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Promulgation is the formal proclamation or the declaration that a new statutory or
administrative law Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the ...
is enacted after its final approval. In some
jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin ''Wikt:ius#Latin, juris'' 'law' + ''Wikt:dictio, dictio'' 'declaration') is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice, as defined by the kind of case, and the location of the issue (its ). In f ...
s, this additional step is necessary before the law can take effect. After a new law is approved, it is announced to the public through the publication of
government gazette A government gazette (also known as official gazette, official journal, official newspaper, official monitor or official bulletin) is a periodical publication that has been authorised to publish public or legal notices. It is usually established ...
s and/or on official government
website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, and amazon.com. All ...
s. National laws of extraordinary importance to the public may be announced by the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international perso ...
on national broadcast. Local laws are usually announced in local
newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as po ...

newspaper
s and published in bulletins or compendia of municipal regulations.


Jurisdiction-specific details


Armenia

Bills are enacted by the President of Armenia and published in the '' Official Gazette of the Republic of Armenia''.


Belgium

Statutes are promulgated by the
King of the Belgians The Monarchy of Belgium is a Constitutional monarchy, constitutional, Inheritance, hereditary, and popular monarchy of Belgium whose incumbent is titled the ''King'' or ''Queen of the Belgians'' ( nl, Koning(in) der Belgen, french: Roi / Rei ...
and published in the '' Belgian Official Journal''. Decrees and Ordinances are promulgated by the different Regional and Community governments and published in the Belgian Official Journal.


Canada

Canadian federal Acts of Parliament, orders in council, proclamations, public notices, official appointments and proposed regulations from the
Government of Canada The Government of Canada (french: gouvernement du Canada) is the body responsible for the federal administration of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces a ...
are promulgated in the '' Canada Gazette'' (French: ''Gazette du Canada''). The ''Canada Gazette'' consists of 3 parts that are published separately. Part 1 promulgates public notices, official appointments and proposed regulations; Part 2 promulgates regulations; and Part 3 promulgates Acts of Parliament. Each province and territory has their own publication in which their laws, regulations, and other statutory instruments are promulgated.


Canon law (Catholic Church)

A canonical law issued by the
Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

Pope
(or with his consent in the case of laws issued by an
ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote a ...
or
congregation A congregation is a large gathering of people, often for the purpose of worship Worship is an act of religion, religious wikt:devotion, devotion usually directed towards a deity. For many, worship is not about an emotion, it is more about a reco ...
) is promulgated when it is published in ''Acta Apostolicae Sedis'', and by default has the force of law three months after promulgation. Laws issued by bishops and synod, particular councils are promulgated in various ways but by default take effect one month after promulgation. According to Canon 7 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law, ("A law is instituted when it is promulgated"). This is an ancient provision in Latin Church, Latin-rite canon law (Catholic Church), canon law, dating in its plural form to the ecclesiastical Latin, Latin formulation of the great twelfth-century codifier of canon law, Gratian (jurist), Gratian: ("Laws are instituted when they are promulgated").


France

The President of France promulgates law (he may ask Parliament to reconsider the law, but only once).


Germany

The President of Germany has the duty to duly promulgate and issue laws, unless the President deems them "evidently unconstitutional". The question to what degree they must be convinced of the constitutional violation to deny promulgation is hotly debated.


Hong Kong

Bills have to be signed and promulgated by the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, Chief Executive, and be announced by the government in the Hong Kong Government Gazette, gazette.


Hungary

Laws have to be promulgated by the President of the Republic and must be published afterwards in the ''Magyar Közlöny'', which is the official gazette, national gazette.


India

If at any time the Indian Parliament is not in session, the President of India on the recommendation of the Union Cabinet may Ordinance (India), promulgate an ordinance, which will have the same effect as an Act of Parliament#India, Act of Parliament. However, such ordinance will be presented before the parliament for final approval. They can only be issued when Parliament of India, Parliament is not in session. They enable the Government of India, Indian government to take immediate legislative action. Ordinances cease to operate either if Parliament does not approve of them within six weeks of reassembly, or if disapproving resolutions are passed by both Houses. It is also compulsory for a session of Parliament to be held within six months.


Ireland, Republic of

All laws passed by the Oireachtas are promulgated by a notice in the ''Iris Oifigiúil'' published by the President of Ireland, as required by the Constitution of Ireland.


