HOME

TheInfoList




Punjabi ( Shahmukhi: ,
Gurmukhi Gurmukhī ( pa, ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ, , Shahmukhi: ) or Punjabi script is an abugida An abugida (, from : አቡጊዳ), sometimes known as alphasyllabary, neosyllabary or pseudo-alphabet, is a segmental in which consonant-vowel seque ...

Gurmukhi
: , ; ; sometimes spelled Panjabi) is an
Indo-Aryan language The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages form a major language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages h ...
spoken by the
Punjabi people The Punjabis (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as ...

Punjabi people
and native to the
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...

Punjab
region of
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
and
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
. Punjabi is the 9th most widely spoken language in the world. Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan and the 11th most widely spoken language in India, and the third most-spoken native language in the Indian Subcontinent. Punjabi is the 3rd most spoken language in England and the fifth most spoken native language in Canada. It also has a significant presence in the
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...

United Arab Emirates
, the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...

France
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
,
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
,
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italy
, and the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
. It has approximately 113 million
native speakers A first language, native tongue, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', mean ...
. Punjabi is spoken by 80.05 million people in Pakistan. Punjabi is the provincial language of Punjab province in Pakistan and it has not given official status at national level. In India, Punjabi is spoken by 31.1 million people (as of 2011) and has official status in the state of Punjab. The language is spoken among a significant overseas diaspora, particularly in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom. In Pakistan, Punjabi is written using the Shahmukhi script, while
Gurmukhi Gurmukhī ( pa, ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ, , Shahmukhi: ) or Punjabi script is an abugida An abugida (, from : አቡጊዳ), sometimes known as alphasyllabary, neosyllabary or pseudo-alphabet, is a segmental in which consonant-vowel seque ...

Gurmukhi
is used in India. Punjabi is unusual among Indo-Aryan languages (and
Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, based on speech and gesture (spoken language), Signed language, sign, or o ...
more generally) in its use of lexical tone.


History


Etymology

The word ''Punjabi'' (sometimes spelled ''Panjabi'') has been derived from the word ''Panj-āb'',
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
for 'Five Waters', referring to the five major eastern
tributaries A tributary, or affluent, is a stream A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the stream bed, bed and Bank (geography), banks of a Channel (geography), channel. The flow of a stream is controlled by three inputs – ...
of the
Indus River The Indus ( ) is a transboundary river A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary. Bangladesh has the highest number of these rivers, including t ...

Indus River
. The name of the region was introduced by the
Turko-Persian The composite Turco-Persian tradition
''Turko-Persia in historical perspective'', Cambridge University Press, 1991
conquerors of
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri La ...

South Asia
and was a translation of the
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
name for the
region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic re ...

region
, ''Panchanada'', which means 'Land of the Five Rivers'. ''Panj'' is
cognate In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
with
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
' (),
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
''pénte'' (), and
Lithuanian Lithuanian may refer to: * Lithuanians Lithuanians ( lt, lietuviai, singular ''lietuvis/lietuvė'') are a Balts, Baltic ethnic group. They are native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people. Another million or more make up the Lith ...

Lithuanian
''Penki'', all of which meaning 'five'; ''āb'' is cognate with Sanskrit ''áp'' () and with the of . The historical
Punjab region Punjab (; ; ; ; also romanised Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and m ...

Punjab region
, now divided between India and Pakistan, is defined physiographically by the
Indus River The Indus ( ) is a transboundary river A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary. Bangladesh has the highest number of these rivers, including t ...

Indus River
and these five
tributaries A tributary, or affluent, is a stream A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the stream bed, bed and Bank (geography), banks of a Channel (geography), channel. The flow of a stream is controlled by three inputs – ...
. One of the five, the
Beas River The Beas River (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European lang ...

Beas River
, is a tributary of another, the
Sutlej The Satluj River (alternatively spelled as ''Sutlej'' River; ) is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is ...

Sutlej
.


Origin

Punjabi developed from
Prakrit The Prakrits (; Early Brahmi 𑀧𑁆𑀭𑀸𑀓𑀾𑀢, ''prākṛta''; Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (''Nāgarī'', ),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publi ...
languages and later (, 'deviated' or 'non-grammatical speech') From 600 BC, Sanskrit was advocated as official language and Prakrit gave birth to many regional languages in different parts of India. All these languages are called Prakrit (Sanskrit: ) collectively.
Paishachi Paishachi () is a largely unattested literary language of the middle kingdoms of India mentioned in Prakrit and Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language ...
Prakrit was one of these Prakrit languages, which was spoken in north and north-western India and Punjabi developed from this Prakrit. Later in northern India Paishachi Prakrit gave rise to Paishachi Aparbhsha, a descendant of Prakrit. Punjabi emerged as an Apabhramsha, a degenerated form of Prakrit, in the 7th century A.D. and became stable by the 10th century. The earliest writings in Punjabi belong to Nath Yogi era from 9th to 14th century A.D. The language of these compositions is morphologically closer to Shauraseni Apbhramsa, though vocabulary and rhythm is surcharged with extreme colloquialism and folklore.


