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A quasi-judicial body is a non-judicial body which can interpret law. It is an entity such as an arbitration panel or
tribunal board
tribunal board
, that can be a public administrative agency but also a
contract A contract is a legally binding agreement that defines and governs the rights and duties between or among its parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview ...

contract
- or
private law Private law is that part of a civil law Civil law may refer to: * Civil law (common law) Civil law is a major branch of the law.Glanville Williams. ''Learning the Law''. Eleventh Edition. Stevens. 1982. p. 2. In common law legal systems such as ...
entity, which has been given powers and procedures resembling those of a
court of law A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''St ...
or
judge A judge is a person who presides over court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In th ...

judge
, and which is obliged to objectively determine facts and draw conclusions from them so as to provide the basis of an official action. Such actions are able to remedy a situation or impose legal penalties, and they may affect the legal rights, duties or privileges of specific parties.''West's Encyclopedia of American Law'', edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc.


Powers

Such bodies usually have powers of
adjudication Adjudication is the legal process by which an arbiter or judge A judge is a person who presides over court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing a ...
in such matters as: * breach of discipline * conduct rules * trust in the matters of money or otherwise Their powers are usually limited to a very specific area of expertise and authority, such as land use and
zoning Zoning is a method of urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan ...
,
financial market A financial market is a market (economics), market in which people trade financial Security (finance), securities and derivative (finance), derivatives at low transaction costs. Some of the securities include stocks and Bond (finance), bonds, ra ...
s,
employment law Labour laws (also known as labor laws or employment laws) are those that mediate the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade union A trade union (or a labor union in American English), often simply referred to as a union, is ...
, public standards, and/or a specific set of regulations of an agency. The decisions of such a body are often made after a quasi-judicial proceeding which may resemble a court.


Differences from judicial bodies

There are some key differences between judicial and quasi-judicial bodies, in that: * Judicial decisions are bound by
precedent A precedent is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case A legal case is in a general sense a dispute between opposing parties which may be resolved by a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government inst ...
in
common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law Case law is the collection of past legal decisions written by courts and similar tribunal A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority ...
, whereas quasi-judicial decisions usually are not so bound; * In the absence of precedent in common law, judicial decisions may create new law, whereas quasi-judicial decisions must be based on conclusions of existing law; * Quasi-judicial bodies need not always follow strict judicial
rules of evidence The law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described ...
and procedure; * Quasi-judicial bodies must hold formal hearings only if mandated to do so under their governing laws, regulations or agreements; * Quasi-judicial bodies, unlike courts, may be a party in a matter and issue a decision thereon at the same time, depending on the specifically governing rules.


Decisions

In general, decisions of a quasi-judicial body require findings of facts to reach conclusions of law that justify the decision. They usually depend on a pre-determined set of guidelines or criteria to assess the nature and gravity of the permission or relief sought, or of the offense committed. Decisions of a quasi-judicial body are often legally enforceable under the laws of a jurisdiction; they can be challenged in a
court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Sta ...

court
of law, which is the final decisive authority.


List of quasi-judicial bodies

The following is a partial list of quasi-judicial bodies:


Canada

*
Canadian International Trade Tribunal The Canadian International Trade Tribunal is an independent quasi-judicial A quasi-judicial body is a non-judicial body which can interpret law. It is an entity such as an Arbitration Image:LCIA.jpg, upright=1.5, The London Court of Internationa ...
*
Canadian Transportation Agency The Canadian Transportation Agency (CTA; french: Office des transports du Canada) is an independent administrative tribunal A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or d ...
* Ontarian committees of adjustment *
Ontario Municipal Board The Ontario Municipal Board (OMB) was an independent administrative board Board or Boards may refer to: Flat surface * Lumber, or other rigid material, milled or sawn flat ** Plank (wood) ** Cutting board ** Sounding board, of a musical instrumen ...
* Trademarks Opposition Board *
Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC; french: Commission canadienne de sûreté nucléaire) is the federal regulator of nuclear power and materials in Canada. In addition to nuclear power plants and nuclear research facilities, the CNSC ...


India

Some non-constitutional bodies that are quasi-judicial in nature: *
National Company Law Tribunal The National Company Law Tribunal is a quasi-judicial body in India that adjudicates issues relating to Indian companies. The tribunal was established under the Companies Act 2013 and was constituted on 1 June 2016 by the government of India and ...
(NCLT) * Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT) * Assessing authorities under the Income Tax Laws *
National Human Rights Commission A human rights commission, also known as a human relations commission, is a body set up to investigate, promote or protect human rights Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to ...

