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The Province of New Hampshire was a colony of England and later a British province in North America. The name was first given in 1629 to the territory between the Merrimack and Piscataqua rivers on the eastern coast of
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
, and was named after the county of
Hampshire Hampshire (, ; abbreviated to Hants) is a Counties of England, county in South East England on the coast of the English Channel. The county town is Winchester, but the county is named after Southampton. Its two largest cities are Southampton a ...

Hampshire
in southern England by Captain John Mason, its first named proprietor. In 1776 the province established an independent state and government, the
State of New Hampshire New Hampshire () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the nort ...

State of New Hampshire
, and joined with twelve other colonies to form the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. Europeans first settled New Hampshire in the 1620s, and the province consisted for many years of a small number of communities along the seacoast,
Piscataqua River The Piscataqua River () is a tidal river forming the boundary of the U.S. states of New Hampshire New Hampshire () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont ...
, and Great Bay. In 1641 the communities were organized under the government of the
Massachusetts Bay Colony The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630–1691), more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of America around the Massachusetts Bay Massachusetts Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body ...
, until
Charles II
Charles II
issued a colonial charter for the province and appointed
John Cutt John Cutt (1613 – April 5, 1681) was the first President of the Province of New Hampshire. Cutt was born in Wales, emigrated to the colonies in 1646, and became a successful merchant and mill owner in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He was marrie ...
as President of New Hampshire in 1679. After a brief period as a separate province, the territory was absorbed into the
Dominion of New England The Dominion of New England in America (1686–1689) was an administrative union of English colonies covering New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New ...
in 1686. Following the collapse of the unpopular
Dominion The term dominion was used to refer to one of several self-governing nations of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other D ...
, on October 7, 1691 New Hampshire was again separated from
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ...
and organized as an
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
crown colony A Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original coun ...
. Its charter was enacted on May 14, 1692, during the coregency of
William William is a male Male (symbol: ♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete (sex cell) known as sperm, which fuses with the larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male organism cannot sexual reproducti ...

William
and
Mary Mary may refer to: People * Mary (name) Mary is a feminine Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women and girls. Although femininity is socially constru ...

Mary
, the joint monarchs of
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
,
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...
, and
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
. Between 1699 and 1741, the province's governor was often concurrently the governor of the
Province of Massachusetts Bay The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a colony in British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, L ...
. This practice ended completely in 1741, when
Benning Wentworth Benning Wentworth (24 July 1696 – 14 October 1770) was the colonial governor of New Hampshire New Hampshire ( ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published b ...
was appointed governor. Wentworth laid claim on behalf of the province to lands west of the
Connecticut River The Connecticut River is the longest river in the region of the United States, flowing roughly southward for through four states. It rises at the U.S. border with , , and discharges at . Its watershed encompasses , covering parts of five U.S. s ...

Connecticut River
, east of the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
, and north of Massachusetts, issuing controversial land grants that were disputed by the
Province of New York The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony A proprietary colony was a type of English colony mostly in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all w ...
, which also claimed the territory. These disputes resulted in the eventual formation of the
Vermont Republic The Vermont Republic (French: ''République du Vermont''), officially known at the time as the State of Vermont (French: ''État du Vermont''), was an independent state in New England New England is a region comprising six states in the ...
and the US state of
Vermont Vermont () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Vermont
. The province's economy was dominated by timber and fishing. The timber trade, although lucrative, was a subject of conflict with the crown, which sought to reserve the best trees for use as ship masts. Although the Puritan leaders of Massachusetts ruled the province for many years, the New Hampshire population was more religiously diverse, originating in part in its early years with refugees from opposition to religious differences in Massachusetts. From the 1680s until 1760, New Hampshire was often on the front lines of military conflicts with
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
and the
Abenaki people The Abenaki (Abnaki, Abinaki, ''Alnôbak'') are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American Tribe (Native American), tribe and First Nations, First Nation. They are one of the Algonquian languages, Algonquian-speaking peoples of no ...
, seeing major attacks on its communities in
King William's War King William's War (1688–1697, also known as the Second Indian War, Father Baudoin's War, Jean-Vincent d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin, Castin's War, or the First Intercolonial War in French language, French) was the North American theater of the Nin ...
,
Dummer's War The Dummer's War (1722–1725, also known as Father Rale's War, Lovewell's War, Greylock's War, the Three Years War, the 4th Anglo-Abenaki War, or the Wabanaki-New England War of 1722–1725) was a series of battles between New England and the Waba ...
, and
King George's War King George's War (1744–1748) is the name given to the military operations in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as ...
. The province was at first not strongly in favor of independence, but with the outbreak of armed conflict at Lexington and Concord many of its inhabitants joined the revolutionary cause. After Governor John Wentworth fled New Hampshire in August 1775, the inhabitants adopted a constitution in early 1776. Independence as part of the United States was confirmed with the 1783 Treaty of Paris.