Arabic and Persian influences

The Arabic and modern-Persian influence in the historical Punjab region began with the late first millennium
Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from 13th to 16th century, though earlier Muslim conquests include the invasions into modern Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the ...
. Many
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
and
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
words were incorporated in Punjabi. So Punjabi relies heavily on Persian and Arabic words which are used with a liberal approach to language. Most important words in Punjabi, like and , and common words, like , etc., have all come out of Persian. After the fall of the Sikh empire, Urdu was made the official language of Punjab (in Pakistani Punjab, it is still the primary official language), and influenced the language as well. In fact, the sounds of , and have been borrowed from Persian. Later, it was lexically influenced by
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
(words like ),
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
(words like ), Chagatai (words like ),
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of J ...

Japanese
(words like ), Chinese (words like ) and
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
(words like ), though these influences have been minor in comparison to Persian and Arabic. Note: In more formal contexts,
hypercorrect In sociolinguistics, hypercorrection is nonstandard dialect, non-standard usage (language), use of language that results from the over-application of a perceived rule of Prescriptive grammar, language-usage prescription. A speaker or writer who p ...
Sanskritized In sociology, Sanskritisation ( Indian and British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon E ...
versions of these words (ਪ੍ਰਧਾਨ ''pradhān'' for ਪਰਧਾਨ ''pardhān'' and ਪਰਿਵਾਰ ''parivār'' for ਪਰਵਾਰ ''parvār'') may be used.


Modern times

Punjabi is spoken in many dialects in an area from
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
to
Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islām Ābād) is the of Pakistan, and is administered by the as part of the . It is the in Pakistan, while the larger is the country's with a population of about 4.1 million people. Built as a in the 1960s ...

Islamabad
. The
Majhi dialect Majhi ( Shahmukhi: Gurmukhi: ) is the standard dialect of Punjabi and is spoken in the Majha region of the Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and hi ...
has been adopted as standard Punjabi in
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
and Pakistan for education, media etc. The Majhi dialect originated in the
Majha Majha (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb o ...
region of the Punjab. The Majha region consists of several eastern districts of
Pakistani Punjab Punjab (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region ...
and in India around
Amritsar Amritsar (), historically also known as ''Rāmdāspur'' and colloquially as ''Ambarsar'', is a historic and the second largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality o ...

Amritsar
,
Gurdaspur Gurdaspur is a city in the state of Punjab, India, between the rivers Beas River, Beas and Ravi River, Ravi, from the international border between India and Pakistan. It houses the administrative headquarters of Gurdaspur District and is in the g ...
,
Pathankot Pathankot is a city in Punjab, India. Pathankot district shares an international border, on its west, with Pakistan. Pathankot was officially declared a district of the Punjab state on 27th of July, 2011. It was previously a Tehsil of Gurdaspur ...
and Tarn Taran districts. The two most important cities in this area are Lahore and Amritsar. In India, Punjabi is written in the
Gurmukhī Gurmukhī ( pa, ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ, , Shahmukhi alphabet, Shahmukhi: ) is an abugida developed from the Laṇḍā scripts, standardized and used by the second Sikh gurus, Sikh guru, Guru Angad (1504–1552). Commonly regarded as a Sikh script ...
script in offices, schools, and media. Gurmukhi is the official standard script for Punjabi, though it is often unofficially written in the Latin scripts due to influence from
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
, India's two primary official languages at the Union-level. In Pakistan, Punjabi is generally written using the Shahmukhī script, which in literary standards, is identical to the
Urdu alphabet The Urdu alphabet (), is the right-to-left In a right-to-left, top-to-bottom script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * ...
, however various attempts have been made to create certain, distinct characters from a modification of the Persian Nastaʿlīq characters to represent Punjabi phonology, not already found in the
Urdu alphabet The Urdu alphabet (), is the right-to-left In a right-to-left, top-to-bottom script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * ...
. In Pakistan, Punjabi loans technical words from
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
and
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
languages, just like
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
does.


Geographic distribution

Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, the eleventh-most widely spoken in India, and also present in the Punjabi diaspora in various countries.


Pakistan

Punjabi is the most widely spoken language , being the native language of 80.5 million people, or approximately 39% of the country's population. Beginning with the 1981 census, speakers of Saraiki and
Hindko Hindko (, romanized: , ) is a cover term for a diverse group of Lahnda Lahnda () also known as Lahndi or Western Punjabi, is a group of north-western Indo-Aryan language varieties spoken in Pakistani Punjab and in parts of the neighbouring ...

Hindko
were no longer included in the total numbers for Punjabi, which explains the apparent decrease.


India

Punjabi is the official language of the Indian state of
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...

Punjab
, and has the status of an additional official language in
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
and
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
. Some of its major urban centres in northern India are
Amritsar Amritsar (), historically also known as ''Rāmdāspur'' and colloquially as ''Ambarsar'', is a historic and the second largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality o ...

