HOME

TheInfoList




The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British
proprietary colony A proprietary colony was a type of English colony mostly in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcon ...
and later
royal colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administ ...
on the northeast coast of
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
. As one of the middle
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
,
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
achieved independence and worked with the others to found the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. In 1664, during the
Second Anglo-Dutch War The Second Anglo-Dutch War or the Second Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667; nl, Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict between Kingdom of England, England and the Dutch Republic partly for control over the seas an ...
, the Dutch Province of New Netherland in America was awarded by
Charles II of England Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of government by which a hereditary m ...

Charles II of England
to his brother
James James is a common English language surname and given name: * James (name), the typically masculine first name James * James (surname), various people with the last name James James or James City may also refer to: People * King James (disambiguati ...

James
,
Duke of York Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Since the 15th century, it has, when granted, usually been given to the second son of List of English monarchs, English (later List of British monarchs, British) monarchs. ...

Duke of York
. James raised a fleet to take it from the Dutch and the Governor surrendered to the English fleet without recognition from the
Dutch West Indies Company The Dutch West India Company ( nl, Geoctrooieerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWC; ; en, Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company of Netherlands, Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors. Among its founders was Willem Usselincx (1 ...
that had authority over it. The province was renamed for the Duke of York, as its proprietor. England seized ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with ''de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
'' control of the colony from the Dutch in 1664, and was given ''
de jure In law and government, ''de jure'' ( ; , "by law") describes practices that are legally recognized, regardless of whether the practice exists in reality. In contrast, ("in fact") describes situations that exist in reality, even if not legally ...
'' sovereign control in 1667 in the Treaty of Breda and again in the
Treaty of Westminster (1674) The Treaty of Westminster of 1674 was the peace treaty A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized communi ...
. It was not until 1674 that
English common law English law is the common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ''Black' ...
was applied in the colony. The colony was one of the
Middle Colonies The Middle Colonies were a subset of the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast ...
, and ruled at first directly from England. When the Duke of York ascended to the throne of England as James II, the province became a royal colony. When the English arrived, the Dutch colony somewhat vaguely included claims to all of the present
U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its with the . Due to this shared sovereignty, are both of t ...
s of New York,
New Jersey New Jersey is a in the and regions of the . It is bordered on the north and east by the state of ; on the east, southeast, and south by the ; on the west by the and ; on the southwest by and the state of . At , New Jersey is the , but ...
,
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-AtlanticMid-Atlantic or Mid Atlantic can refer to: *The middle of the Atlantic Ocean *Mid-Atlantic English, a mix between British English and American English *Mid-Atlantic Region (Little League World Serie ...
and
Vermont Vermont () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Vermont
, along with inland portions of
Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 United States census, 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, second-highest level of List of U.S. states and territories by H ...
,
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * T ...

Massachusetts
and
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
in addition to eastern
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
. Much of this land was soon reassigned by the crown, leaving the territory of the modern State of New York, including the valleys of the
Hudson Hudson may refer to: People * Hudson (given name) * Hudson (surname) Places Argentina * Hudson, Buenos Aires Province, a town in Berazategui Partido Australia * Hudson, Queensland, a locality in the Cassowardy Coast Region Canada * H ...

Hudson
and
Mohawk River The Mohawk River is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map accessed October 3, 2011 river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocea ...

Mohawk River
s, and future
Vermont Vermont () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Vermont
. The territory of western New York was disputed with the indigenous
Iroquois The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous pe ...

Iroquois
Confederacy, and also disputed between the English and the French from their northern colonial province of
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
(modern eastern
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Oce ...

Canada
). The province remained an important military and economic link to Canada throughout its history. Vermont was disputed with the
Province of New Hampshire The Province of New Hampshire was a colony of England and later a British province in North America. The name was first given in 1629 to the territory between the Merrimack River, Merrimack and Piscataqua River, Piscataqua rivers on the eastern c ...
to the east. The revolutionary
New York Provincial Congress The New York Provincial Congress The Provincial Congresses were extra-legal legislative bodies established in ten of the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, ...
of local representatives assumed the government on May 22, 1775, declared the province the "
State of New York New York is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily ...
" in 1776, and ratified the first
New York Constitution The Constitution of the State of New York establishes the structure of the government of the State of New York New York is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States The United States of America (USA) ...
in 1777. During the ensuing
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from thirteen American colonies of British America British America comprised the colon ...
the
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...

British
regained and occupied the strategic
port A port is a maritime law, maritime facility comprising one or more Wharf, wharves or loading areas, where ships load and discharge Affreightment, cargo and passengers. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, ports can a ...
and
harbor A harbor (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Engl ...

harbor
of New York Town in September 1776, using it as its military and political base of operations in
British North America British North America comprised the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or adminis ...
; though a British governor was technically in office, much of the remainder of the upper part of the colony was held by the rebel Patriots. British claims in New York were ended by the
Treaty of Paris of 1783 A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relation ...
, with New York establishing its independence from the crown. The final evacuation of all of
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...

New York
by the
British Army The British Army is the principal Army, land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of the British Armed Forces. , the British Army comprises 80,040 regular full-time personnel and 30,020 Army Reserve (United Kingdom), reserve personnel ...
was followed by the return of General
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American soldier, statesman, and Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Appointed by the Continenta ...

George Washington
's
Continental Army The Continental Army was the army of the Thirteen Colonies and the Revolutionary-era United States. It was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, and was established by a resolution of ...
on November 25, 1783, in a grand parade and celebration.


Geography

This British crown colony was established upon the former Dutch colony of
New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly ...
, with its core being York Shire, in what today is typically known as
Downstate New York Downstate New York is the southern portion of New York State New York is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), ...
.