Before colonization

Prior to English colonization, the area that is now northeastern
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
was populated by bands of the
Abenaki The Abenaki (Abnaki, Abinaki, ''Alnôbak'') are a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native America ...
, who lived in sometimes-large villages of
longhouses A longhouse or long house is a type of long, proportionately narrow, single-room building built by peoples in various parts of the world including Asia, Europe, and North America. Many were built from timber Lumber, also known as timber, is ...
.Native Americans in Vermont: the Abenaki
, from flowofhistory.org, a website funded by educational grants
Depending on the season, they would either remain near their villages to fish, gather plants, engage in
sugaring Sugaring is a food preservation method similar to pickling. Sugaring is the process of drying (food), desiccating a food by first dehydrating it, then packing it with pure sugar. This sugar can be crystalline in the form of table or raw sugar, or ...

sugaring
, and trade or fight with their neighbors, or head to nearby fowling and hunting grounds; later they also farmed
tobacco Tobacco is the common name of several plants in the genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defini ...

tobacco
and the " three sisters": corn, beans, and squash. The seacoast was explored in the early years of the 17th century by English and French explorers, including
Samuel de Champlain Samuel de Champlain (; c. 13 August 1567 Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date nor his place of birth. – 25 Decemb ...
and John Smith.


Early English settlement

Permanent English settlement began after
land grant A land grant is a gift of real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resource , Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitution ...
s were issued in 1622 to John Mason and Sir
Ferdinando Gorges Sir Ferdinando Gorges ( – 24 May 1647) was a naval and military commander and governor of the important port of Plymouth in England. He was involved in Essex's Rebellion against the Queen, but escaped punishment by testifying against the main ...
for the territory between the Merrimack and Sagadahoc () rivers, roughly encompassing present-day
New Hampshire New Hampshire ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Gulf of Maine to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the nor ...

New Hampshire
and western
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
. Settlers, whose early leaders included David Thomson, Edward Hilton and his brother William Hilton, began settling the New Hampshire coast as early as 1623, and eventually expanded along the shores of the
Piscataqua River The Piscataqua River () is a tidal river forming the boundary of the U.S. states of New Hampshire New Hampshire () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont ...
and the Great Bay. These settlers were mostly intending to profit from the local fisheries. Mason and Gorges, neither of whom ever came to New England, divided their claims along the Piscataqua River in 1629. Mason took the territory between the Piscataqua and Merrimack, and called it "New Hampshire", after the English county of
Hampshire Hampshire (, ; abbreviated to Hants) is a Counties of England, county in South East England on the coast of the English Channel. The county town is Winchester, but the county is named after Southampton. Its two largest cities are Southampton a ...