Amritsar
,
Ludhiana Ludhiana ( ) is the most populous and the largest Cities in India, city in the Indian state of Punjab, India, Punjab. The city has an estimated population of 1,618,879 2011 Indian census, 2011 census And distributed over Land area of just 159 ...
,
Chandigarh Chandigarh () is a city, district and union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana. Chandigarh is bordered by the state of Punjab to the north, the west and the south, and by the s ...

Chandigarh
,
Jalandhar Jalandhar is List of cities in Punjab and Chandigarh by population, third most-populous City in the Indian state of Punjab, India, Punjab and Largest city in Doaba Region. Jalandhar lies alongside the Grand Trunk Road and is a well-connected ...
,
Ambala Ambala (), is a city and a municipal corporation A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local government, local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) city, cities, county, counties, towns, townships, charter t ...
,
Patiala Patiala () is a city in southeastern , northwestern . It is the fourth largest city in the state and is the administrative capital of . Patiala is located around the ' (the 'Fortunate Castle') constructed by the chieftain , who founded the roy ...
,
Bathinda Bathinda is a city and municipal corporation in part of Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia South Asia is the ...
,
Hoshiarpur Hoshiarpur () is a city and a Municipal corporations in India, municipal corporation in Hoshiarpur district in the Doaba region of the Indian state of Punjab, India, Punjab. It was founded, according to tradition, during the early part of the ...
and
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
. In the 2011 census of India, million reported their language as Punjabi. The census publications group this with speakers of related "mother tongues" like Bagri and Bhateali to arrive at the figure of million.


Punjabi diaspora

Punjabi is also spoken as a
minority language A minority language is a language spoken by a minority group, minority of the population of a territory. Such people are termed linguistic minorities or language minorities. With a total number of 196 sovereign states recognized internationally ( ...
in several other countries where
Punjabi people The Punjabis (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as ...

Punjabi people
have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada. There were 0.5 million native Punjabi speakers in Canada in 2016, 0.3 million in the United Kingdom in 2011, 0.28 million in the United States and smaller numbers in other countries.


Major dialects


Standard Punjabi

''Standard Punjabi'' sometimes referred to as Majhi in India or simply Punjabi, is the most widespread and largest dialect of Punjabi. It first developed in the 12th century and gained prominence when Sufi poets such as
Shah Hussain Shah Hussain ( pa, ; 1538–1599), was a 16th-century Punjabi Muslim Punjabi Muslims ( pa, ) are adherents of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable ...
,
Bulleh Shah Syed Abdullah Shah Qadri or Syed Abdullah Shah Gilani ( pa, ; ; 1680–1757), known as Bulleh Shah ( pa, ; ), was a Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the ...
among others began to use the Lahore/Amritsar spoken dialect with infused Persian vocabulary in their works in the Shahmukhi script. Later the Gurmukhi script was developed based on Standard Punjabi by the Sikh Gurus. Standard Punjabi is spoken by the majority of the people in
Faisalabad Faisalabad (Punjabi language, Punjabi and ur, , ; ), formerly known as Lyallpur James Broadwood Lyall, named after the founder of the city is the third-List of most populated metropolitan areas in Pakistan, most-populous city in Pakistan aft ...

Faisalabad
,
Lahore Lahore (; pnb, ; ; ur, ; ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab and is the country's List of most populous cities in Pakistan, 2nd largest city after Karachi, as well as the List of cities proper by populat ...

Lahore
,
Gujranwala Gujranwala (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Pan ...

Gujranwala
,
Sheikhupura Shekhupura, also known as Qila Sheikhupura ( ur, , pa, ), is a city in the Pakistani province of Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab. Founded by the Mughal Empire, Mughal Emperor Jahangir, Jehangir in 1607, Sheikhupura is the List of most populous cities ...
,
Kasur Kasur (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC ( American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing system A writing system is a method of visually repres ...

Kasur
,
Sialkot Sialkot (Urdu and pnb, ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan. It is the capital city of Sialkot District. It is Pakistan's List of most populous cities in Pakistan, 13th largest city by population and is located in north-east Punja ...

Sialkot
,
Narowal Narowal ( ur, ) is a city located on the western bank of river Ravi River, Ravi in the northeast of the province Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab, Pakistan. The city is the capital of Narowal District, district Narowal, and a part of Gujranwala divisi ...

Narowal
, , Okara,
Pakpattan Pakpattan ( Punjabi, ), often referred to as Pākpattan Sharīf (; ''"Noble Pakpattan"''), is the capital city of the Pakpattan District, located in Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb ...

Pakpattan
,
Sahiwal Sahiwal (Punjabi language, Punjabi and ur, ), formerly known as Montgomery, is a city in Punjab, Pakistan. It is the List of most populous cities in Pakistan, 21st largest city of Pakistan by population and the administrative capital of both S ...

Sahiwal
,
Hafizabad Hafizabad (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC ( American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing system A writing system is a method of visually ...

Hafizabad
,
Nankana Sahib Nankana Sahib (; pa, , translit=nankāṇā sāhib) is a city and capital of Nankana Sahib District Nankana Sahib District ( Punjabi and ur, ) is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is ...