Counties

The Province of New York was divided into twelve
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
on November 1, 1683, by
New York Governor The governor of the State of New York is the head of government of the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. The governor is the head of the Executive (government), executive branch of New York's state government and the commander-in-chi ...
Thomas Dongan Thomas Dongan, (pronounced "Dungan") 2nd Earl of Limerick (1634 – 14 December 1715), was a member of the Irish Parliament, Royalist military officer during the English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil war ...
: *
Albany CountyAlbany County is the name of two jurisdictions in the United States in different states: *Albany County, New York *Albany County, Wyoming {{Geodis, uscounty ...
: all of the region that is now northern and western New York. Also claimed the area, later disputed, that is now
Vermont Vermont () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Vermont
. In addition, as there was no fixed western border to the colony (a
sea-to-sea grant
sea-to-sea grant
), Albany County technically extended to the Pacific Ocean. Most of this land, which was Indian land for most of the province's history, has now been ceded to other states and most of the land within New York has been divided into new counties. * Cornwall County: that part of
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
between the
Kennebec River The Kennebec River is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map , accessed June 30, 2011 river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocea ...

Kennebec River
and the St. Croix River from the
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the
St. Lawrence River The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a roughly north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes File:Location of the Great Lakes in North America.jpg, upr ...
. Ceded to the
Province of Massachusetts Bay The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a colony in British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, L ...
in 1692. *
Dukes County Dukes County is a County (United States), county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. As of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the population was 16,535, making it the second-least populous county in Massachusetts. Its county seat i ...
: the
Elizabeth Islands The Elizabeth Islands are a chain of small islands extending southwest from the southern coast of Cape Cod, Massachusetts in the United States. They are located at the outer edge of Buzzards Bay (bay), Buzzards Bay, north of Martha's Vineyard, f ...
,
Martha's Vineyard Martha's Vineyard (Massachusett language, Wampanoag: ; often simply called the Vineyard) is an island located south of Cape Cod in Massachusetts in the United States in North America that is known for being a popular summer colony. Martha's Vi ...
and
Nantucket Island Nantucket is an island about by ferry south from Cape Cod, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous U.S. state, state in the New England region of the Unite ...

Nantucket Island
east of Long Island. Ceded to Massachusetts in 1692. *
Dutchess County Dutchess County is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term ...
: now Dutchess and Putnam counties. * Kings County: the current Kings County;
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the te ...

Brooklyn
. *
New York County Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era * ...
: the current New York County;
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
. * Orange County: now Orange and Rockland counties. * Queens County: now Queens and Nassau counties. * Richmond County: the current Richmond County;
Staten Island Staten Island () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use o ...

Staten Island
. * Suffolk County: the current Suffolk County. *
Ulster County Ulster County is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is de ...
: now Ulster and Sullivan counties and part of what is now Delaware and Greene counties. *
Westchester County Westchester County is located in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North ...
: now Westchester and
Bronx The Bronx () is a borough of New York City New York City is composed of five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. Each borough is coextensive with a respective Administrative divisions of New York (state)#Count ...

Bronx
counties. On March 24, 1772: * Tryon County was formed out of Albany County. It was renamed
Montgomery CountyMontgomery County may refer to: Australia * The former name of Montgomery Land District, Tasmania United Kingdom * The historic county of Montgomeryshire, Wales, also called County of Montgomery United States

* Montgomery County, Alabama * Mon ...
in 1784, with a later division to Herkimer County around Little Falls. *
Charlotte County Charlotte () is the List of municipalities in North Carolina, most populous city in the U.S. state of North Carolina. Located in the Piedmont (United States), Piedmont region, it is the county seat of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, Mecklenb ...
was formed out of Albany County. It was renamed
Washington County Washington County is the name of 30 counties and one parish in the United States of America, all named after George Washington, revolutionary war general and first President of the United States. It is the most common county name in the United Stat ...
in 1784.


History

In 1617 officials of the
Dutch West India Company The Dutch West India Company ( nl, Geoctrooieerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWC; ; en, Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company A chartered company is an association with investors or shareholder A shareholder (also known as s ...
in New Netherland created a settlement at present-day Albany, and in 1624 founded
New Amsterdam New Amsterdam ( nl, Nieuw Amsterdam, or ) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, is the most dense ...
, on Manhattan Island. New Amsterdam surrendered to Colonel Richard Nicholls on August 27, 1664; he renamed it New York. On September 24 Sir
George Carteret Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret, 1st Baronet (161018 January 1680 N.S.) was a royalist statesman in Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label= Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriai ...
accepted the capitulation of the garrison at Fort Orange, which he called Albany, after another of the Duke of York's titles. Smith, William. ''The history of the province of New-York'', 1757
/ref> The capture was confirmed by the Treaty of Breda in July 1667. Easing the transition to British rule, the Articles of Capitulation guaranteed certain rights to the Dutch; among these were: liberty of conscience in divine worship and church discipline, the continuation of their own customs concerning inheritances, and the application of Dutch law to bargains and contracts made prior to the capitulation. Lincoln. Charles Zebina, Johnson, William H., and Northrup, Ansel Judd. ''The Colonial Laws of New York from the Year 1664 to the Revolution'', J.B. Lyon, 1894
/ref>


Proprietary government (1664–1685)

In 1664,
James, Duke of York James II and VII (14 October 1633 O.S.16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) indicate a dating system from before and after a c ...

James, Duke of York
, was granted a
proprietary colony A proprietary colony was a type of English colony mostly in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcon ...
which included
New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly ...
and present-day Maine. The New Netherland claim included western parts of present-day Massachusetts (to an extent that varied depending on whether the reference was the States General claim of all lands as far east as
Narragansett Bay Narragansett Bay is a bay and estuary on the north side of Rhode Island Sound covering , of which is in Rhode Island. The bay forms New England's largest estuary, which functions as an expansive natural harbor and includes a small archipelago. Smal ...