Hampshire
. Conflicts between holders of grants issued by Mason and Gorges concerning their boundaries eventually led to a need for more active management. In 1630, Captain
Walter Neale Walter Neale () was an English military officer and an explorer and colonial administrator in the territory of New England that later became New Hampshire. Born into a family that had served Elizabeth I of England, Queen Elizabeth I, Neale served i ...
was sent as chief agent and governor of the lower settlements on the Piscataqua (including , present-day
Portsmouth Portsmouth ( ) is a port and island city status in the United Kingdom, city with Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority status in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, southern England. It is the most densely populated city in the Unit ...

Portsmouth
), and in 1631 Captain Thomas Wiggin was sent to govern the upper settlements, comprising modern-day
Dover Dover () is a town and major ferry port in Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first publishe ...
, Durham and Stratham.Clark, p. 18 After Mason died in 1635, the colonists and employees of Mason appropriated many of his holdings to themselves.
Exeter Exeter () is a city in Devon Devon (, archaically known as Devonshire) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') ...
was founded in 1638 by
John Wheelwright John Wheelwright (c. 1592–1679) was a Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Li ...
, after he had been banished from the neighboring
Massachusetts Bay Colony The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630–1691), more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of America around the Massachusetts Bay Massachusetts Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body ...
for defending the teachings of
Anne Hutchinson Anne Hutchinson (née Marbury; July 1591 – August 1643) was a Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England of Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Ch ...
, his sister-in-law. In the absence of granting authority from anyone associated with the Masons, Wheelwright's party purchased the land from local Indians. His party included
William Wentworth William Charles Wentworth (13 August 179020 March 1872) was an Australian explorer, journalist, politician and author, and one of the leading figures of early colonial New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State ...
, whose descendants came to play a major role in colonial history. Around the same time, others unhappy with the strict Puritan rule in Massachusetts settled in Dover, while Puritans from Massachusetts settled what eventually became
Hampton Hampton may refer to: Places Australia *Hampton (biogeographic region), an IBRA biogeographic region in Western Australia *Hampton, New South Wales *Hampton, Queensland *Hampton, Victoria Canada *Hampton, New Brunswick *Hampton Parish, New Brun ...
. Because of a general lack of government, the New Hampshire settlements sought the protection of their larger neighbor to the south, the
Massachusetts Bay Colony The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630–1691), more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of America around the Massachusetts Bay Massachusetts Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body ...
. In 1641, they collectively agreed to be governed from Massachusetts, provided the towns retained self-rule, and that
Congregational Church Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants or ...

Congregational Church
membership was not required for their voters (as it was in Massachusetts). The settlements formed part of that colony until 1679, sending representatives to the Massachusetts legislature in
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
. Mason's heirs were in the meantime active in England, seeking to regain control of their territory, and Massachusetts was coming under increasing scrutiny by . In 1679 Charles issued a charter establishing the Province of New Hampshire, with
John Cutt John Cutt (1613 – April 5, 1681) was the first President of the Province of New Hampshire. Cutt was born in Wales, emigrated to the colonies in 1646, and became a successful merchant and mill owner in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He was marrie ...
as its first president.


First royal charters

In January 1680 Cutt took office, ending Massachusetts governance. However, Cutt and his successor,
Richard Waldron Major Richard Waldron (or Richard Waldern, Richard Walderne; 1615–1689) was an English-born merchant, soldier, and government official who rose to prominence in early colonial Dover, New Hampshire. His presence spread to greater New Hampshire a ...
, were strongly opposed to the Mason heirs and their claims. Consequently, Charles issued a second charter in 1682 with
Edward CranfieldEdward Cranfield (floruit, fl. 1680–1696) was an English colonial administrator. Cranfield was governor of the Province of New Hampshire from 1682 to 1685, in an administration that was marked by hostility between Cranfield and the colonists. C ...
as governor. Cranfield strongly supported the Mason heirs, making so many local enemies in the process that he was recalled in 1685. In 1686 the territory was brought into the
Dominion of New England The Dominion of New England in America (1686–1689) was an administrative union of English colonies covering New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New ...
, an attempt to unify all of the New England colonies into a single government. The New Hampshire towns did not suffer as much under the rule of Sir
Edmund Andros Sir Edmund Andros (6 December 1637 – 24 February 1714) was an English colonial administrator in British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the ...