National Human Rights Commission
* National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission *
Competition Commission of India The Competition Commission of India (CCI) is the chief national competition regulator in India. It is a statutory body within the Ministry of Corporate Affairs and is responsible for enforcing the The Competition Act, 2002, Competition Act, 200 ...
* Appellate Tribunal for Electricity * Railway Claims Tribunal * Intellectual Property Appellate Tribunal * Banking Ombudsman *
National Green Tribunal The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 is an Act of the Parliament of India which enables the creation of a special tribunal to handle the expeditious disposal of the cases pertaining to environmental issues. It draws inspiration from India's ...
*
Central Information Commission The Central Information Commission is a statutory body, set up under the Right to Information Act The Right to Information (RTI) is an act of the Parliament of India which sets out the rules and procedures regarding citizens' right to infor ...
*
Securities and Exchange Board of India The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is the regulatory body A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public-benefit corporation, Public benefit corporation, public authority/jurisdiction, or government agency that is res ...
(SEBI) *
Reserve Bank of India The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India's central bank and regulatory body and is responsible for the Money creation, issue and money supply, supply of the Indian rupee and the Bank regulation, regulation of the Banking in India, Indian banki ...

Reserve Bank of India
(RBI)


United Kingdom

*
Parades Commission The Parades Commission is a quasi-judicial A quasi-judicial body is a non-judicial body which can interpret law. It is an entity such as an arbitration panel or tribunal board, that can be a public administrative agency but also a con ...
*
Planning Committee A planning committee in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United K ...
* Sheriffs Principal in Scotland *
Financial Services Authority The Financial Services Authority (FSA) was a quasi-judicial body A quasi-judicial body is a non-judicial body which can interpret law. It is an entity such as an Arbitration panel or tribunal board, that can be a public administrative agency but ...
* Authorities under section 7A and 14B of EPF & MP Act 1952


United States

*
United States Merit Systems Protection Board The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is an independent quasi-judicial agency established in 1979 to protect federal merit systems against partisan political and other prohibited personnel practices and to ensure adequate protection for United ...
* Commercial Fisheries Entry Commission * Californian planning commissions *
California Coastal Commission The California Coastal Commission (CCC) is a California executive branch, state agency within the California Natural Resources Agency with quasi-judicial control of land and public access along the state's coastline. The Commission's mission is ...
*
Federal Aviation Administration The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the largest transportation agency of the U.S. government and regulates all aspects of civil aviation Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-military and non- ...
* US Patent & Trademark Office including the
Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences The Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences (BPAI) was an administrative law body of the United States Patent and Trademark Office The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that ...
* Local Zoning Board of Appeals *
National Labor Relations Board The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in different jurisdictions. In so ...

National Labor Relations Board
*
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is a federal agency that was established via the Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 () is a landmark civil rights and United States labor law, labor law in the Un ...
*
Federal Election Commission The Federal Election Commission (FEC) is an independent regulatory agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public-benefit corporation, Public benefit corporation, public authority/jurisdiction, or government agency that is r ...
*
Federal Trade Commission The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government Independent agencies of the United States federal government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. gover ...

Federal Trade Commission
*
International Trade Commission The United States International Trade Commission (USITC or I.T.C.) is an agency of the United States federal government that advises the legislature, legislative and executive (government), executive branches on matters of trade. It is an indepe ...


Other

*
Parole Board A parole board is a panel of people who decide whether an offender should be released from prison on parole Parole is the early release of a prisoner who agrees to abide by certain conditions, originating from the French word ''parole'' ("speec ...
*
Commission of Inquiry A royal commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry into a defined issue in some monarchy, monarchies. They have been held in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Norway, Malaysia, Mauritius and Saudi Arabia. A royal comm ...
*
Human Rights Committee The United Nations Human Rights Committee is a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to ...
*
Court of Arbitration for Sport The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS; french: Tribunal arbitral du sport, ''TAS'') is an international body established in 1984 to settle disputes related to sport through arbitration. Its headquarters are in Lausanne, Switzerland and its co ...
* Commission on Elections (Philippines), Philippines Commission on Elections * National Privacy Commission (Philippines) * European Patent Office * National Labor Relations Commission * New Zealand's Broadcasting Standards Authority * Botswana Communications Regulatory Authority *Chief District Officer of Nepal * African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement


Further reading

* Mashaw, Jerry L., Richard A. Merrill, and Peter M. Shane. 1992. Administrative Law: The American Public Law System; Cases and Materials. 3d ed. St. Paul, Minn.: West.


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Quasi-Judicial Body Quasi-judicial bodies, Courts by type