Narragansett Bay
or the Treaty of Hartford negotiated by the English and Dutch colonies in 1650 but not recognized by either the Dutch or English governments) putting the new province in conflict with the Massachusetts charter. In general terms, the charter was equivalent to a conveyance of land conferring on him the right of possession, control, and government, subject only to the limitation that the government must be consistent with the laws of England. The Duke of York never visited his colony and exercised little direct control of it. He elected to administer his government through governors, councils, and other officers appointed by himself. No provision was made for an elected assembly. Also in 1664, the Duke of York gave the part of his new possessions between the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
and the
Delaware River The Delaware River is a major on the coast of the . It drains an area of in four s: , , and . Rising in two branches in New York state's , the river flows into where its waters enter the Atlantic Ocean near in New Jersey and in Delawar ...

Delaware River
to Sir
George Carteret Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret, 1st Baronet (161018 January 1680 N.S.) was a royalist statesman in Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label= Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriai ...
in exchange for settlement of a debt. The territory was named after the
Island of Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label=Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriais: ''Bailliage dé Jèrri''), is an island and self-governing British Crown dependencies, Crown Dependency near th ...

Island of Jersey
, Carteret's ancestral home. The other section of New Jersey was sold to Lord Berkeley of Stratton, who was a close friend of the Duke. As a result, Carteret and Berkeley became the two English Lords Proprietors of
New Jersey New Jersey is a in the and regions of the . It is bordered on the north and east by the state of ; on the east, southeast, and south by the ; on the west by the and ; on the southwest by and the state of . At , New Jersey is the , but ...
. The
Province of New Jersey The Province of New Jersey was one of the Middle Colonies The Middle Colonies were a subset of the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of King ...
was created, but the border was not finalized until 1765 (see New York-New Jersey Line War). In 1667, territories between the
Byram River In 1906 The Byram River is a river approximately in length,U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map, accessed April 1, 2011 in southeast New York (state), New York and southwestern Connecti ...
and
Connecticut River The Connecticut River is the longest river in the region of the United States, flowing roughly southward for through four states. It rises at the U.S. border with , , and discharges at . Its watershed encompasses , covering parts of five U.S. s ...

Connecticut River
were split off to become the western half of
Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 United States census, 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, second-highest level of List of U.S. states and territories by H ...
. The first governor
Richard Nicolls Richard Nicolls (sometimes written as Nichols, 1624 – 28 May 1672) was the first English colonial English usually refers to: * English language * English people English may also refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * ''English'', an ...
was known for writing " The Duke's Laws" which served as the first compilation of English laws in colonial New York. Nicholls returned to England after an administration of three years, much of which was taken up in confirming the ancient Dutch land grants.
Francis Lovelace Francis Lovelace (c. 1621–1675) was an English Royalist and the second Governor of New York colony. Early life Lovelace was born circa 1621. He was the third son of Sir William Lovelace (1584–1627) and his wife Anne Barne of Lovelace Place ...
was next appointed Governor and held the position from May 1667 until the return of the Dutch in July 1673. A Dutch fleet recaptured New York and held it until it was traded to the English by the
Treaty of WestminsterTreaty of Westminster may refer to: *Treaty of Westminster (1153), also known as the Treaty of Wallingford *Treaty of Westminster (1462), also known as the Treaty of Westminster-Ardtornish *Treaty of Westminster (1511), an alliance during the War o ...
. A second grant was obtained by the Duke of York in July 1674 to perfect his title. Upon conclusion of the peace in 1674, the Duke of York appointed Sir
Edmund Andros Sir Edmund Andros (6 December 1637 – 24 February 1714) was an English colonial administrator in British America. He was the governor of the Dominion of New England during most of its three-year existence. At other times, Andros served a ...

Edmund Andros
as Governor of his territories in America. Governor Edmund Andros in 1674 said "permit all persons of what religion soever, quietly to inhabit within the precincts of your jurisdiction" Nonetheless, he made the Quakers of West Jersey pay toll on the Delaware, but they applied to England and were redressed.Dunlap, William. ''History of New Netherlands, Province of New York, and State of New York'', Vol.1, Carter & Thorp, New York, 1839
/ref> He was followed by Colonel Thomas Dongan in 1682. Dongan was empowered, on the advice of
William Penn William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was an English writer and religious thinker belonging to the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, a North American colony of English overseas poss ...

William Penn
, to summon "...a general assembly of all the freeholders, by such persons they should choose to represent them to consult with you and said council what laws are fit and necessary to be made..." A colonial Assembly was created in October 1683. New York was the last of the English colonies to have an
assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is the body of ethics, Procedural l ...
. The assembly passed the Province of New York constitution on October 30, the first of its kind in the colonies. This constitution gave New Yorkers more rights than any other group of colonists including the protection from
taxation without representation "No taxation without representation" is a political slogan that originated in the American Revolution, and which expressed one of the primary grievances of the Thirteen Colonies, American colonists against Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain. ...
. On November 1, 1683, the government was reorganized, and the state was divided into twelve
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
, each of which was subdivided into
town A town is a human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth an ...
s. Ten of those counties still exist (see above), but two (Cornwall County, Province of New York, Cornwall and Dukes County, New York, Dukes) were in territory purchased by the Duke of York from the Earl of Stirling, and are no longer within the territory of the State of New York, having been transferred by treaty to
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * T ...

Massachusetts
. While the number of counties has been increased to 62, the pattern still remains that a town in New York State is a subdivision of a county, similar to New England. An act of the assembly in 1683 naturalized all those of foreign nations then in the colony professing Christianity. To encourage immigration, it also provided that foreigners professing Christianity may, after their arrival, be naturalized if they took the oath of allegiance as required. The Duke's Laws established a non-denominational state church. The British replaced the Dutch in their alliance with the
Iroquois The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous pe ...