Nankana Sahib
and
Mandi Bahauddin Mandi Bahauddin is a city in central Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan. It is also the capital of Mandi Bahauddin District. Mandi Bahauddin is the List of most populous cities in Pakistan, 41st largest city of Pakistan by population according t ...

Mandi Bahauddin
districts of Pakistan's Punjab Province. It also has a large presence in every district in the rest of Pakistani Punjab, and in all large cities in Pakistan's other provinces. In India it is spoken in
Amritsar Amritsar (), historically also known as ''Rāmdāspur'' and colloquially as ''Ambarsar'', is a historic and the second largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality o ...

Amritsar
,
Tarn Taran Sahib Tarn Taran Sahib is a city in the Majha region of the state of Punjab (India), Punjab, in northern India. It is the district headquarters and hosts the municipal council of Tarn Taran district. Gurdwara Sri Tarn Taran Sahib, a prominent Sikh sh ...
,
Pathankot Pathankot is a city in Punjab, India. Pathankot district shares an international border, on its west, with Pakistan. Pathankot was officially declared a district of the Punjab state on 27th of July, 2011. It was previously a Tehsil of Gurdaspur ...
and
Gurdaspur Gurdaspur is a city in the state of Punjab, India, between the rivers Beas River, Beas and Ravi River, Ravi, from the international border between India and Pakistan. It houses the administrative headquarters of Gurdaspur District and is in the g ...
Districts of the State of Punjab and sizable population also in major cities of the States of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and Mumbai India. In
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
, the Standard Punjabi dialect is not referred to as the '
Majhi dialect Majhi ( Shahmukhi: Gurmukhi: ) is the standard dialect of Punjabi and is spoken in the Majha region of the Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and hi ...
', which may be considered as 'Indian terminology', rather simply as '
Standard Punjabi Punjabi ( Shahmukhi: , Gurmukhi Gurmukhī ( pa, ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ, , Shahmukhi: ) is an abugida . ''May Śiva protect those who take delight in the language of the gods.'' ( Kalidasa) An abugida (, from Ge'ez language, Ge'ez: ...
'. This dialect is widely used in the TV and entertainment industry, which is mainly produced in
Lahore Lahore (; pnb, ; ; ur, ; ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab and is the country's List of most populous cities in Pakistan, 2nd largest city after Karachi, as well as the List of cities proper by populat ...

Lahore
.


Phonology

While a
vowel length In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
distinction between short and long vowels exists, reflected in modern
Gurmukhi Gurmukhī ( pa, ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ, , Shahmukhi: ) or Punjabi script is an abugida An abugida (, from : አቡጊዳ), sometimes known as alphasyllabary, neosyllabary or pseudo-alphabet, is a segmental in which consonant-vowel seque ...

Gurmukhi
orthographical conventions, it is secondary to the vowel quality contrast between centralised vowels and peripheral vowels in terms of phonetic significance. The peripheral vowels have nasal vowel, nasal analogues. Note: for the tonal stops, refer to the next section about Tone. The three retroflex consonants do not occur initially, and the nasals occur only as allophones of in clusters with velars and palatals. The well-established phoneme may be realised allophonically as the voiceless retroflex fricative in learned clusters with retroflexes. The phonemic status of the fricatives varies with familiarity with Hindustani language, Hindustani norms, more so with the Gurmukhi script, with the pairs , , , and systematically distinguished in educated speech. The retroflex lateral is most commonly analysed as an Retroflex lateral approximant, approximant as opposed to a Retroflex lateral flap, flap.


Tone

Unusually for an Indo-Aryan language, Punjabi distinguishes Tone (linguistics), lexical tones. In many words there is a choice of up to three tones, high-falling, low-rising, and level (neutral):Bailey, T.Grahame (1919), ''English-Punjabi Dictionary'', introduction.Bowden, A.L. (2012)
"Punjabi Tonemics and the Gurmukhi Script: A Preliminary Study"
Level tone is found in about 75% of words and is described by some as absence of tone. There are also some words which are said to have rising tone in the first syllable and falling in the second. (Some writers describe this as a fourth tone.) However, a recent acoustic study of six Punjabi speakers in the United States found no evidence of a separate falling tone following a medial consonant. * / , ''móḍà'' (rising-falling), "shoulder" It is considered that these tones arose when voiced aspirated consonants () lost their aspiration. At the beginning of a word they became voiceless unaspirated consonants () followed by a high-falling tone; medially or finally they became voiced unaspirated consonants (), preceded by a low-rising tone. (The development of a high-falling tone apparently did not take place in every word, but only in those which historically had a long vowel.) The presence of an [h] (although the [h] is now silent or very weakly pronounced except word-initially) word-finally (and sometimes medially) also often causes a rising tone before it, for example ' "tea". The Gurmukhi script which was developed in the 16th century has separate letters for voiced aspirated sounds, so it is thought that the change in pronunciation of the consonants and development of tones may have taken place since that time. Some other languages in Pakistan have also been found to have tonal distinctions, including Burushaski, Gujari language, Gujari,
Hindko Hindko (, romanized: , ) is a cover term for a diverse group of Lahnda Lahnda () also known as Lahndi or Western Punjabi, is a group of north-western Indo-Aryan language varieties spoken in Pakistani Punjab and in parts of the neighbouring ...