Edmund Andros
as did Massachusetts. After word of the
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga, An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus), the invasion also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch, was the deposition of ...
reached Boston, Massachusetts authorities conspired to have Andros arrested and sent back to England. This left the New Hampshire towns without any colonial administration, just as
King William's War King William's War (1688–1697, also known as the Second Indian War, Father Baudoin's War, Jean-Vincent d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin, Castin's War, or the First Intercolonial War in French language, French) was the North American theater of the Nin ...
erupted around them. Subjected to significant French and Indian raids, they appealed to Massachusetts Governor
Simon Bradstreet Simon Bradstreet (baptized March 18, 1603/4In the Julian calendar, then in use in England, the year began on March 25. To avoid confusion with dates in the Gregorian calendar, then in use in other parts of Europe, dates between January and March ...
, who oversaw them until and
Mary II Mary II (30 April 166228 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Gr ...

Mary II
issued new, separate charters in 1691 for both Massachusetts and New Hampshire.


1691 charter

Samuel Allen, a businessman who had acquired the Mason claims, was appointed the first governor under the 1691 charter. He was equally unsuccessful in pursuing the Mason land claims, and was replaced in 1699 by the Earl of Bellomont. Bellomont was the first in a series of governors who ruled both New Hampshire and the
Province of Massachusetts Bay The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a colony in British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, L ...
. Until 1741 the governorships were shared, with the governor spending most of his time in Massachusetts. As a result, the lieutenant governors held significant power. The dual governorship became problematic in part because of territorial claims between Massachusetts and New Hampshire. Since the southern border of the original Mason grant was the
Merrimack River The Merrimack River (or Merrimac River, an occasional earlier spelling) is a river in the northeastern United States. It rises at the confluence of the Pemigewasset River, Pemigewasset and Winnipesaukee River, Winnipesaukee rivers in Franklin, ...
, and the Massachusetts charter specified a boundary three miles north of the same river, the claims conflicted, and were eventually brought to the king's attention. In 1741, King George II decreed what is now the border between Massachusetts and New Hampshire, and separated the governorships, issuing a commission to
Benning Wentworth Benning Wentworth (24 July 1696 – 14 October 1770) was the colonial governor of New Hampshire New Hampshire ( ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published b ...
as New Hampshire governor. Wentworth broadly interpreted New Hampshire's territorial claims, believing that territories west of the
Connecticut River The Connecticut River is the longest river in the region of the United States, flowing roughly southward for through four states. It rises at the U.S. border with , , and discharges at . Its watershed encompasses , covering parts of five U.S. s ...

Connecticut River
belonged to New Hampshire. In a scheme that was effective at lining his own pockets, he sold land grants in this territory for relatively low prices, but required parts of the grants to be allocated to himself. These grants brought New Hampshire into conflict with the
Province of New York The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony A proprietary colony was a type of English colony mostly in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all w ...
, the other claimant to the territory.
King George III George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and of Monarchy of Ireland, Ireland from 25 October 1760 until Acts of Union 1800, the union of the two kingdoms on 1 January 1801, after which he wa ...
in 1764 ruled in New York's favor, setting off a struggle between the holders of the
New Hampshire Grants The New Hampshire Grants or Benning Wentworth Grants were land grant A land grant is a gift of real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resource , Malaysia Malaysia ( ...
and New York authorities that eventually resulted in the formation of the state of
Vermont Vermont () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Vermont
. The controversy also resulted in the replacement of Wentworth by his nephew
John John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) * John (surname), including a list of people who have the name John John may also refer to: New Testament Works ...
, who would be the last royal governor of the province. Since the province was on the northern frontier bordering
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
, its communities were frequently attacked during King William's War and
Queen Anne's War Queen Anne's War (1702–1713) was the second in a series of French and Indian Wars fought in North America involving the colonial empires of Great Britain, France, and Spain; it took place during the reign of Anne, Queen of Great Britain Ann ...
, and then again in the 1720s during
Dummer's War The Dummer's War (1722–1725, also known as Father Rale's War, Lovewell's War, Greylock's War, the Three Years War, the 4th Anglo-Abenaki War, or the Wabanaki-New England War of 1722–1725) was a series of battles between New England and the Waba ...
. Because of these wars the Indian population in the northern parts of the province declined, but settlements only slowly expanded into the province's interior. The province was partitioned into
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
in 1769, later than the other twelve colonies that revolted against the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
.