Iroquois
against
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
, with an agreement called the Covenant Chain.


Royal province (1686–1775)

In 1664, after the Dutch ceded New Netherland to England, it became a proprietary colony under
James, Duke of York James II and VII (14 October 1633 O.S.16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) indicate a dating system from before and after a c ...

James, Duke of York
. When James ascended the throne in February 1685 and became James II of England, King James II, his personally owned colony became a royal province. In May 1688 the province was made part of the Dominion of New England. However, in April 1689, when news arrived that King James had been overthrown in the Glorious Revolution, Bostonians 1689 Boston revolt, overthrew their government and imprisoned Dominion Governor
Edmund Andros Sir Edmund Andros (6 December 1637 – 24 February 1714) was an English colonial administrator in British America. He was the governor of the Dominion of New England during most of its three-year existence. At other times, Andros served a ...

Edmund Andros
. The province of New York rebelled in May in what is known as Leisler's Rebellion. King William's War with France began during which the French attacked Schenectady Massacre, Schenectady. In July, New York participated in an abortive attack on Montreal and Quebec. A new governor Henry Sloughter arrived in March 1691. He had Jacob Leisler arrested, tried, and executed. New York's charter was re-enacted in 1691 and was the constitution of the province until the creation of the
State of New York New York is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily ...
. The first newspaper appeared weekly in 1725. During Queen Anne's War with France from 1702 to 1713, the province had little involvement with the military operations, but benefited from being a supplier to the British fleet. New York militia participated in two abortive attacks on Quebec in 1709 and 1711.


Black slaves

In the 1690s,
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...

New York
was the largest importer of the colonies of slaves and a supply port for pirates. The black population became a major element in New York City, and on large upstate farms. New York sold these slaves using slave markets, giving slaves to the highest bidder at an auction. With its shipping and trades, New York had use for skilled Africans as artisans and domestic servants. Two notable slave revolts occurred in New York in New York Slave Revolt of 1712, 1712 and New York Slave Insurrection of 1741, 1741. The numbers of slaves imported to New York increased dramatically from the 1720s through 1740s. By the 17th century, they established the African Burial Ground National Monument, African burial ground in Lower Manhattan, which was used through 1812. It was discovered nearly two centuries later during excavation before the construction of the Ted Weiss Federal Building at 290 Broadway. Historians estimated 15,000-20,000 Africans and African Americans had been buried in the approximately 8 acres surrounding there. Because of the extraordinary find, the government commissioned a memorial at the site, where the National Park Service has an interpretive center. It has been designated a National Historic Landmark and National monument (United States), National Monument. Excavation and study of the remains has been described as the "most important historic urban archaeological project undertaken in the United States."


Dutch

When the British took over, the great majority of Dutch families remained, with the exception of government officials and soldiers. However, new Dutch arrivals became very few. While the Netherlands was a small country, the Dutch Empire was quite large, meaning that emigrants leaving the mother country had a wide variety of choices under full Dutch control. The major Dutch cities were centers of high culture, but they sent few immigrants. Most Dutch arrivals to the New World in the 17th century had been farmers from villages who on arrival in New Netherland scattered into widely separated villages that had little cross contact with each other. Even inside a settlement, different Dutch groups had minimal interaction. With very few new arrivals, the result was an increasingly traditional system cut off from the forces for change. The folk maintained their popular culture, revolving around their language and their Calvinist religion. The Dutch brought along their own folklore, most famously ''Sinterklaas'' (which evolved into the modern day Santa Claus). They maintained their distinctive clothing and food preferences. They introduced some new foods to America, including beets, endive, spinach, parsley, and cookies. After the British takeover, the rich Dutch families in Albany and New York City emulated the English elite. They purchased English furniture, silverware, crystal, and jewelry. They were proud of the Dutch language, which was strongly reinforced through the church, but they were much slower than the Yankees in setting up schools for their children. They finally did set up Queens College (now Rutgers University) in New Jersey. They published no newspapers, and published no books and only a handful of religious tracts annually.


Germans

Nearly 2,800 Poor Palatines, Palatine German emigrants were transported to New York by Queen Anne's government in ten ships in 1710, the largest single group of immigrants before the Revolutionary War. By comparison, Manhattan then had only 6,000 people. Initially, the Germans were employed in the production of naval stores and tar along the Hudson River near Peekskill. In 1723 they were allowed to settle in the central Mohawk Valley west of Schenectady as a buffer against the Native Americans and the French. They also settled in areas such as Schoharie (town), New York, Schoharie and Cherry Valley (town), New York, Cherry Valley. Many became tenant farmers or squatters. They kept to themselves, married their own, spoke German, attended Lutheran churches, and retained their own customs and foods. They emphasized farm ownership. Some mastered English to become conversant with local legal and business opportunities.


King George's War

This province, as a British colony, fought against the French during King George's War. The assembly was determined to control expenditures for this war and only weak support was given. When the call came for New York to help raise an expeditionary force against Fortress of Louisbourg, Louisburg, the New York assembly refused to raise troops and only appropriated a token £3,000. The assembly was opposed to a significant war effort because it would interrupt trade with Quebec and would result in higher taxes. The French raid on Saratoga in 1745 destroyed that settlement, killing and capturing more than one hundred people. After this attack the assembly was more generous and raised 1,600 men and £40,000.