Hindko
, Kalami language, Kalami, Shina language, Shina, and Torwali language, Torwali.


Grammar

Punjabi has a canonical word order of subject–object–verb, SOV (subject–object–verb). It has postpositions rather than prepositions. Punjabi distinguishes two grammatical gender, genders, two grammatical number, numbers, and five grammatical case, cases of direct case, direct, oblique case, oblique, vocative case, vocative, ablative case, ablative, and locative case, locative/instrumental case, instrumental. The ablative occurs only in the singular, in free variation with oblique case plus ablative postposition, and the locative/instrumental is usually confined to set adverbial expressions. Adjectives, when declinable, are marked for the gender, number, and case of the nouns they qualify. There is also a T-V distinction. Upon the inflectional grammatical case, case is built a system of Grammatical particle, particles known as postpositions, which parallel
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
's prepositions. It is their use with a noun or verb that is what necessitates the noun or verb taking the oblique case, and it is with them that the locus of grammatical function or "case-marking" then lies. The Punjabi verbal system is largely structured around a combination of Grammatical aspect, aspect and Grammatical tense, tense/Grammatical mood, mood. Like the nominal system, the Punjabi verb takes a single inflectional suffix, and is often followed by successive layers of elements like auxiliary verbs and postpositions to the right of the Root (linguistics), lexical base.


Vocabulary

Being an Indo-Aryan language, the core vocabulary of Punjabi consists of tadbhava, tadbhav words inherited from
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
. It contains many loanwords from
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
and Arabic language, Arabic.


Writing systems

The Punjabi language is written in multiple scripts (a phenomenon known as synchronic digraphia). Each of the major scripts currently in use is typically associated with a particular religious group, although the association is not absolute or exclusive. In India, Punjabi Sikhs use
Gurmukhi Gurmukhī ( pa, ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ, , Shahmukhi: ) or Punjabi script is an abugida An abugida (, from : አቡጊዳ), sometimes known as alphasyllabary, neosyllabary or pseudo-alphabet, is a segmental in which consonant-vowel seque ...

Gurmukhi
, a script of the Brahmic scripts, Brahmic family, which has official status in the state of Punjab. In Pakistan, Punjabi Muslims use Shahmukhi, a variant of the Perso-Arabic script and closely related to the
Urdu alphabet The Urdu alphabet (), is the right-to-left In a right-to-left, top-to-bottom script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * ...
. The Punjabi Hindus in India had a preference for Devanagari, another Brahmic script also used for Hindi, and in the first decades since independence raised objections to the uniform adoption of Gurmukhi in the state of Punjab, but most have now switched to Gurmukhi and so the use of Devanagari is rare. Often in literature, Pakistani Punjabi (written in Shahmukhi) is referred as Western-Punjabi (or West-Punjabi) and Indian Punjabi (written in Gurmukhi) is referred as Eastern-Punjabi (or East-Punjabi), although the underlying language is the same with a very slight shift in vocabulary towards Islamic and Sikh words respectively. Historically, various local Brahmic scripts including Laṇḍā and its descendants were also in use. The Punjabi Braille is used by the visually impaired.


Sample text

This sample text was taken from the Punjabi Wikipedia article on
Lahore Lahore (; pnb, ; ; ur, ; ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab and is the country's List of most populous cities in Pakistan, 2nd largest city after Karachi, as well as the List of cities proper by populat ...

Lahore
.
Gurmukhi Gurmukhī ( pa, ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ, , Shahmukhi: ) or Punjabi script is an abugida An abugida (, from : አቡጊዳ), sometimes known as alphasyllabary, neosyllabary or pseudo-alphabet, is a segmental in which consonant-vowel seque ...

Gurmukhi
ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨੀ ਪੰਜਾਬ ਦੀ ਰਾਜਧਾਨੀ ਹੈ। ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ ਕਰਾਚੀ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਲਹੌਰ ਦੂਜਾ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਡਾ ਸ਼ਹਿਰ ਹੈ। ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਸਿਆਸੀ, ਰਹਤਲੀ ਅਤੇ ਪੜ੍ਹਾਈ ਦਾ ਗੜ੍ਹ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਇਸੇ ਲਈ ਇਹਨੂੰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਦਿਲ ਵੀ ਕਿਹਾ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ। ਲਹੌਰ ਰਾਵੀ ਦਰਿਆ ਦੇ ਕੰਢੇ 'ਤੇ ਵਸਦਾ ਹੈ। ਇਸਦੀ ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਇੱਕ ਕਰੋੜ ਦੇ ਨੇੜੇ ਹੈ, Shahmukhi alphabet, Shahmukhi Transliteration ''Lahaur Pākistānī Panjāb dī rājtā̀ni/dā dārul hakūmat ài. Lok giṇtī de nāḷ Karācī tõ bāad Lahaur dūjā sáb tõ vaḍḍā šáir ài. Lahaur Pākistān dā siāsī, rátalī ate paṛā̀ī dā gáṛ ài te ise laī ínū̃ Pākistān dā dil vī kihā jāndā ài. Lahaur Rāvī dariā de káṇḍè te vasdā ài. Isdī lok giṇtī ikk karoṛ de neṛe ài''. International Phonetic Alphabet, IPA Translation Lahore is the capital city of Pakistani Punjab. After Karachi, Lahore is the second largest city. Lahore is Pakistan's political, cultural, and educational hub, and so it is also said to be the heart of
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
. Lahore lies on the bank of the Ravi River. Its population is close to ten million people.