American Revolution

Twelve other colonies joined with New Hampshire in resisting attempts by the
British Parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kin ...
to impose taxes. After the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of British America in Continental Congress ...
began in April 1775, the province recruited regiments that served in the
Siege of Boston The siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was ...
, and was the first former European colony to formally establish an independent government, as the State of New Hampshire, in January 1776.


Demographics

From 1630 to 1780, the population of New Hampshire grew from 500 to 87,802. In 1623, the first permanent English settlements,
Dover Dover () is a town and major ferry port in Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first publishe ...
and
Rye Rye (''Secale cereale'') is a grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationshi ...
, were established, while
Portsmouth Portsmouth ( ) is a port and island city status in the United Kingdom, city with Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority status in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, southern England. It is the most densely populated city in the Unit ...

Portsmouth
was the largest city by 1773 with a population of 4,372. The
black Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemistry and biology *Absorption (chemistry), diffusion of particles of gas or liquid into liquid or solid materials *Absorption (skin), a rout ...
population in the colony grew from 30 in 1640 to 674 in 1773 (ranging between 1 and 4 percent of the population), but declined to 541 (or 0.6 percent of the population) by 1780. In New Hampshire, as in other
New England Colonies The New England Colonies of British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire in America from 1607 to 1783. These colonies were formally known as British America and the British West Indies before the T ...
, the
Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of J ...
Congregational church Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants or ...
was the
established church A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whethe ...
in the colony, and in 1650, of the 109
places of worship A place of worship is a specially designed structure or space where individuals or a group of people such as a congregation A congregation is a large gathering of people, often for the purpose of worship. Congregation may also refer to: *Churc ...

places of worship
with regular
services Service may refer to: Activities :''(See the Religion section for religious activities)'' * Administrative service, a required part of the workload of Faculty (academic staff), university faculty * Civil service, the body of employees of a governm ...
in the eight British American colonies (including those without resident clergy), only three were located in New Hampshire and all three were
Congregational Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Calvinist tradition practising Congregationalist polity, congregationalist church governance, in which each Wiktionary:congregation, co ...
. Following the
First Great Awakening The First Great Awakening (sometimes Great Awakening) or the Evangelical Revival was a series of Christian revival Christian revivalism is increased spiritual interest or Renewal (religion), renewal in the life of a local church, church cong ...
(1730–1755), the number of regular places of worship in New Hampshire had grown to 46 in 1750 (40 Congregational, five
Presbyterian Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of ...
, and one
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...
), and to 125 regular places of worship by 1776 (78 Congregational, 27 Presbyterian, 13
Baptist Baptists form a major branch of Protestantism, Protestant Christianity distinguished by baptizing professing Christianity, Christian believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete Immersion baptism, ...
, four
Friends ''Friends'' is an American television sitcom A sitcom, clipping Clipping may refer to: Words * Clipping (morphology) In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of ever ...

Friends
, two Episcopal, and one New Light Congregational). Puritan mass migration to New England began following the issuance of the
royal charter A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege and immunity, recognized in common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or ...
for the
Massachusetts Bay Company Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Connecticut to the southwest and Rhode Island ...
by
Charles I of England Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself King of the from a ...