French and Indian War

Upstate New York was the scene of fighting during the French and Indian War, with British and French forces contesting control of Lake Champlain in association with Native American allies. Sir William Johnson, 1st Baronet, and other agents in upstate New York brought about the participation of the Iroquois. The French and their Indian allies laid siege to Fort William Henry at the southern end of Lake George in 1757. The British forces surrendered to the French, but many prisoners were then massacred by the Indians. Some prisoners had smallpox, and when Indians took the scalps to their home villages, they spread a disease that killed large numbers. In the end the British won the war and took over all of Canada, thereby ending French-sponsored Indian attacks. One of the largest impressment operations occurred in New York in the spring of 1757 when three thousand British troops cordoned off the city and impressed nearly eight hundred persons they found in taverns and other gathering places of sailors. New York was the centre for privateering. Forty New York ships were commissioned as privateers in 1756 and in the spring of 1757 it was estimated the value of French prizes brought into New York was two hundred thousand pounds. By 1759, the seas had been cleaned of French vessels and the privateers were diverted into trading with the enemy. The ending of the war caused a severe recession in New York. Sir William Johnson, 1st Baronet, negotiated an end to Pontiac's Rebellion. He promoted the Proclamation of 1763 and the Treaty of Fort Stanwix to protect the Indians from further English settlement in their lands. The treaty established a boundary line along the West Branch Delaware River and the Unadilla River, with Iroquois lands to the west and colonial lands to the east.


Political parties

During the middle years of the 18th century, politics in New York revolved around the rivalry of two great families, the Livingston family, Livingstons and the De Lanceys. Both of these families had amassed considerable fortunes. New York City had an inordinate influence on New York province politics because several of the assembly members lived in New York City rather than in their district. In the 1752 election, De Lanceys' relatives and close friends controlled 12 of the 27 seats in the assembly. The De Lanceys lost control of the assembly in the election of 1761. Governor Cadwallader Colden tried to organize a popular party to oppose the great families, thus earning the hatred of the city elite of both parties. The Livingstons looked to the imperial ties as a means of controlling the influence of James De Lancey (politician), James De Lancey. The De Lanceys regarded imperial ties to be a tool for personal advantage.


Stamp Act

Parliament passed the Stamp Act 1765 to raise money from the colonies. New York had previously passed its own stamp act from 1756 to 1760 to raise money for the French and Indian war. The extraordinary response to the Stamp Act can only be explained by the build-up of antagonisms on local issues. New York was experiencing a severe recession from the effects of the end of the French and Indian war. The colonies were experiencing the effects of a very tight monetary policy caused by the trade deficit with Britain, a fiscal crisis in Britain restricting credit, and the Currency Act, which prevented the issuing of paper currency to provide liquidity. From the outset, New York led the protests in the colonies. Both New York political factions opposed the Stamp Act 1765, Stamp Act of 1765. In October, at what became Federal Hall in New York, representatives of several colonies met in the Stamp Act Congress to discuss their response. The New York assembly petitioned the British House of Commons on December 11, 1765, for the Americans' right of self taxation. In August, the intimidation and beating of stamp agents was widely reported. The New York stamp commissioner resigned his job. The act went into effect on November 1. The day before, James De Lancey (politician), James De Lancey organized a meeting at Burns Tavern of New York merchants, where they agreed to boycott all British imports until the Stamp Act was repealed. A leading moderate group opposing the Stamp Act were the local Sons of Liberty headed by Isaac Sears, John Lamb (general), John Lamb and Alexander McDougall. Historian Gary B. Nash wrote of what was called the "General Terror of November 1–4":Nash (2005) p. 55. Historian Fred Anderson contrasted the mob actions in New York with those in Boston. In Boston, after the initial unrest, local leaders such as the Loyal Nine (a precursor to the Sons of Liberty) were able to take control of the mob. In New York, however, the "mob was largely made up of seamen, most of whom lacked deep community ties and felt little need to submit to the authority of the city's shorebound radical leaders." The New York Sons of Liberty did not take control of the opposition until after November 1. On November 1, the crowd destroyed a warehouse and the house of Thomas James, commander at Fort Amsterdam, Fort George. A few days later the stamps stored at Fort George were surrendered to the mob. Nash notes that, "whether the Sons of Liberty could control the mariners, lower artisans, and laborers remained in doubt," and "they came to fear the awful power of the assembled lower-class artisans and their maritime compatriots." On January 7, 1766, the merchant ship ''Polly'' carrying stamps for Connecticut was boarded in New York Harbor and the stamps destroyed. Up to the end of 1765 the Stamp Act disturbances had largely been confined to New York City, but in January the Sons of Liberty also stopped the distribution of stamps in Albany. In May 1766, when news arrived of the repeal of the Stamp Act the Sons of Liberty celebrated by the erection of a Liberty Pole. It became a rallying point for mass meetings and an emblem of the American cause. In June, two regiments of British regulars arrived in New York and were quartered in the upper barracks. These troops cut down the liberty pole on August 10. A second and third pole were erected and also cut down. A fourth pole was erected and encased in iron to prevent similar action. In 1766, widespread tenant uprisings occurred in the countryside north of New York City centered on the Livingston Manor, Livingston estates. They marched on New York expecting the Sons of Liberty to support them. Instead, the Sons of Liberty blocked the roads and the leader of the tenants was convicted of treason.


Quartering Act

In the last years of the French and Indian War London approved a policy of keeping twenty regiments in the colonies to police and defend the back country. The enabling legislation took the form of the Quartering Act which required colonial legislatures to provide quarters and supplies for the troops. The Quartering Act stirred little controversy and New Yorkers were ambivalent about the presence of the troops. The assembly had provided barracks and provisions every year since 1761. The tenant riots of 1766 showed the need for a police force in the colony. The Livingston-controlled New York assembly passed a quartering bill in 1766 to provide barracks and provisions in New York City and Albany which satisfied most, but not all of the requirements of the Quartering Act. London suspended the assembly for failure to comply fully, and Governor Moore dissolved the House of Assembly, February 6, 1768. The next month New Yorkers went to the polls for a new assembly. In this election, with the Sons of Liberty support, the De Lancey faction gained seats, but not enough for a majority.