Literature development


Medieval era, Mughal and Sikh period

*Fariduddin Ganjshakar (1179-1266) is generally recognised as the first major poet of the Punjabi language.Shiv Kumar Batalvi
sikh-heritage.co.uk.
Roughly from the 12th century to the 19th century, many great Sufi saints and poets preached in the Punjabi language, the most prominent being
Bulleh Shah Syed Abdullah Shah Qadri or Syed Abdullah Shah Gilani ( pa, ; ; 1680–1757), known as Bulleh Shah ( pa, ; ), was a Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the ...
. Punjabi Sufi poetry also developed under
Shah Hussain Shah Hussain ( pa, ; 1538–1599), was a 16th-century Punjabi Muslim Punjabi Muslims ( pa, ) are adherents of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable ...
(1538–1599), Sultan Bahu (1630–1691), Shah Sharaf (1640–1724), Ali Haider (1690–1785), Waris Shah (1722–1798), Saleh Muhammad Safoori (1747-1826), Mian Muhammad Bakhsh, Mian Muhammad Baksh (1830-1907) and Khwaja Ghulam Farid (1845-1901). *The Sikh religion originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region and Punjabi is the predominant language spoken by Sikhs. Most portions of the Guru Granth Sahib use the Punjabi language written in Gurmukhī alphabet, Gurmukhi, though Punjabi is not the only language used in Sikh scriptures. The ''Janamsakhis'', stories on the life and legend of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), are early examples of Punjabi prose literature. *The Punjabi language is famous for its rich literature of Punjabi Qisse, ''qisse'', most of which are about love, passion, betrayal, sacrifice, social values and a common man's revolt against a larger system. The qissa of Heer Ranjha by Waris Shah (1706–1798) is among the most popular of Punjabi qissas. Other popular stories include ''Sohni Mahiwal'' by Fazal Shah, ''Mirza Sahiban'' by Hafiz Barkhudar (1658–1707), ''Sassui Punnhun'' by Hashim Shah (c. 1735–c. 1843), and ''Qissa Puran Bhagat'' by Qadaryar (1802–1892). *Heroic ballads known as ''Vaar'' enjoy a rich oral tradition in Punjabi. Famous ''Vaars'' are ''Chandi di Var'' (1666–1708), ''Nadir Shah Di Vaar'' by Najabat and the ''Jangnama'' of Shah Mohammad (1780–1862).


British Raj era and post-independence period

The Victorian novel, Elizabethan drama, free verse and Modernism entered Punjabi literature through the introduction of British education during the Raj. Nanak Singh (1897–1971), Vir Singh, Ishwar Nanda, Amrita Pritam (1919–2005), Puran Singh (1881–1931), Dhani Ram Chatrik (1876–1957), Diwan Singh (1897–1944) and Ustad Daman (1911–1984), Mohan Singh (poet), Mohan Singh (1905–78) and Shareef Kunjahi are some legendary Punjabi writers of this period. After independence of Pakistan and India Najm Hossein Syed, Fakhar Zaman and Afzal Ahsan Randhawa, Shafqat Tanvir Mirza, Ahmad Salim, and Najm Hosain Syed, Munir Niazi, Ali Arshad Mir, Pir Hadi Abdul Mannan enriched Punjabi literature in Pakistan, whereas Jaswant Singh Kanwal (1919–2020), Amrita Pritam (1919–2005), Jaswant Singh Rahi (1930–1996), Shiv Kumar Batalvi (1936–1973), Surjit Patar (1944–) and Pash (1950–1988) are some of the more prominent poets and writers from India.


Status

Despite Punjabi's rich literary history, it was not until 1947 that it would be recognised as an official language. Previous governments in the area of the Punjab had favoured Persian, Hindustani, or even earlier standardised versions of local registers as the language of the court or government. After the annexation of the Sikh Empire by the East India Company, British East India Company following the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849, the British policy of establishing a uniform language for administration was expanded into the Punjab. The British Empire employed Urdu in its administration of North-Central and Northwestern India, while in the North-East of India, Bengali language was used as the language of administration. Despite its lack of official sanction, the Punjabi language continued to flourish as an instrument of cultural production, with rich literary traditions continuing until modern times. The Sikh religion, with its Gurmukhi alphabet, Gurmukhi script, played a special role in standardising and providing education in the language via Gurdwaras, while writers of all religions continued to produce poetry, prose, and literature in the language. In India, Punjabi is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. It is the first official language of the Punjab, India, Indian State of Punjab. Punjabi also has second language official status in
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
along with
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
, and in
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
. In Pakistan, no Languages of Pakistan, regional ethnic language has been granted official status at the national level, and as such Punjabi is not an official language at the national level, even though it is the most spoken language in Pakistan. It is, however, the official provincial language of Punjab, Pakistan, the second largest and the most populous province of Pakistan as well as in
Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islām Ābād) is the of Pakistan, and is administered by the as part of the . It is the in Pakistan, while the larger is the country's with a population of about 4.1 million people. Built as a in the 1960s ...