Isle of Man

By ancient custom an Act of Tynwald, the legislature of the island, did not come into force until it had been "promulgated" at an open-air sitting of Tynwald, usually held on Tynwald Hill at St John's on St John's Day (24 June) but since the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in 1753 on 5 July (or on the following Monday if 5 July is a Saturday or Sunday). Promulgation originally consisted of the reading of the Act in English and Manx language, Manx, but after 1865 the reading of the title of the Act and a summary of each section were sufficient. This was reduced in 1895 to the titles and a memorandum of the object and purport of the Act, and since 1988 only the short title and a summary of the long title have been read. An emergency procedure enabling an Act to come into force on royal assent being announced at an ordinary sitting of Tynwald, subject to its being promulgated within 12 months, was introduced in 1916; since 1976 this has been the 'default' procedure, and since 1988 an Act ceases to have effect unless promulgated within 18 months after royal assent is announced in Tynwald.


Italy

The President of Italy, President of the Republic promulgates law. The President remands a law to the Chambers of Parliament, with an explanation, and asks for reconsideration—but must promulgate the law if it is re-approved without modification.


Japan

The Emperor of Japan promulgates laws passed by the Diet of Japan, Diet. The Emperor cannot refuse to promulgate a law.


Kenya

Promulgation is performed by the President.


Luxembourg

Article 34 of the constitution of Luxembourg requires the Grand Duke of Luxembourg, grand duke or duchess to ''promulgate'' a new law for it to take effect.


Macau

Bills have to approved by the Legislative Assembly, signed and promulgated by the Chief Executive of Macau, Chief Executive. They must be published in the Official Gazette ''Boletim Oficial''.


Malta

When a bill is approved by the House of Representatives of Malta, it is presented to the President of Malta for his assent. According to constitutional obligation he shall without delay signify that he assents and hence promulgate the said Bill into a Parliamentary Act. The Parliamentary Act is then published in the ''Malta Government Gazette'', and thus comes into force.


Mexico

A law is approved by Congress, signed by the President, and published in the Official Journal of the Federation, Official Diary of the Federation ( es, Diario Oficial de la Federación), or DOF. Each law in its Transitional Articles (''Transitorios'') states when the Law takes effect (''entra en vigor'') and, when applicable, what law it cancels and replaces. Regulations are prepared by the Executive branch in order to establish the administration of the Law. They are signed by the President and published in the DOF.


Poland

Laws have to be promulgated by the President of the Republic of Poland, President of the Republic in the ''Dziennik Ustaw'' journal. The President may refer to the The Constitutional Tribunal of Poland, Constitutional Tribunal; if he has not made reference, he may refer the bill to the Sejm (veto) for further reconsideration. The bill shall then be promulgated.


Portugal

The laws (statutes issued by the Assembly of the Republic (Portugal), Parliament) and the decree-laws (statutes issued by the Government of Portugal, Government) have to be promulgated by the President of Portugal to take effect. The promulgation is the act by which the President solemnly testifies the existence of a rule of law and intimates its observation. The President may however decide not to promulgate the bill and to veto it with a political or legal justification. After the promulgation, the statutes are published in the ''Diário da República'' (official journal), with the laws needing a Government referenda before.


Romania

Bills have to be promulgated by the President of Romania, President and afterwards published in the official gazette, ''Monitorul Oficial''.


Spain

Article 91 of the Spanish Constitution establishes that bills, upon being passed by the ''Cortes Generales'', must be sanctioned (i.e., given royal assent) by the King of Spain within two weeks of their passing. The King will then promulgate and immediately publish them in the official gazette, the ''Boletín Oficial del Estado''.


Sweden

Laws and secondary legislation are promulgated by the Government of Sweden and are published in the Swedish Code of Statutes ( sv, Svensk författningssamling).


Turkey

Bills are promulgated by President of Turkey, President of the Republic and published in the official gazette, ''Resmi Gazete''.


United Kingdom

Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, Acts of Parliament in the United Kingdom are promulgated when given royal assent by the Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Queen. The sovereign may appear personally in the House of Lords or may appoint Lords Commissioners, who announce that royal assent has been granted at a ceremony held at the Palace of Westminster for this purpose. However, royal assent is usually granted less ceremonially by letters patent.


United States

Acts of Congress are given the force of law, in one of the following ways: signed by the President of the United States; neither signed nor veto#United States, vetoed by the President within ten days from reception (excluding Sundays) while the Congress is in session; or, when both the United States Senate, Senate and the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives vote, by a two-thirds majority in each chamber, to override a presidential veto during its session. In United States administrative law, a federal regulation may be said to be formally promulgated when it appears in the ''Federal Register'' and after the public-comment period concludes. Amendments to the United States Constitution attain force of law "when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress". When the requisite number of state ratifications has been reached (currently 38), it is the duty of the Archivist of the United States to issue a certificate proclaiming a particular amendment duly ratified and part of the Constitution.


References

{{Portal bar, Law Promulgation, Statutory law Administrative law