Townshend Acts

In 1768, Massachusetts Circular Letter, a letter issued by the Massachusetts assembly called for the universal boycott of British imports in opposition to the Townshend Acts. In October, the merchants of New York agreed on the condition that the merchants of Boston and Philadelphia also agreed. In December, the assembly passed a resolution which stated the colonies were entitled to self-taxation. Governor Moore declared the resolution repugnant to the laws of England and dissolved the assembly. The De Lancey faction, again with Sons of Liberty support, won a majority in the assembly. In the spring of 1769, New York was in a depression from the recall of paper boycott and the British boycott. By the Currency Act New York was required to recall all paper money. London allowed the issuance of additional paper money, but the attached conditions were unsatisfactory. While New York was boycotting British imports, other colonies including Boston and Philadelphia were not. The De Lanceys tried to reach a compromise by passing a bill which allowed for the issuing of paper currency, of which half was for provisioning of the troops. Alexander McDougall, signed a 'Son of Liberty', issued a broadside entitled ''To the Betrayed Inhabitants of the City and Colony of New York'' which was an excellent piece of political propaganda denouncing the De Lanceys for betraying the liberties of the people by acknowledging the British power of taxation. The Sons of Liberty switched their allegiance from the De Lanceys to the Livingstons. Alexander McDougall was arrested for libel. Conflict between the Sons of Liberty and the troops in New York erupted with the Battle of Golden Hill on January 19, 1770, where troops cut down the fourth Liberty Pole which had been erected in 1767. In July 1770, the merchants of New York decided to resume trade with Britain when news arrived of Parliament's plan to repeal the Townshend Duties and to give permission for New York to issue some paper currency. The Sons of Liberty were strongly opposed to the resumption of trade. The merchants twice polled their members and went door to door polling residents of New York and all polls were overwhelming in support of resumption of trade. This was perhaps the first public opinion poll in American history.


Tea Act

New York was peaceful after the repeal of the Townshend Act, but the economy of New York was still in a slump. In May 1773 the Parliament passed the Tea Act cutting the duty on tea and enabling the East India company to sell tea in the colonies cheaper than the smugglers could. This act primarily hurt the New York merchants and smugglers. The Sons of Liberty were the organizers of the opposition and in November 1773 they published ''Association of the Sons of Liberty of New York'' in which anyone who assisted in support of the act would be an "enemy to the liberties of America". As a result, the New York East India agents resigned. The New York assembly took no action in regard to the Sons of Liberty assumption of extra-legal powers. The New York City Sons of Liberty learned of Boston's plan to stop the unloading of any tea and resolved to also follow this policy. Since the ''Association'' had not obtained the support they had expected, the Sons of Liberty were afraid that if the tea was landed the population would demand its distribution for retail. In December, news arrived of the Boston Tea Party strengthened opposition. In April 1774, The boat ''Nancy'' arrived in New York harbor for repairs. The captain admitted that he had 18 chests of tea on board and he agreed that he would not attempt to have the tea landed, but the Sons of Liberty boarded the ship regardless and destroyed the tea.


Intolerable Acts

In January 1774, the Assembly created a Committee of Correspondence to correspond with other colonies in regard to the Intolerable Acts. In May 1774 news arrived of the Boston Port Act which closed the port of Boston. The Sons of Liberty were in favor of resumption of a trade boycott with Britain, but there was strong resistance from the large importers. In May, a meeting in New York was called in which members were selected for a Committee of Correspondence. The Committee of Sixty, Committee of Fifty was formed which was dominated with moderates, the Sons of Liberty only obtained 15 members. Isaac Low was the chairman. Francis Lewis was added to create the Committee of Fifty-One. The group adopted a resolution which said Boston was "suffering in the defence of the rights of America" and proposed the formation of a Continental Congress. In July, the committee select five of their members as delegates to this congress. Some of the other counties also sent delegates to the First Continental Congress which was held in September. The New York delegates were unable to stop the adoption at the congress of the Continental Association. The association was generally ignored in New York. In January and February 1775, of the New York Assembly voted down successive resolutions approving the proceedings of the First Continental Congress and refused to send delegates to the Second Continental Congress. New York was the only colonial assembly which did not approve the proceeds of the First Continental Congress. Opposition to the Congress revolved around the opinion that the provincial houses of assembly were the proper agencies to solicit redress for grievances. In March, the Assembly broke with the rest of the colonies and wrote a petition to London, but London rejected the petition because it contained claims about a lack of authority of the "parent state" to tax colonists, "which made it impossible" to accept. The Assembly last met on April 3, 1775.


Provincial Congress

In April 1775, the rebels formed the
New York Provincial Congress The New York Provincial Congress The Provincial Congresses were extra-legal legislative bodies established in ten of the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, ...
as a replacement for the New York Assembly. News of the battle of Lexington and Concord reached New York on April 23, which stunned the city since there was a widely believed rumor that Parliament was to grant the colonies self-taxation. The Sons of Liberty led by Marinus Willett broke into the Arsenal at City Hall and removed 1,000 stand of arms. The armed citizens formed a voluntary corps to govern the city with Isaac Sears's house the de facto seat of government and militia headquarters. The The Crown, crown-appointed New York executive council met on April 24 and concluded that "we were unanimously of the opinion that we had no power to do anything." The British troops in New York never left their barracks. On October 19, 1775, Governor William Tryon was forced to leave New York for a British warship offshore, ending any appearances of British rule of the colony as the Continental Congress ordered the arrest of anyone endangering the safety of the colony. In April 1776 Tryon officially dissolved the New York assembly. New York was located in the Northern theatre of the American Revolutionary War. New York served as the launching point for the failed Invasion of Canada (1775), Invasion of Canada in 1775, the first major military operation of the newly formed
Continental Army The Continental Army was the army of the Thirteen Colonies and the Revolutionary-era United States. It was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, and was established by a resolution of ...
. General
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American soldier, statesman, and Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Appointed by the Continenta ...