Charles I of England
in 1629 and continued until the beginning of the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
in 1642. Following the war's conclusion in 1651, immigration to New England leveled off and the population growth owed almost entirely to natural increase rather than
immigration Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...
or slave importations for the remainder of the 17th century and through the 18th century. Mass migration from New England to the provinces of
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
and
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
began following the surrender of
New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonl ...
by the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
at
Fort Amsterdam Fort Amsterdam was a fort on the southern tip of Manhattan at the confluence of the Hudson River, Hudson and East River, East rivers. It was the administrative headquarters for the Dutch and then English/British rule of the colony of New Netherl ...

Fort Amsterdam
in 1664, and the population of New York would continue to expand more so by in-migration by families from New England in the 18th century rather than from natural increase. Despite the initial Puritan mass migration also having a 2:1 male sex-imbalance like the British colonization of the
Chesapeake Colonies The Chesapeake Colonies were the Colony and Dominion of Virginia, later the Commonwealth of Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and South ...
, unlike the
Southern Colonies The Southern Colonies within British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandat ...
in the 17th century, most Puritan immigrants to New England migrated as families (as approximately two-thirds of the male Puritan immigrants to New England were married rather than unmarried
indentured servants Indentured servitude is a form of labor in which a person is contracted to work without salary for a specific number of years. The contract, called an "indenture", may be entered voluntarily for eventual compensation or debt repayment, or it may b ...
), and in late 17th century New England, 3 percent of the population was over the age of 65 (while only 1 percent in the Chesapeake was in 1704). By the American Revolutionary War, only two percent of the New England colonial
labor force The workforce or labour force is the labour Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves the uterus by passing through the vagina or ...
were bonded or convict laborers and another two percent were black slaves, while nine percent of the colonial black population in New England were
free persons of color In the context of the history of slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for another person (a slaver), while treated as property Property ('' ...
(as compared with only three percent in the Southern Colonies). The 1783 Constitution of New Hampshire nominally abolished slavery (using language similar to a 1783 ruling by the
Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (SJC) is the court of last resort, highest court in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Although the claim is disputed by the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania,The Virginia Supreme Co ...
), while the 1790 U.S. Census still counted 158 slaves in the state (or 20 percent of the black population at the time), and the
1830 It is known in European history as a rather tumultuous year with the Revolutions of 1830 The Revolutions of 1830 were a revolutionary wave in Europe which took place in 1830. It included two "Romantic nationalism, romantic nationalist" revolu ...
and 1840 U.S. Censuses counted three slaves and one slave respectively. In 1857, the
New Hampshire General Court The General Court of New Hampshire is the bicameral state legislature (United States), state legislature of the U.S. state of New Hampshire. The lower house is the New Hampshire House of Representatives with 400 members. The upper house is the New ...
passed a law officially ending slavery.


See also

*
List of colonial governors of New Hampshire The territory of the present United States state of New Hampshire has a colonial history dating back to the 1620s. This history is significantly bound to that of the neighboring Massachusetts, whose colonial precursors either claimed the New Hampsh ...


Notes


References

* Belknap, Jeremy. ''The History of New Hampshire'' (1791–1792) 3 vol. classic history * * Daniell, Jere. ''Colonial New Hampshire: A History'' (1982)
Morison, Elizabeth Forbes and Elting E. Morison. ''New Hampshire: A Bicentennial History'' (1976)

Squires, J. Duane. ''The Granite State of the United States: A History of New Hampshire from 1623 to the Present'' (1956)
{{DEFAULTSORT:New Hampshire, Province of 1629 establishments in the British Empire 1679 establishments in the British Empire 1689 establishments in the British Empire 1641 disestablishments in the British Empire 1686 disestablishments in the British Empire 1776 disestablishments in the British Empire Colonial United States (British) Dominion of New England Former British colonies and protectorates in the Americas Pre-statehood history of New Hampshire States and territories established in 1629 States and territories disestablished in 1641 States and territories established in 1679 States and territories disestablished in 1686 States and territories established in 1689 States and territories disestablished in 1776 Thirteen Colonies