by 11 citizens. Their geographical limits may be distinct from those of the city's 21 electoral districts, and councillors also sit at their neighbourhood councils as non-voting ex officio members.


Public safety

The city is protected by Service de police de la Ville de Québec and Service de protection contre les incendies de Québec (fire dept.) The Census geographic units of Canada#Census metropolitan areas, census metropolitan area (CMA) of Quebec City has one of the lowest crime rates in Canada, with 3,193 per 100,000 persons in 2017, only behind Greater Toronto Area#Census metropolitan area, Toronto's CMA (3,115). Exceptionally, no Culpable homicide#Canada, homicide (defined as a criminal death, deliberate or not) was reported in 2007. Still, eight homicides occurred the following year. On 29 January 2017, a university student Quebec City mosque shooting, shot and killed six people with another 17 injured in a mass shooting at the Islamic Cultural Centre of Quebec City, Quebec Islamic Cultural Centre. Even after accounting for this event, the CMA of Quebec had the second lowest Crime Severity Index in the country in 2017, at 48.5, after that of Barrie (45.3). For the year 2017, the number of reported incidents investigated as hate crimes by the city police increased from 57 to 71, and for those specifically targeting Muslims from 21 to 42. The overall rate of reported hate crimes was thus 7.1 per 100,000 population — higher than the national average (3.9) and in Montreal (4.7) but lower than rates in Hamilton, Ontario, Hamilton,
Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exist and are ...

Ottawa
and Thunder Bay. There were two Murder (Canadian law)#Murder, first-degree murders in 2018, seven in 2017 (six of which were due to the mosque shooting), one in 2016, two in 2015 and three in 2014. On 1 November 2020, the Quebec City police arrested a man dressed in medieval costume and armed with a Japanese sword. Carl Girouard, the arrestee, reportedly killed 2 people and hospitalized 5 others.


Education

The Université Laval (Laval University) is in the southwestern part of the city, in the borough of Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Sainte-Foy, except for its school of architecture, which is at the "Séminaire de Québec, Vieux-Séminaire" building in Old Quebec. The Université du Québec, Université du Québec system administrative headquarters and some of its specialized schools (École nationale d'administration publique, Institut national de la recherche scientifique and Télé-université) are in the Saint-Roch, Quebec City, Saint-Roch neighbourhood. CEGEPs of Quebec city are Collège François-Xavier-Garneau, Cégep Limoilou, Cégep de Sainte-Foy and Champlain College St. Lawrence, as well as private and specialized post-secondary institutions such as Campus Notre-Dame-de-Foy, Collège Mérici, Collège Bart, CDI College, Collège CDI, Collège O'Sullivan and Collège Multihexa. Three school boards, including Commission scolaire de la Capitale, operate secular francophone schools, and Central Quebec School Board operates the few existing anglophone ones. Until 1998 Commission des écoles catholiques de Québec operated public Catholic schools of all languages. Quebec City has the oldest educational institution for women in North America, led by the Ursulines of Quebec, which is now a private elementary school.


Infrastructure


Transportation


Roads

Two bridges (the Quebec Bridge and Pierre Laporte Bridge) and a ferry service connect the city with Lévis and its suburbs along the south shore of the
Saint Lawrence River The St. Lawrence River is a large river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its c ...
. The Île d'Orléans Bridge, Orleans Island Bridge links Quebec City with pastoral Île d'Orléans, Orleans Island. Quebec City is an important hub in the province's Autoroutes of Quebec, autoroute system, as well as boasting one of the highest "expressway lane kilometres per 1000 persons" in the country (1.10 km), behind Calgary (1.74), Hamilton, Ontario, Hamilton (1.61) and Edmonton (1.24). Quebec Autoroute 40, Autoroute 40 connects the region with
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, ) is the second-most populous city in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and w ...

Montreal
and
Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exist and are ...

Ottawa
to the west and Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré, Quebec, Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré and the Charlevoix region to the east. Quebec Autoroute 20, Autoroute 20 parallels the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, linking Quebec City with Montreal and
Toronto Toronto (, ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016 in 2016, it is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, most p ...

Toronto
to the west and Rivière-du-Loup, Rimouski, and the Maritime Provinces to the east. Quebec Autoroute 73, Autoroute 73 provides a north–south link through the metropolitan area, linking it with Saint-Georges, Quebec, Saint-Georges, the Beauce, Quebec, Beauce region, and Maine to the south and Saguenay, Quebec, Saguenay and the Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean, Lac-Saint-Jean region to the north. Within the metropolitan region, Autoroutes 40, 73, and several spur routes link the city centre with its suburbs. Quebec Autoroute 573, Autoroute 573 (Autoroute Henri-IV) connects the city with CFB Valcartier. Quebec Autoroute 740, Autoroute 740 (Autoroute Robert-Bourassa) serves as a north–south inner belt. Quebec Autoroute 440 (Quebec City), Autoroute 440 comprises two separate autoroutes to the west and east of the urban core. Originally meant to be connected by a tunnel under the city centre, the two sections are separated by a gap. There are no current plans to connect them. The western section (Autoroute Charest) connects Autoroutes 40 and 73 with Boulevard Charest (a main east–west avenue) while the eastern section (Autoroute Dufferin-Montmorency) links the city centre with Beauport, Quebec City, Beauport and Montmorency Falls.


Public transport

The Réseau de transport de la Capitale (RTC) is responsible for public transport in the region. The RTC operates a fleet of buses and has recently implemented articulated buses. The RTC is studying the return of a tramway system to help ease overcrowding on its busiest lines as well as attract new users to public transit. The two billion dollar revitalization project needs approval from higher levels of government since the city does not have the financial resources to fund such an ambitious project on its own. Rail transport is operated by Via Rail at the Gare du Palais ('Palace Station'). The station is the eastern terminus of the railway's main Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. An inter-city bus station, with connections to the provincial long-distance bus network, is adjacent to the train station, and is used by operators such as Orleans Express and Intercar.


Air and sea

Quebec City is served by Québec City Jean Lesage International Airport, Jean Lesage International Airport, located west of the city centre. The Port of Quebec is a seaport on the St. Lawrence with facilities in the first, fifth and sixth boroughs.


Notable people


Partner cities

Quebec City is mainly Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: * Bordeaux, France * Calgary, Alberta It has formal agreements with other cities although they are not active anymore as of 2012. These include Saint Petersburg, Guanajuato City, Huế and Liège and Namur in Wallonia, francophone Belgium.


See also

* List of regional county municipalities and equivalent territories in Quebec


Notes


References


External links

*
Official website of Québec City Tourism

''Focus on Geography Series, 2016 Census''
— Census subdivision of Québec City from Statistics Canada
CBC Digital Archives
— CBC Television Special: Preserving Quebec City (1976)
CBC Digital Archives
— Quebec City: 400 Years of History {{Authority control Quebec City, Cities and towns in Quebec World Heritage Sites in Canada Quebec populated places on the Saint Lawrence River Populated places established in 1608 1608 establishments in New France Former colonial capitals in Canada Hudson's Bay Company trading posts Port settlements in Quebec French mission settlements in North America 1608 in North America 1608 in Canada