George Washington
took the Continental Army from Boston after the British withdrew following the Fortification of Dorchester Heights, and brought it to New York in 1776, correctly anticipating the British would return there. The Battle of Saratoga in 1777 was a turning point in the war. West Point, New York, West Point on the Hudson was a strategic asset. And New York played a central role for the British in their attempt to divide New England from the rest of the colonies. The Fourth Provincial Congress convened in White Plains, New York, White Plains on July 9, 1776, and became known as the ''New York First Constitutional Convention''. New York endorsed the United States Declaration of Independence, Declaration of Independence the same day, and declared the independent state of New York.
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...

New York
celebrated by tearing down the statue of George III in Bowling Green (New York City), Bowling Green. On July 10, 1776, the Fourth Provincial Congress changed its name to the ''Convention of Representatives of the State of New York'', and "acts as legislature without an executive." While adjourned it left a Committee of Safety (American Revolution), Committee of Safety in charge. The New York state constitution was framed by a Constitutional convention (political meeting), convention which assembled at White Plains on July 10, 1776, and after repeated adjournments and changes of venue, it concluded in Kingston, New York on Sunday evening, April 20, 1777, when the Constitution of New York, 1777, new constitution was adopted with one dissenting vote. It had been drafted by John Jay and was not submitted to the people for ratification. Under its provisions, the governor would be elected not appointed, voting restrictions were reduced, secret ballots were introduced, and civil rights were guaranteed. On July 30, 1777, George Clinton (vice president), George Clinton was inaugurated as the first Governor of New York at Kingston. On July 9, 1778, the State of New York signed the Articles of Confederation and officially became a part of the government of the United States of America, though it had been a part of the nation since it was declared in 1776 with signatories from New York. The province was the scene of Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the entire war, and the first after the Declaration of Independence was signed. The British recaptured the city in September 1776 in the New York and New Jersey campaign, cut down the Liberty Pole in the common, and placed the province under martial law under the command of James Robertson (loyalist), James Robertson, though his effective authority did not extend far beyond the southern tip of Manhattan (then the extent of New York City). Tryon retained his title of governor, but with little power. David Mathews was Mayor for the duration of British occupation of New York until Evacuation Day (New York), Evacuation Day in 1783. After its reoccupation, New York became the headquarters for the British army in America, and the British political center of operations in North America. Loyalist refugees flooded into the city raising its population to 33,000. Prison ships in Wallabout Bay held a large proportion of Prisoners in the American Revolutionary War, American soldiers and sailors being held prisoner by the British, and was where more Americans died than in all of the battles of the war, combined. The British retained control of New York until Evacuation Day (New York), Evacuation Day in November 1783, which was commemorated long afterward.


Structure of government

The List of colonial governors of New York, governor of New York was royally appointed. The governor selected his Executive Council which served as the upper house. The governor and king had veto power over the New York General Assembly, assembly's bills. However, all bills were effective until royal disapproval had occurred which could take up to a year. During King George's War, the governor approved two assembly initiatives; that the colony's revenue be approved annually rather than every five years and that the assembly must approve the purpose of each allocation. Elections to the house of assembly were initially held whenever the governor pleased, but eventually a law was passed requiring an election at least once every seven years. The city of New York was the seat of government and where the New York provincial assembly met. Between 1692 and 1694 the governor of New York was also the governor of Pennsylvania. From 1698 to 1701 the governor was also the governor of Massachusetts and New Hampshire. From 1702 to 1738 he was also the governor of New Jersey. Representation in the assembly in 1683 was six for Long Island, four for New York City, two for Kingston, two for Albany, one for each of
Staten Island Staten Island () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use o ...

Staten Island
, Schenectady,
Martha's Vineyard Martha's Vineyard (Massachusett language, Wampanoag: ; often simply called the Vineyard) is an island located south of Cape Cod in Massachusetts in the United States in North America that is known for being a popular summer colony. Martha's Vi ...
and Nantucket and one for Pemequid on the Maine coast. In 1737, the assembly was expanded to 27 and in 1773 to 31. Voters were required to have a £40 Freehold (English law), freehold, in addition to requirements related to age, sex, and religion. The £40 freehold requirement was often ignored. Jewish history in Colonial America, Jews were not allowed to vote between 1737 and 1747. In rural counties slightly more than half the males could vote. No secret ballot safeguarded the independence of the voters. The Saint Paul's Church National Historic Site, elections were held at the county town, under the supervision of the sheriff and sometimes at such short notice that many of the voting population could not get to the polls. The candidates were usually at the polls and the vote was taken by a show of hands unless this vote did not result in a clear winner. David Osborn notes,
The election for an open seat in the New York assembly, held on the Village Green in Eastchester (town), New York, Eastchester, Westchester County on October 29, 1733, is one of the better known political events in colonial America. Two hundred and seventy-five years after the contest, historians continue to cite the election to advance various arguments about colonial life. One recent student used the election to argue for the persistent importance of monarchy in the outlook of colonists, while another scholar treated the voting as an important point in the development of political awareness among New York artisans. Many writers address the election, held at what is today St. Paul's Church National Historic Site, in Mount Vernon, New York, Mt. Vernon, as part of the story of the printer John Peter Zenger, whose acquittal in a seditious libel case in 1735 is seen as a foundation of the Freedom of the press, free press in America. The first issue of Zenger's ''New York Weekly Journal'' carried a lengthy report on the famous election, producing one of the few complete accounts of a colonial election available to historians."
;List of Governors See List of colonial governors of New York ;List of Attorneys General See List of Attorneys General of the Province of New York