Islamabad
Capital Territory. The only two official languages in Pakistan are
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
and Pakistani English, English.


In Pakistan

When
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
was created in 1947, despite Punjabi being the majority language in West Pakistan and Bengali language, Bengali the majority in East Pakistan and
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
as whole,
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
and
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
were chosen as the national languages. The selection of Urdu was due to its association with
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri La ...

South Asia
n Muslim nationalism and because the leaders of the new nation wanted a unifying national language instead of promoting one ethnic group's language over another. Broadcasting in Punjabi language by Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation decreased on TV and radio after 1947. Article 251 of the Constitution of Pakistan declares that these two languages would be the only official languages at the national level, while provincial governments would be allowed to make provisions for the use of other languages. However, in the 1950s the constitution was amended to include the Bengali language. Eventually, Punjabi was granted status as a provincial language in Punjab Province, while the Sindhi language was given official status in 1972 after 1972 Language violence in Sindh. Despite gaining official recognition at the provincial level, Punjabi is not a language of instruction for primary or secondary school students in Punjab Province (unlike Sindhi and Pashto in other provinces). Pupils in secondary schools can choose the language as an elective, while Punjabi instruction or study remains rare in higher education. One notable example is the teaching of Punjabi language and literature by the University of the Punjab in Lahore which began in 1970 with the establishment of its Punjabi Department. In the cultural sphere, there are many books, plays, and songs being written or produced in the Punjabi-language in Pakistan. Until the 1970s, there were a large number of Punjabi-language films being produced by the Lollywood film industry, however since then Urdu has become a much more dominant language in film production. Additionally, television channels in Punjab Province (centred on the Lahore area) are broadcast in Urdu. The preeminence of Urdu in both broadcasting and the Lollywood film industry is seen by critics as being detrimental to the health of the language. The use of Urdu and English as the near exclusive languages of broadcasting, the public sector, and formal education have led some to fear that Punjabi in Pakistan is being relegated to a low-status language and that it is being denied an environment where it can flourish. Several prominent educational leaders, researchers, and social commentators have echoed the opinion that the intentional promotion of Urdu and the continued denial of any official sanction or recognition of the Punjabi language amounts to a process of "Urdu-isation" that is detrimental to the health of the Punjabi language In August 2015, the Pakistan Academy of Letters, International Writer's Council (IWC) and World Punjabi Congress (WPC) organised the ''Khawaja Farid Conference'' and demanded that a Punjabi-language university should be established in
Lahore Lahore (; pnb, ; ; ur, ; ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab and is the country's List of most populous cities in Pakistan, 2nd largest city after Karachi, as well as the List of cities proper by populat ...

Lahore
and that Punjabi language should be declared as the medium of instruction at the primary level. In September 2015, a case was filed in Supreme Court of Pakistan against Government of Punjab, Pakistan as it did not take any step to implement the Punjabi language in the province. Additionally, several thousand Punjabis gather in
Lahore Lahore (; pnb, ; ; ur, ; ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab and is the country's List of most populous cities in Pakistan, 2nd largest city after Karachi, as well as the List of cities proper by populat ...

Lahore
every year on International Mother Language Day. Thinktanks, political organisations, cultural projects, and individuals also demand authorities at the national and provincial level to promote the use of the language in the public and official spheres.


In India

At the federal level, Punjabi has official status via the Eighth Schedule to the Indian Constitution, earned after the Punjabi Suba movement of the 1950s. At the state level, Punjabi is the sole official language of the state of Punjab, while it has secondary official status in the states of Haryana and Delhi. In 2012, it was also made additional official language of West Bengal in areas where the population exceeds 10% of a particular block, sub-division or district. Both union and state laws specify the use of Punjabi in the field of education. The state of Punjab uses the Three Language Formula, and Punjabi is required to be either the medium of instruction, or one of the three languages learnt in all schools in Punjab. Punjabi is also a compulsory language in Haryana, and other states with a significant Punjabi speaking minority are required to offer Punjabi medium education. There are vibrant Punjabi language movie and news industries in India, however Punjabi serials have had a much smaller presence within the last few decades in television due to market forces. Despite Punjabi having far greater official recognition in India, where the Punjabi language is officially admitted in all necessary social functions, while in Pakistan it is used only in a few radio and TV programs, attitudes of the English-educated elite towards the language are ambivalent as they are in neighbouring Pakistan. There are also claims of state apathy towards the language in non-Punjabi majority areas like Haryana and Delhi.


