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In the
Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural list of regions of the United States, region of the United States that generally includes Arizona, New Mexico, and adjacen ...
, Pueblo (capitalized) refers to the Native tribes of
Puebloans The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common agricultural, material, and religious practices. Pueblo, which means "village" in Spanish, was a term originating with the Colonial Spanis ...
having fixed-location communities with permanent buildings. The Spanish explorers of northern
New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as th ...

New Spain
used the term ''pueblo'' to refer to permanent indigenous towns they found in the region, mainly in
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Greater Albuquerque , OfficialLang = None , Languages = English English usually refer ...

New Mexico
and parts of
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United States, Southwestern region of the United States. It is also usually considered part of the Mountain States, Mountain states. It is th ...

Arizona
, in the former province of Nuevo México. This term continued to be used to describe the communities housed in apartment structures built of stone,
adobe Adobe (; ) is a building material Building material is material used for construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizations,"Construction" def. 1.a. ...

adobe
mud, and other local material. The structures were usually multi-storied buildings surrounding an open plaza, with rooms accessible only through ladders raised/lowered by the inhabitants, thus protecting them from break-ins and unwanted guests. Larger pueblos were occupied by hundreds to thousands of
Puebloan The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the United States, Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common agricultural, material, and religious practices. Pueblo, which means "village" in Spanish, was a term o ...
people. Various federally recognized tribes have traditionally resided in pueblos of such design. Later
Pueblo Deco In the Southwestern United States The southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, ...
and modern
Pueblo Revival architecture , a National Historic Landmark A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a National Register of Historic Places property types, building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the Federal government of the United Stat ...
, which mixes elements of traditional Pueblo and
Hispano The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano or ) refers to people, cultures, or countries related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazon ...
design, has continued to be a popular architectural style in
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Greater Albuquerque , OfficialLang = None , Languages = English English usually refer ...

New Mexico
. The term is now part of the proper name of some historical sites, such as
Acoma Pueblo Acoma Pueblo () is a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigeno ...

Acoma Pueblo
.


Etymology and usage

One teaching simply refers to "pueblo" as a type of adobe house or dwelling place. Another example of Native American architecture referred to and used in this form of reference would be the Northeastern Woodland "longhouses" or the Plains "Teepees". To simply relegate the term as old Italian or Spanish would be disingenuous. The word ''pueblo'' is the Spanish word both for "town" or "village" and for "people". It comes from the Latin root word ''
populus ''Populus'' is a genus of 25–30 species of deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturist ...

populus
'' meaning "people". Spanish colonials applied the term to their own civic settlements, but only to Native American settlements having fixed locations and permanent buildings. Less-permanent native settlements (such as those found in California) were often referred to as ''rancherías''. Of the federally recognized Native American communities in the Southwest, those designated by the
King of Spain , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain , image = King Felipe VI of Spain.jpg , incumbent = Felipe VI , incumbentsince = 19 June 2014 , h ...

King of Spain
as pueblo at the time Spain ceded territory to the United States, after the American Revolutionary War, are legally recognized as Pueblo by the
Bureau of Indian Affairs The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), also known as Indian Affairs (IA), is a United States federal government of the United States, federal agency within the U.S. Department of the Interior, Department of the Interior. It is responsible for imp ...

Bureau of Indian Affairs
. Some of the pueblos also came under jurisdiction of the United States, in its view, by its treaty with
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
, which had briefly gained rule over territory in the Southwest ceded by Spain after Mexican independence. There are 21 federally recognized Pueblos that are home to
Pueblo people The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common agricultural, material, and religious practices. Pueblo, which means "village" in Spanish, was a term originating with the Colonial Spanish ...
s. Their official federal names are as follows:


Historical places

Pre-Columbian towns and villages in the Southwest, such as
Acoma
Acoma
, were located in defensible positions, for example, on high steep
mesa A mesa is an isolated, flat-topped elevation, ridge or hill, which is bounded from all sides by steep escarpments and stands distinctly above a surrounding plain. Mesas characteristically consist of flat-lying soft sedimentary rocks capped by ...

mesa
s.
Anthropologist An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology Anthropology is the of ity, concerned with , , , and , in both the present and past, including . studies patterns of behaviour, while studies cultural meaning, including ...