Legal profession

The British governors were upper class aristocrats not trained in the law, and felt unduly constrained by the legalistic demands of the Americans. In the period from the 1680s to about 1715 numerous efforts were made to strengthen Royal control and diminish legal constraints on the power of the governors. Philadelphia lawyer, Colonial lawyers fought back successfully. An important technique that developed especially in Boston, Philadelphia and New York in the 1720s and 1730s was to mobilize public opinion by using the new availability of weekly newspapers and print shops that produced inexpensive pamphlets. The lawyers used the publicity medium to disseminate ideas about American legal Rights of Englishmen, rights as Englishmen. By the 1750s and 1760s, however, there was a counterattack ridiculing and demeaning the lawyers as Trivial objections, pettifoggers. Their image and influence declined. The lawyers of colonial New York organized a bar association, but it fell apart in 1768 during the bitter political dispute between the factions based in the Delancey and Livingston families. For the next century, various attempts were made, and failed, in New York state to build an effective organization of lawyers. The American Revolution saw the departure of many leading lawyers who were Loyalists; their clientele was often tied to royal authority or British merchants and financiers. They were not allowed to practice law unless they took a loyalty oath to the new United States of America. Many went to Britain or Canada after losing the war. Finally a Bar Association emerged in 1869 that proved successful and continues to operate.


Judiciary

The Supreme Court of Judicature of the Province of New York was established by the New York Assembly on 6 May 1691. Jurisdiction was based on the English Courts of King's Bench, Common Pleas and Exchequer but excluded cases of equity which were dealt with by the Court of Chancery. The Supreme Court continued in being under the Constitution of 1777, becoming the New York Supreme Court under the 1846 Constitution. ;Chief Justices of the Supreme Court


Demographics

Upstate New York (as well as parts of present Ontario, Quebec, Pennsylvania and Ohio) were occupied by the Five Nations (after 1720 becoming Iroquois, Six Nations, when joined by Tuscarora (tribe), Tuscarora) of the
Iroquois The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous pe ...

Iroquois
Confederacy for at least a half millennium before the Europeans came. * In 1664, one-quarter of the population of
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...

New York
was African American. * In 1690, the population of the province was 20,000, of which 6,000 were in New York. * In 1698, the population of the province was 18,607. 14% of the population of New York was black. * The slave population grew after Queen Anne's war. The percentage of blacks in New York in 1731 and 1746 was 18% and 21% respectively. * In 1756, the population of the province was about 100,000 of which about 14,000 were blacks. Most of the blacks in New York at this time were slaves.


Economy

The Fur trade#Early organization, fur trade established under Dutch rule continued to grow. As the Port of New York and New Jersey, merchant port of New York became more important, the economy expanded and diversified, and the agricultural areas of Long Island and the regions further up the Hudson River developed.Michael G. Kammen, ''Colonial New York: A History'' (1975) ch 2, 7, 12. Fishermen also made a decent living because New York was next to the ocean, making it a port/fishing state. Inland, farming crops made farmers a lot of money in the colony. Tradesmen made a fortune selling their wares.


References


Further reading

* Anderson, Fred. ''Crucible of War'' (2000). . * Becker, Carl Lotus. ''The history of political parties in the province of New York, 1760–1776'' (1909). * Bonomi, Patricia U. ''A Factious People: Politics and Society in Colonial New York''. New York: Columbia University Press, 1971. * Brandt, Clare. ''An American Aristocracy: The Livingstons'' (1986). * Bridenbaugh, Carl. ''Cities in the Wilderness-The First Century of Urban Life in America 1625–1742'' (1938). New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Chareleston. * Bridenbaugh, Carl. ''Cities in revolt: urban life in America, 1743–1776'' (1955). * Countryman, Edward. ''A People in Revolution: The American Revolution and Political Society in New York, 1760–1790'' (1981). * Doyle, John Andrew. ''English Colonies in America: Volume IV The Middle Colonies'' (1907
online
ch 1–6. * Fogleman, Aaron. ''Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America, 1717–1775'' (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996
online
* Hodges, Graham Russell Gao. ''Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613–1863'' (2005). * Jacobs, Jaap, and L. H. Roper, eds. ''The Worlds of the Seventeenth-Century Hudson Valley'' (State University of New York Press, 2014). xii, 265 pp. * Kammen, Michael. ''Colonial New York: A History'' (1975). * Ketchum, Richard, ''Divided Loyalties, How the American Revolution Came to New York'', 2002, . * Launitz-Schurer, Leopold, ''Loyal Whigs and Revolutionaries, The making of the revolution in New York, 1765–1776'', 1980, . * McGregor, Robert Kuhn. "Cultural Adaptation in Colonial New York: The Palatine Germans of the Mohawk Valley." ''New York History'' 69.1 (1988): 5. * Nash, Gary, ''The Urban Crucible, The Northern Seaports and the Origins of the American Revolution'', 1986, . * Nash, Gary, ''The Unknown American Revolution''. 2005, . * Otterness, Philip. ''Becoming German: The 1709 Palatine Migration to New York'' (2004) * Schecter, Barnet. ''The Battle for New York: The City at the Heart of the American Revolution''. Pimlico, 2003. .


External links


Grant to the Lords Proprietors, Sir George Carteret, July 29, 1674

Duke of York's Confirmation to the 24 Proprietors: March 14, 1682

The King's Letter Recognizing the Proprietors' Right to the Soil and Government 1683



Association of the Sons of Liberty in New York, December 15, 1773




{{coord missing, New York (state) Colonial New York, States and territories established in 1664 States and territories disestablished in 1776 1664 establishments in the British Empire 1776 disestablishments in the British Empire Colonial United States (British), New York, Province of Dominion of New England Former British colonies and protectorates in the Americas, New York Former English colonies Pre-statehood history of New York (state) Thirteen Colonies, New York