Advocacy

*Punjabi University was established on 30 April 1962, and is only the second university in the world to be named after a language, after Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The Research Centre for Punjabi Language Technology, Punjabi University, Patiala is working for development of core technologies for Punjabi, Digitisation of basic materials, online Punjabi teaching, developing software for office use in Punjabi, providing common platform to Punjabi cyber community. Punjabipedia, an online encyclopaedia was also launched by Patiala university in 2014. *The Dhahan Prize was created award literary works produced in Punjabi around the world. The Prize encourages new writing by awarding $25,000 CDN annually to one "best book of fiction" published in either of the two Punjabi scripts, Gurmukhi or Shahmukhi. Two second prizes of $5,000 CDN are also awarded, with the provision that both scripts are represented among the three winners. The Dhahan Prize is awarded by Canada India Education Society (CIES).


Governmental academies and institutes

The Punjabi Sahit academy,
Ludhiana Ludhiana ( ) is the most populous and the largest Cities in India, city in the Indian state of Punjab, India, Punjab. The city has an estimated population of 1,618,879 2011 Indian census, 2011 census And distributed over Land area of just 159 ...
, established in 1954 is supported by the Punjab state government and works exclusively for promotion of the Punjabi language, as does the Punjabi academy in
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
. The Jammu and Kashmir academy of art, culture and literature in Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir UT, India works for Punjabi and other regional languages like Urdu, Dogri, Gojri etc. Institutions in neighbouring states as well as in Lahore, Pakistan also advocate for the language. File:Punjabi academy ludhiana.jpeg, Punjabi Sahit academy, Ludhiana,1954 File:Punjabi academy delhi.jpg, Punjabi academy, Delhi,1981-1982 File:Jammu and Kashmir academy of art culture and literature.jpg, Jammu and Kashmir academy of art, culture and literature File:Punjab institute of language art and culture.jpeg, Pilac(Punjab Institute of Language, Art and Culture, Lahore,2004


Software

*Software is available for the Punjabi language on almost all platforms. This software is mainly in the
Gurmukhi Gurmukhī ( pa, ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ, , Shahmukhi: ) or Punjabi script is an abugida An abugida (, from : አቡጊዳ), sometimes known as alphasyllabary, neosyllabary or pseudo-alphabet, is a segmental in which consonant-vowel seque ...

Gurmukhi
script. Nowadays, nearly all Punjabi newspapers, magazines, journals, and periodicals are composed on computers via various Punjabi software programmes, the most widespread of which is InPage Desktop Publishing package. Microsoft has included Punjabi language support in all the new versions of Windows and both Windows Vista, Microsoft Office 2007, 2010 and 2013, are available in Punjabi through the Language Interface Pack support. Most Linux Desktop distributions allow the easy installation of Punjabi support and translations as well. Apple Inc., Apple implemented the Punjabi language keyboard across Mobile devices. Google also provides many applications in Punjabi, like Google Search, Google Translate and Google Punjabi Input Tools.


Gallery

File:Guru Granth Sahib By Bhai Pratap Singh Giani.jpg, Guru Granth Sahib in Gurmukhi File:Punjabi Alphabet.jpg, Punjabi Gurmukhi script File:Shahmukhi1.JPG, Punjabi Shahmukhi script File:Bhulay Shah.jpg, Bulleh Shah poetry in Punjabi (Shahmukhi script) File:Munir niazi.gif, Munir Niazi poetry in Punjabi (Shahmukhi script) File:Das Buch der Schrift (Faulmann) 138.jpg, Gurmukhi alphabet File:Punjabi language sign board at hanumangarh rajasthan india.jpeg, A sign board in Punjabi language along with Hindi at Hanumangarh, Rajasthan,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India


See also

* Punjabi Wikipedia (Eastern) * Punjabi Wikipedia (Western) * Languages of Pakistan * Languages of India * List of Indian languages by total speakers * List of Punjabi-language newspapers * Hindi-to-Punjabi Machine Translation System * Punjabi cinema


References


Citations


Sources

* . * . * * . *. *. *.


Further reading

* Bhatia, Tej. 1993 and 2010. ''Punjabi : a cognitive-descriptive grammar''. London: Routledge. Series: Descriptive grammars. * Gill H.S. [Harjit Singh] and Gleason, H.A. 1969. A reference grammar of Punjabi. Revised edition. Patiala, Punjab, India: Languages Department, Punjab University. * Chopra, R. M., Perso-Arabic Words in Punjabi, in: Indo-Iranica Vol.53 (1–4). * Chopra, R. M.., The Legacy of The Punjab, 1997, Punjabee Bradree, Calcutta. * Singh, Chander Shekhar (2004). Punjabi Prosody: The Old Tradition and The New Paradigm. Sri Lanka: Polgasowita: Sikuru Prakasakayo. * Singh, Chander Shekhar (2014). Punjabi Intonation: An Experimental Study. Muenchen: LINCOM EUROPA.


External links

*
English to Punjabi Dictionary
{{Authority control Punjabi language, Fusional languages Official languages of India Languages of Pakistan Languages of Punjab, Pakistan, Punjabi culture Subject–object–verb languages Tonal languages in non-tonal families Indo-Aryan languages