Anthropologist
s and official documents often refer to ancient residents of the area as pueblo cultures. For example, the
National Park Service The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mecha ...
states, "The Late Puebloan cultures built the large, integrated villages found by the Spaniards when they began to move into the area." The people of some pueblos, such as
Taos Pueblo Taos Pueblo (or Pueblo de Taos) is an ancient pueblo belonging to a Taos-speaking ( Tiwa) Native American tribe of Puebloan people. It lies about north of the modern city of Taos, New Mexico Taos is a town in Taos County in the north-cen ...

Taos Pueblo
, still inhabit centuries-ol
adobe pueblo buildings
Gibson, Daniel (2001) ''Pueblos of the Rio Grande: A Visitor's Guide'', Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, Arizona, p. 78, Contemporary residents often maintain other homes outside the historic pueblos. Adobe and light construction methods resembling adobe now dominate architecture at the many pueblos of the area, in nearby towns or cities, and in much of the
American Southwest The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣona ...
.Paradis, Thomas W. (2003) ''Pueblo Revival Architecture''
, Northern Arizona University
In addition to contemporary pueblos, numerous
ruins Ruins () are the remains of a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additiona ...

ruins
of
archeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique h ...
interest are located throughout the Southwest. Some are of relatively recent origin. Others are of prehistoric origin, such as the
cliff dwelling In archeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biol ...
s and other habitations of the
Ancient Pueblo peoples The Ancestral Puebloans were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah Utah ( , ) is a state in the Mountain West region of the United State ...
or "Anasazi", who emerged as a people around the 12th century BCE and began to construct their pueblos about AD 750–900.Hewit "Puebloan History"
, University of Northern Colorado
Gibson, Daniel (2001) "Pueblo History", in ''Pueblos of the Rio Grande: A Visitor's Guide'', Tucson, Arizona: Rio Nuevo Publishers, pp. 3–4,


See also

* All Pueblo Council of Governors *
Ancient dwellings of Pueblo peoples Hundreds of Ancestral Puebloans, Ancestral Puebloan dwellings are found across the American Southwest. With almost all constructed well before 1492 CE, these Puebloan towns and villages are located throughout the Southwestern United States#Region ...
*
Ancient Pueblo peoples The Ancestral Puebloans were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah Utah ( , ) is a state in the Mountain West region of the United State ...
*
Cuisine of the Southwestern United States The cuisine of the Southwestern United States is food styled after the rustic cooking of the Southwestern United States The southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural ...
*
New Mexican cuisine New Mexican cuisine is the cuisine of the Southwestern US state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The ...
*
New Mexico music New Mexico music ( es, música nuevo mexicana) is a genre of music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements ...
*
Pueblos in Puerto Rico
Pueblos in Puerto Rico
*
Pueblo Revolt The Pueblo Revolt of 1680, also known as Popé's Rebellion or Popay's Rebellion, was an uprising of most of the indigenous Pueblo people The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common ...
*
Pueblo music Pueblo music includes the music of the Hopi, Zuni people, Zuni, Taos Pueblo, San Ildefonso Pueblo, New Mexico, San Ildefonso, Santo Domingo Pueblo, Santo Domingo, and many other Puebloan peoples, and according to Bruno Nettl features one of the mos ...


References


External links

*Th
SMU-in-Taos Research Publications
collection contains nine anthropological and archaeological monographs and edited volumes representing decades of research, primarily on Pueblo Indian sites near Taos, New Mexico, includin
Papers on Taos archaeologyTaos ArcheologyPicuris Pueblo through time: eight centuries of change in a northern Rio Grande pueblo
an
Excavations at Pot Creek Pueblo
{{Authority control Traditional Native American dwellings